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Environmental Science: Nano ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083149


For the first time, we exploited the antiviral and antibacterial properties of Ag NPs stabilised by quaternized hydroxyethyl cellulose (Ag-HEC) against SARS-CoV-2 and Escherichia coli through an eco-friendly process at room temperature in three different environments: 1) water, where Ag was dispersed as a nanosol, 2) textiles, where Ag was applied as a coating, and 3) hydrogel where Ag is embedded. The antiviral performance of Ag-HEC nanosols was quantified through the selectivity index (SI), defined as the ratio between 50% cytotoxic and inhibitory concentration, in order to evaluate the ability to be active in a concentration range below the cytotoxicity value. The collected results pointed out an actual enhanced risk/benefit profile of Ag-HEC NPs with respect to chloroquine, with an SI of 22.2 and 8.4, respectively. Antibacterial and antiviral activities of Ag-HEC NPs immobilized on textiles or mucosa-like hydrogels were also assessed and their efficacy in potential application as protective clothing or nasal molecular masks was verified. This work demonstrated that a modern, safe and sustainable design allows traditional colloidal silver-based technologies to be efficiently exploited for a broad spectrum of antimicrobial solutions against bacterial and viral infections.

Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598768


An automatic lab-scaled spray-coating machine was used to deposit Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) on textile to create antibacterial fabric. The spray process was monitored for the dual purpose of (1) optimizing the process by maximizing silver deposition and minimizing fluid waste, thereby reducing suspension consumption and (2) assessing AgNPs release. Monitoring measurements were carried out at two locations: inside and outside the spray chamber (far field). We calculated the deposition efficiency (E), finding it to be enhanced by increasing the spray pressure from 1 to 1.5 bar, but to be lowered when the number of operating sprays was increased, demonstrating the multiple spray system to be less efficient than a single spray. Far-field AgNPs emission showed a particle concentration increase of less than 10% as compared to the background level. This finding suggests that under our experimental conditions, our spray-coating process is not a critical source of worker exposure.

J Appl Polym Sci ; 138(46): 51380, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323858


In response to the nowadays battle against SARS-CoV-2, we designed a new class of high performant filter media suitable to advance the facemask technology and provide new efficient widespread solutions against virus propagation. By means of the electrospinning technology we developed filter media based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers doped with AgNPs combining three main performance requirements: high air filtration efficiency to capture nanometer-size particles, low airflow resistance essential to ensure breathability and antimicrobial activity to inactivate aerosolized microorganisms. PVA/AgNPs electrospun nanofibers were produced by electrospinning the dispersion of colloidal silver into the PVA water solution. A widespread physicochemical characterization was addressed to the Ag colloidal suspension. The key functional performances of the electrospun nanofibers were proven by water stability, antibacterial activity, and filtration efficiency and pressure drop measurements performed under conditions representative of facemasks. We assessed a total bacterial depletion associated to a filtering efficiency towards nano-aerosolized particles of 97.7% higher than required by the EN149 standard and a pressure drop in line with FFP1 and FFP2 masks, even at the highest filtration velocity. Such results pave the way to the application of PVA/AgNPs electrospun nanofibers in facemasks as advanced filtering media for protecting against airborne microorganisms.