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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329394

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants continues to be a major obstacle for controlling the global pandemic. Despite the currently authorized SARS-CoV-2 vaccines ability to reduce severe disease and hospitalization, new immunization strategies are needed that enhance mucosal immune responses, inhibit community transmission, and provide protection against emerging variants. We have developed a mucosally delivered, non-replicating recombinant adenovirus vector (rAd5) vaccine, that has proven efficacy in the clinic against other respiratory viruses [1]. Here we evaluated the immunogenicity of three candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in cynomolgus macaques that contained spike (S) and/or nucleocapsid (N) from either the Wuhan or the beta variant to select a candidate for future clinical development. Mucosal immunization with the Wuhan specific S vaccine (ED90) induced significant cross-reactive serum IgG responses against to Wuhan, beta, gamma and delta lineages, and generated substantial serum neutralizing activity. In nasal samples, ED90 immunization induced 1000-fold increases in IgA to all variants of concern tested and had neutralizing activity against Wuhan and delta. While immunization with the beta specific vaccine (ED94) enhanced IgG and IgA responses to homologous beta variant S and RBD, this approach resulted in less cross-reactive responses to other variants in the serum and nasal passages compared to ED90. As ED90 immunization induced the most robust cross-reactive systemic and mucosal antibody responses, this candidate was chosen for future clinical development.

3.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S397-S397, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564316

ABSTRACT

Background Covid-19 has accelerated global demand for easily distributed vaccines. Furthermore, as variant SARS-CoV-2 strains that circumvent antibody responses emerge, cross-protective vaccines provide substantial public health benefits. Vaxart is developing a shelf stable oral tablet vaccine that incorporates both the spike (S) and the more conserved nucleocapsid (N) proteins. Vaxart’s vaccine platform uses a non-replicating adenovirus and a TLR3 agonist as an adjuvant. Methods In an open-label phase 1 clinical study, 35 healthy subjects received either a single low (1x1010 IU;n=15) or high (5x1010 IU;n=15) dose of the vaccine candidate VXA-CoV2-1 with a small cohort receiving 2 low doses. PBMCs were taken at pre- and 7 days post-vaccination and restimulated with S and N peptides from SARS-CoV-2 or the 4 human endemic coronaviruses (HCoV). Cells were stained for CD4/CD8/CD107a (surface) and IFNγ/TNFα (intracellular). Subjects that received an intramuscular (i.m.) mRNA vaccine had PBMCs taken at the same timepoints and were compared in the same assay. Results The study’s results indicate that the VXA-CoV2-1 tablet was well tolerated. The majority of subjects had an increase in S-specific anti-viral CD8+ T cell responses. 19/26 (73%) subjects had a measurable CD8+ T cell response on day 8 above baseline, on average 1.5-4.6%. In a comparator experiment with the 2 SARS-CoV-2 i.m. mRNA vaccines, VXA-CoV2-1 outperformed other vaccine candidates with a >3.5-fold increase in S specific antiviral CD8 T cell responses. T cell responses specific to the 4 endemic HCoV were increased by 0.6% in subjects given VXA-CoV2-1. Conclusion Here we describe a room temperature stable tablet that induces SARS-CoV-2 S specific CD8 T cells of high magnitude after one dose in humans. Overall, the level of antiviral SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells, particularly IFNg-producing CD8s, induced following oral immunization with VXA-CoV2-1 are of higher magnitude than the mRNA vaccines currently in use against COVID-19. T cell responses against 4 endemic HCoV were also induced. Because T cells may be important in protecting against death and severe infection, these results suggest that VXA-CoV2-1 could be cross-protective against a wide array of emerging pandemic coronaviruses. Disclosures Susan Johnson, PhD, Vaxart (Employee) Clarissa Martinez, MPH, Vaxart (Employee) Mario Cortese, PhD, Vaxart (Employee) Josefina Martinez, n/a, Vaxart (Employee) Shaily Garg, BS, Vaxart (Employee) Nadine Peinovich, MPH, Vaxart (Employee) Emery Dora, n/a, Vaxart (Employee) Sean Tucker, PhD, Vaxart (Employee)

4.
Cell ; 184(15): 3915-3935.e21, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283262

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates a fundamental role for the epigenome in immunity. Here, we mapped the epigenomic and transcriptional landscape of immunity to influenza vaccination in humans at the single-cell level. Vaccination against seasonal influenza induced persistently diminished H3K27ac in monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), which was associated with impaired cytokine responses to Toll-like receptor stimulation. Single-cell ATAC-seq analysis revealed an epigenomically distinct subcluster of monocytes with reduced chromatin accessibility at AP-1-targeted loci after vaccination. Similar effects were observed in response to vaccination with the AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 pandemic influenza vaccine. However, this vaccine also stimulated persistently increased chromatin accessibility at interferon response factor (IRF) loci in monocytes and mDCs. This was associated with elevated expression of antiviral genes and heightened resistance to the unrelated Zika and Dengue viruses. These results demonstrate that vaccination stimulates persistent epigenomic remodeling of the innate immune system and reveal AS03's potential as an epigenetic adjuvant.


Subject(s)
Epigenomics , Immunity/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcription, Genetic , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antigens, CD34/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cellular Reprogramming , Chromatin/metabolism , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Drug Combinations , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Male , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Polysorbates/pharmacology , Squalene/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , Young Adult , alpha-Tocopherol/pharmacology
5.
Nat Med ; 27(1): 125-135, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023963

ABSTRACT

Most of what we know about adaptive immunity has come from inbred mouse studies, using methods that are often difficult or impossible to confirm in humans. In addition, vaccine responses in mice are often poorly predictive of responses to those same vaccines in humans. Here we use human tonsils, readily available lymphoid organs, to develop a functional organotypic system that recapitulates key germinal center features in vitro, including the production of antigen-specific antibodies, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation, plasmablast differentiation and class-switch recombination. We use this system to define the essential cellular components necessary to produce an influenza vaccine response. We also show that it can be used to evaluate humoral immune responses to two priming antigens, rabies vaccine and an adenovirus-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine, and to assess the effects of different adjuvants. This system should prove useful for studying critical mechanisms underlying adaptive immunity in much greater depth than previously possible and to rapidly test vaccine candidates and adjuvants in an entirely human system.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Palatine Tonsil/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Germinal Center/cytology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Lymphoid Tissue/immunology , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/immunology , Rabies Vaccines/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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