Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 19 de 19
Filter
1.
Front Neurol ; 13: 873925, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938634

ABSTRACT

Background: The indirect impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on major clinical outcomes of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) or other parkinsonism is unknown. Objectives: The study aimed to (1) describe changes in healthcare services during the first epidemic bout in people with PD or parkinsonism; (2) compare the occurrence of hospitalization for any PD-related major clinical outcomes in 2020 with 2019; (3) investigate the factors, including changes in healthcare services, associated with major clinical outcomes and death. Methods: All healthcare services of the province of Bologna and major clinical outcomes were assessed through a record linkage study (ParkLink Bologna) using clinical data and health databases. Same analyses were performed in a random cohort of controls matched for age, sex, district of residence, and comorbidities with the ParkLink cohort (ratio of 1:10). Results: A cohort of subjects with PD (759) or other parkinsonism (192) was included together with a cohort of controls (9,226). All indicators of healthcare services dropped at least below 50% during the lockdown period in all cohorts, mostly impacting physiotherapy in people with PD (-93%, 95% CI 88-96%). In 2020, compared to 2019, a three-fold risk of major injuries (RR 3.0, 95% CI 1.5-6.2) and infections (RR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5-7.2), excluding COVID-19, was observed only in people with PD, and neither in people with parkinsonism nor in controls. Decreased physiotherapy was associated with the occurrence of at least one major clinical outcome (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-9.8) in people with PD. Experiencing at least one major clinical outcome was the strongest risk factor for death (OR 30.4, 95% CI 11.1-83.4) in people with PD. Conclusions: During the first COVID-19 epidemic peak, healthcare services were drastically reduced in a province of northern Italy, regardless of the disease condition. However, compared to 2019, in 2020, only people with PD had a higher risk of major clinical outcomes, that were associated with higher mortality. Strategies to maintain physical activity in people with PD should be implemented in possible future health emergencies.

2.
Eur J Neurol ; 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The patterns of long term risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization for COVID-19 and related death are uncertain in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) or parkinsonism (PS). The aim of the study was to quantify these risks compared to a control population cohort, during the period March 2020-May 2021, in Bologna, northern Italy. METHOD: ParkLink Bologna cohort (759 PD; 192 PS) and controls (9,226) anonymously matched (ratio 1:10) for sex, age, district, comorbidity were included. Data were analysed in the whole period and in the two different pandemic waves (March-May 2020 and October 2020-May 2021). RESULTS: Adjusted hazard ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 1.3 (95% CI 1.04-1.7) in PD and 1.9 (1.3-2.8) in PS compared to the controls. The trend was detected in both the pandemic waves. Adjusted hazard ratio of hospitalization for COVID-19 was 1.1 (95% CI 0.8-1.7) in PD and 1.8 (95% CI 0.97-3.1) in PS. A higher risk of hospital admission was detected in PS only in the first wave. The 30-day mortality risk after hospitalization was higher (p=0.048) in PS (58%) than in PD (19%) and controls (26%). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with controls, after adjustment for key covariates, people with PD and PS showed a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection throughout the first 15 months of the pandemic. COVID-19 hospitalization risk was increased only in people with PS and only during the first wave. This group of patients was burdened by a very high risk of death after infection and hospitalization.

4.
Frontiers in neurology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871907

ABSTRACT

Background The indirect impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on major clinical outcomes of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) or other parkinsonism is unknown. Objectives The study aimed to (1) describe changes in healthcare services during the first epidemic bout in people with PD or parkinsonism;(2) compare the occurrence of hospitalization for any PD-related major clinical outcomes in 2020 with 2019;(3) investigate the factors, including changes in healthcare services, associated with major clinical outcomes and death. Methods All healthcare services of the province of Bologna and major clinical outcomes were assessed through a record linkage study (ParkLink Bologna) using clinical data and health databases. Same analyses were performed in a random cohort of controls matched for age, sex, district of residence, and comorbidities with the ParkLink cohort (ratio of 1:10). Results A cohort of subjects with PD (759) or other parkinsonism (192) was included together with a cohort of controls (9,226). All indicators of healthcare services dropped at least below 50% during the lockdown period in all cohorts, mostly impacting physiotherapy in people with PD (−93%, 95% CI 88–96%). In 2020, compared to 2019, a three-fold risk of major injuries (RR 3.0, 95% CI 1.5–6.2) and infections (RR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5–7.2), excluding COVID-19, was observed only in people with PD, and neither in people with parkinsonism nor in controls. Decreased physiotherapy was associated with the occurrence of at least one major clinical outcome (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1–9.8) in people with PD. Experiencing at least one major clinical outcome was the strongest risk factor for death (OR 30.4, 95% CI 11.1–83.4) in people with PD. Conclusions During the first COVID-19 epidemic peak, healthcare services were drastically reduced in a province of northern Italy, regardless of the disease condition. However, compared to 2019, in 2020, only people with PD had a higher risk of major clinical outcomes, that were associated with higher mortality. Strategies to maintain physical activity in people with PD should be implemented in possible future health emergencies.

5.
Neurol Sci ; 43(3): 1513-1520, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess whether the role of neurologists in the emergency department changed during the coronavirus (COVID)-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data from an Italian national survey investigating the role of neurologists in the emergency room conducted in December 2020 were compared with those of the same survey of the previous year. These surveys involved a questionnaire being completed filled in for patients who received a neurological consultation following a visit to the emergency room. Information gathered included demographic characteristics, triage level according to both the emergency physician and neurologist, reason for the consultation, neurological evaluation, and discharge mode. RESULTS: In both years, approximately half of the patients were women, and the median age was 61 years. More patients in 2020 arrived by ambulance and had a greater need for assistance based on triage level than in 2019. During 2020, the proportion of consultancy requests judged by the neurologist was higher than that in 2019 (77% vs. 73%). Moreover, in 2020, fewer patients required consultation for headache, muscle pain, fever, and neurological signs, whereas coma was more prevalent. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke was the most prevalent in both years, followed by transient ischemic attack. In 2020, the status epilepticus increased and discopathy decreased. CONCLUSION: This study showed the significant role played by neurologists in emergency activities, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlighted the differences in patients admitted between the year of the epidemic and the year previous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neurologists , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
J Neuroimmunol ; 358: 577661, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307055

ABSTRACT

We describe the first case of hyperacute reversible encephalopathy following COVID-19 vaccination. A patient presented with acute onset encephalopathy, mainly characterized by agitation and confusion, rapidly responsive to high dosage steroid therapy and complete remission within 3 days from onset. The clinical manifestation was related with systemic and CSF cytokine hyperproduction, responsive to steroid therapy. Although the occurrence of encephalopathy after vaccination may be just a casual temporal association, we speculate that the cytokine-storm could be the result of an excessive innate immune response against the vaccine, in a predisposed patient susceptible to autoimmunity.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/chemically induced , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cytokine Release Syndrome/chemically induced , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Aged , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Prednisone/administration & dosage
8.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(4): 968-979, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155205

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many neurological manifestations are associated with COVID-19, including a distinct form of encephalopathy related to cytokine storm, the acute systemic inflammatory syndrome present in a subgroup of COVID-19 patients. Cytokine storm is also associated with immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), a complication of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy, a highly effective treatment for refractory hematological malignancies. We investigated whether COVID-19-related encephalopathy, ICANS, and other encephalopathies associated with cytokine storm, share clinical and investigative findings. METHODS: Narrative literature review. RESULTS: Comparisons between COVID-19-related encephalopathy and ICANS revealed several overlapping features. Clinically, these included dysexecutive syndrome, language disturbances, akinetic mutism and delirium. EEG showed a prevalence of frontal abnormalities. Brain MRI was often unrevealing. CSF elevated cytokine levels have been reported. A direct correlation between cytokine storm intensity and severity of neurological manifestations has been shown for both conditions. Clinical recovery occurred spontaneously or following immunotherapies in most of the patients. Similar clinical and investigative features were also reported in other encephalopathies associated with cytokine storm, such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, sepsis, and febrile infection-associated encephalopathies. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19-related encephalopathy and ICANS are characterized by a predominant electro-clinical frontal lobe dysfunction and share several features with other encephalopathies associated with cytokine storm, which may represent the common denominator of a clinical spectrum of neurological disorders. Therefore, we propose a unifying definition of cytokine storm-associated encephalopathy (CySE), and its diagnostic criteria.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/trends
10.
Mov Disord ; 36(1): 1-10, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of COVID-19 and related death in people with Parkinson's disease or parkinsonism is uncertain. The aim of the study was to assess the risk of hospitalization for COVID-19 and death in a cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease or parkinsonism compared with a control population cohort, during the epidemic bout (March-May 2020) in Bologna, northern Italy. METHODS: Participants of the ParkLink study with the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease or parkinsonism and people anonymously matched (ratio 1:10) for sex, age, district, and Charlson Index were included. The hospital admission rate for COVID-19 (February 26-May 31, 2020) and the death rate for any cause were the outcomes of interest. RESULTS: The ParkLink cohort included 696 subjects with Parkinson's disease and 184 with parkinsonism, and the control cohort had 8590 subjects. The 3-month hospitalization rate for COVID-19 was 0.6% in Parkinson's disease, 3.3% in parkinsonism, and 0.7% in controls. The adjusted hazard ratio (age, sex, district, Charlson Index) was 0.8 (95% CI, 0.3-2.3, P = 0.74) in Parkinson's disease and 3.3 (1.4-7.6, P = 0.006) in parkinsonism compared with controls. Twenty-nine of the infected subjects died; 30-day fatality rate was 35.1%, without difference among the 3 groups. Six of 10 Parkinson's disease/parkinsonism patients had the infection during hospitalization or in a nursing home. CONCLUSIONS: Parkinson's disease per se probably is not a risk factor for COVID-19 hospitalization. Conversely, parkinsonism is an independent risk factor probably because of a more severe health status, entailing higher care dependence and placement in high-infection-risk accommodations. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Parkinsonian Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Frail Elderly , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/mortality , Parkinsonian Disorders/complications , Parkinsonian Disorders/mortality , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Risk
11.
Front Neurol ; 11: 587226, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914438

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Neurological manifestations are emerging as relatively frequent complications of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including stroke and encephalopathy. Clinical characteristics of the latter are heterogeneous and not yet fully elucidated, while the pathogenesis appears related to neuroinflammation in a subset of patients. Case: A middle-aged man presented with acute language disturbance at the emergency department. Examination revealed expressive aphasia, mild ideomotor slowing, and severe hypocapnic hypoxemia. Multimodal CT assessment and electroencephalogram (EEG) did not reveal any abnormalities. COVID-19 was diagnosed based on chest CT findings and positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) on nasopharyngeal swab. The following day, neurological symptoms progressed to agitated delirium and respiratory status worsened, requiring admission to the ICU and mechanical ventilation. Brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies were unremarkable. RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on CSF was negative. He received supportive treatment and intravenous low-dose steroids. His neurological and respiratory status resolved completely within 2 weeks. Conclusions: We report a patient with reversible COVID-19-related encephalopathy presenting as acute aphasia, mimicking stroke or status epilepticus, eventually evolving into delirium. Although large-vessel stroke is frequently encountered in COVID-19, our case suggests that focal neurological deficits may occur as the earliest feature of encephalopathy. Neurological status reversibility and the absence of abnormalities on brain MRI are consistent with a functional rather than a structural neuronal network impairment.

12.
Sleep Med ; 77: 45-50, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912629

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic required a thorough re-organization of every sector of the healthcare system. Sleep laboratories need to renew protocols in order to guarantee the safety of patients and healthcare staff while providing exams. Polysomnography (PSG) examinations are essential for the diagnosis and treatment management of several sleep disorders, which may constitute a public or personal safety issue such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Here we provide some practical advice on how to perform sleep studies after the COVID-19 outbreak based on our experience, the review of the existing literature and current national and international recommendations by Health Authorities. We believe that with appropriate precautions it is possible to guarantee a safe restart of PSG and other sleep studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Decision-Making , Polysomnography/standards , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Humans , Positive-Pressure Respiration/standards , Societies, Medical , Telemedicine/organization & administration
14.
Neurol Sci ; 41(12): 3395-3399, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841441

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A reduction of the hospitalization and reperfusion treatments was reported during COVID-19 pandemic. However, high variability in results emerged, potentially due to logistic paradigms adopted. Here, we analyze stroke code admissions, hospitalizations, and stroke belt performance for ischemic stroke patients in the metropolitan Bologna region, comparing temporal trends between 2019 and 2020 to define the impact of COVID-19 on the stroke network. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included all people admitted at the Bologna Metropolitan Stroke Center in timeframes 1 March 2019-30 April 2019 (cohort-2019) and 1 March 2020-30 April 2020 (cohort-2020). Diagnosis, treatment strategy, and timing were compared between the two cohorts to define temporal trends. RESULTS: Overall, 283 patients were admitted to the Stroke Center, with no differences in demographic factors between cohort-2019 and cohort-2020. In cohort-2020, transient ischemic attack (TIA) was significantly less prevalent than 2019 (6.9% vs 14.4%, p = .04). Among 216 ischemic stroke patients, moderate-to-severe stroke was more represented in cohort-2020 (17.8% vs 6.2%, p = .027). Similar proportions of patients underwent reperfusion (45.9% in 2019 vs 53.4% in 2020), although a slight increase in combined treatment was detected (14.4% vs 25.4%, p = .05). Door-to-scan timing was significantly prolonged in 2020 compared with 2019 (28.4 ± 12.6 vs 36.7 ± 14.6, p = .03), although overall timing from stroke to treatment was preserved. CONCLUSION: During COVID-19 pandemic, TIA and minor stroke consistently reduced compared to the same timeframe in 2019. Longer stroke-to-call and door-to-scan times, attributable to change in citizen behavior and screening at hospital arrival, did not impact on stroke-to-treatment time. Mothership model might have minimized the effects of the pandemic on the stroke care organization.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Neurology/trends , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment/trends
15.
J Neurol ; 268(8): 2671-2675, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report on efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy in a case series of patients with COVID-19-related encephalopathy. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on all patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at two Italian hospitals who developed encephalopathy during disease course and were treated with IVIg. RESULTS: Five patients (two females, mean age 66.8 years) developed encephalopathy after a mean of 12.6 days, since the onset of respiratory/constitutional symptoms related to COVID-19. Four patients suffered severe respiratory distress, three of which required invasive mechanical ventilation. Neurological manifestations included impaired consciousness, agitation, delirium, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs. EEG demonstrated diffuse slowing in all patients. Brain MRI showed non-specific findings. CSF analysis revealed normal cell count and protein levels. In all subjects, RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 in CSF tested negative. IVIg at 0.4 g/kg/die was commenced 29.8 days (mean, range: 19-55 days) after encephalopathy onset, leading to complete electroclinical recovery in all patients, with an initial improvement of neuropsychiatric symptoms observed in 3.4 days (mean, range: 1-10 days). No adverse events related to IVIg were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary findings suggest that IVIg may represent a safe and effective treatment for COVID-19-associated encephalopathy. Clinical efficacy may be driven by the anti-inflammatory action of IVIg, associated with its anti-cytokine qualities.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Aged , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Auton Res ; 30(4): 325-330, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641275

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the way most medical procedures are performed. Autonomic units, as well as other healthcare sectors, are required to undergo a thorough reorganization of the protocols in order to guarantee the safety of patients and healthcare staff. Cardiovascular autonomic function testing (CAFT) is necessary in certain situations; however, it poses several concerns which need to be addressed. Here, we provide some practical advice based on current national and international health authorities' recommendations and our experience about how to perform CAFT during the COVID-19 emergency. We examine aspects regarding patients, healthcare staff, laboratory preparation, and test performance.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular/standards , Health Personnel/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL