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1.
Sustainability ; 13(6):3422, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1792491

ABSTRACT

Among the problems resulted from the continuous urbanization process, inefficient urban mobility and high pollution levels have been complex challenges that have demanded a lot of public investments and research efforts. Recently, some alternative transportation means have been leveraged as sustainable options for such challenges, which has brought bicycles to a more relevant setting. Besides the sometimes obvious benefits of adopting bikes for transportation, technologies around the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm have been advocated as important supportive tools to boost smart cycling initiatives. Actually, new technologies can be exploited to improve the efficiency of bike paths and parking spots, while reducing accidents and enhancing the cycling experience of the users. Therefore, in this highly vibrating scenario, this article facilitates the understating of current research trends and promising developments, surveying and classing recent works. Since there is a global interest for the promotion of cleaner and more sustainable solutions in large cities, this survey can be valuable when supporting new developments in this highly relevant research area.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321990

ABSTRACT

During the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, the submission rate to scholarly journals increased abnormally. Given that most academics were forced to work from home, the competing demands for familial duties might have penalised the scientific productivity of women. To test this hypothesis, we looked at submitted manuscripts and peer review activities for all Elsevier journals between February and May 2018-2020, including data on over 5 million authors and referees. Results showed that during the first wave of the pandemic, women submitted proportionally fewer manuscripts than men. This deficit was especially pronounced among younger cohorts of women academics. The rate of the peer-review invitation acceptance showed a less pronounced gender pattern. Our findings suggest that the first wave of the pandemic has created potentially cumulative advantages for men.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 813: 152345, 2022 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586548

ABSTRACT

Despite the significant increase in the generation of SARS-CoV-2 contaminated domestic and hospital wastewater, little is known about the ecotoxicological effects of the virus or its structural components in freshwater vertebrates. In this context, this study evaluated the deleterious effects caused by SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein on the health of Danio rerio, zebrafish. We demonstrated, for the first time, that zebrafish injected with fragment 16 to 165 (rSpike), which corresponds to the N-terminal portion of the protein, presented mortalities and adverse effects on liver, kidney, ovary and brain tissues. The conserved genetic homology between zebrafish and humans might be one of the reasons for the intense toxic effects followed inflammatory reaction from the immune system of zebrafish to rSpike which provoked damage to organs in a similar pattern as happen in severe cases of COVID-19 in humans, and, resulted in 78,6% of survival rate in female adults during the first seven days. The application of spike protein in zebrafish was highly toxic that is suitable for future studies to gather valuable information about ecotoxicological impacts, as well as vaccine responses and therapeutic approaches in human medicine. Therefore, besides representing an important tool to assess the harmful effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the aquatic environment, we present the zebrafish as an animal model for translational COVID-19 research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Zebrafish
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504162

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding barriers to childhood vaccination is crucial to inform effective interventions for maximising uptake. Published systematic reviews include different primary studies, producing varying lists of barriers. To make sense of this diverse body of literature, a comprehensive level of summary and synthesis is necessary. This overview of systematic reviews maps all potential parent-level barriers to childhood vaccination identified in systematic reviews. It synthesises these into a conceptual framework to inform development of a vaccine barriers assessment tool. METHODS: We applied Joanna Briggs methodology, searching the Epistemonikos review database and reference lists of included reviews to June 2020. Systematic reviews of qualitative or quantitative data on parent-level barriers to routine vaccination in preschool-aged children were included. Reviews addressing influenza, reporting non-modifiable determinants or reporting barriers not relevant to parents were excluded. Where possible, we extracted review details, barrier descriptions and the number, setting and design of primary studies. Two authors independently screened search results and inductively coded barrier descriptions. RESULTS: We screened 464 papers, identifying 30 relevant reviews with minimal overlap. Fourteen reviews included qualitative and quantitative primary studies, seven included quantitative and seven included qualitative studies only. Two did not report included study designs. Two-thirds of reviews (n=20; 67%) only included primary studies from high-income countries. We extracted 573 barrier descriptions and inductively coded these into 64 unique barriers in six overarching categories: (1) Access, (2) Clinic or Health System Barriers, (3) Concerns and Beliefs, (4) Health Perceptions and Experiences, (5) Knowledge and Information and (6) Social or Family Influence. CONCLUSIONS: A global overview of systematic reviews of parent-level barriers to childhood vaccine uptake identified 64 barriers to inform development of a new comprehensive survey instrument. This instrument will assess both access and acceptance barriers to more accurately diagnose the reasons for under-vaccination in children in different settings.


Subject(s)
Parents , Vaccination , Child , Child, Preschool , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Qualitative Research , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257919, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477528

ABSTRACT

During the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an unusually high submission rate of scholarly articles. Given that most academics were forced to work from home, the competing demands for familial duties may have penalized the scientific productivity of women. To test this hypothesis, we looked at submitted manuscripts and peer review activities for all Elsevier journals between February and May 2018-2020, including data on over 5 million authors and referees. Results showed that during the first wave of the pandemic, women submitted proportionally fewer manuscripts than men. This deficit was especially pronounced among more junior cohorts of women academics. The rate of the peer-review invitation acceptance showed a less pronounced gender pattern with women taking on a greater service responsibility for journals, except for health & medicine, the field where the impact of COVID-19 research has been more prominent. Our findings suggest that the first wave of the pandemic has created potentially cumulative advantages for men.


Subject(s)
Authorship , Bibliometrics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peer Review, Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Humans , Male , Periodicals as Topic , Sex Factors
6.
Cirugía Española (English Edition) ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1202305

ABSTRACT

Introduction During the state of alarm established in Spain due to the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the face-to-face outpatient consultations were cancelled and a telephone consultation was established to follow up coloproctological patients. The objective of this study was to analyse the efficacy of telemedicine (by telephone) in monitoring patients in a coloproctology unit, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method Prospective descriptive study of consecutive patients in a single centre. The result of the teleconsultation was classified as discharge, resolved visit or reprogramming and was analysed by different diagnostic groups. Results From March 19th to April 17th, 2020, the teleconsultation of 190 patients was carried out. The response rate was 94.2% (179). The diagnostic categories of the patients attended were: 51 (26.9%) colorectal neoplasia, 48 (25.3%) proctological pathology, 72 (37.9%) pelvic floor dysfunctions and 19 (10%) other benign pathologies. 105 (55.26%) could be recited as if they had come in person. Eleven (5.8%) patients were discharged. No significant differences were found between the different diagnostic categories and the resolution of the teleconsultation. The reasons for reprogramming are analyzed in the study. Conclusion In the context of a pandemic, teleconsultation has allowed 61% of follow-up visits to be definitively solved, avoiding the reprogramming of 116 patients. The new social and health paradigm after the pandemic will require a rethinking of our healthcare model, and in many aspects, telemedicine can offer tools for this. Resumen Introducción Durante el estado de alarma sanitaria establecido a causa de la pandemia de la COVID-19 se anularon la mayor parte de las consultas externas presenciales y se estableció una consulta telefónica para el seguimiento de pacientes coloproctológicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la eficacia de la consulta telefónica (teleconsulta) en el seguimiento de los pacientes de una unidad de coloproctología, en el contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19. Método Estudio descriptivo prospectivo de pacientes consecutivos en un solo centro. Se clasificó el resultado de la teleconsulta como alta, visita resuelta o reprogramación y se analizó por diferentes grupos diagnósticos. Resultados Del 19 de marzo al 17 de abril de 2020 se realizó la teleconsulta de 190 pacientes. La tasa de respuesta fue del 94,2% (179). Las categorías diagnósticas de los pacientes atendidos fueron: 51 (26,9%) neoplasia colorrectal, 48 (25,3%) enfermedad proctológica, 72 (37,9%) disfunciones del suelo pélvico y 19 (10%) otras enfermedades benignas. Se pudo volver a citar a 105 (55,26%) como si hubieran venido de forma presencial. Se dio el alta a 11 (5,8%) pacientes. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las distintas categorías diagnósticas y la resolución de la teleconsulta. Los motivos de reprogramación se analizan en el estudio. Conclusión En el contexto de pandemia, la teleconsulta ha permitido resolver de forma definitiva el 61% de las visitas de seguimiento y ha evitado la reprogramación de 116 pacientes. El nuevo paradigma social y sanitario tras la pandemia requerirá un replanteamiento de nuestro modelo de atención sanitaria y, en muchos aspectos, la telemedicina puede ofrecer herramientas para ello.

7.
Cancer Med ; 10(5): 1545-1549, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For cancer patients, coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) infection can lead to delays in cancer therapy both due to the infection itself and due to the need to minimize exposure to other patients and to staff. Clearance guidelines have been proposed, but expected time to clearance has not been established. METHODS: We identified all patients at a tertiary care hospital cancer center between 25 March 2020 and 6 June 2020 with a positive nasopharyngeal reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a cancer-related visit within 3 years, and at least one follow-up assay. We determined the time to clearance using American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK-NICE), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. A matched non-cancer comparison cohort was also identified. RESULTS: Thirty-two cancer patients were identified. Nineteen were cleared by ASCO criteria, with estimated median time to clearance of 50 days. Fourteen patients resumed chemotherapy prior to clearance. Using UK-NICE criteria, median time to clearance would have been 31 days, and using CDC criteria, it would have been 13 days. The matched non-cancer cohort had similar clearance time, but with less frequent testing. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 clearance times differ substantially depending on the criteria used and may be prolonged in cancer patients. This could lead to a delay in cancer care, increased use of clearance testing, and extension of infection control precautions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Infection Control/methods , Neoplasms/virology , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Time Factors
9.
Cir Esp (Engl Ed) ; 99(5): 361-367, 2021 May.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730320

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the state of alarm established in Spain due to the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the face-to-face outpatient consultations were cancelled and a telephone consultation was established to follow up coloproctological patients. The objective of this study was to analyse the efficacy of telemedicine (by telephone) in monitoring patients in a coloproctology unit, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Prospective descriptive study of consecutive patients in a single centre. The result of the teleconsultation was classified as discharge, resolved visit or reprogramming and was analysed by different diagnostic groups. RESULTS: From March 19th to April 17th, 2020, the teleconsultation of 190 patients was carried out. The response rate was 94.2% (179). The diagnostic categories of the patients attended were: 51 (26.9%) colorectal neoplasia, 48 (25.3%) proctological pathology, 72 (37.9%) pelvic floor dysfunctions and 19 (10%) other benign pathologies. 105 (55.26%) could be recited as if they had come in person. Eleven (5.8%) patients were discharged. No significant differences were found between the different diagnostic categories and the resolution of the teleconsultation. The reasons for reprogramming are analyzed in the study. CONCLUSION: In the context of a pandemic, teleconsultation has allowed 61% of follow-up visits to be definitively solved, avoiding the reprogramming of 116 patients. The new social and health paradigm after the pandemic will require a rethinking of our healthcare model, and in many aspects, telemedicine can offer tools for this.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Diseases , Rectal Diseases , Remote Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colonic Diseases/diagnosis , Colorectal Surgery , Female , Hospital Units , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Rectal Diseases/diagnosis , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1193, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646930

ABSTRACT

Patients with lung cancer are particularly vulnerable to complications from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Recurrent hospital visits and hospital admission are potential risk factors for acquiring infection with its causative pathogen, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). As immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) constitute the therapeutic backbone for the vast majority of patients with advanced lung cancer in the absence of actionable driver oncogenes, there have been intense discussions within the oncology community regarding risk-benefit of delaying these treatments or use of alternative extended-interval treatment strategies to minimize the risk of viral transmission secondary to unintended nosocomial exposures. In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval for extended-interval strategy of pembrolizumab at a dose of 400 mg every 6 weeks for all already approved oncologic indications. Herein, we summarize the evidence from the in silico pharmacokinetic modeling/simulation studies supporting extended-interval dosing strategies for the ICIs used in lung cancer. We further review the evolving clinical evidence behind these approaches and predict that they will continue to be used in routine practice even long after the pandemic, particularly for patients with durable disease control.

11.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(1): 108-108, Jan.-Feb. 2021.
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-613697
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