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Lancet Glob Health ; 10(11): e1545-e1546, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114187
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 28: 168-173, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946289


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of preeclampsia among cases of COVID-19 infection during pregnancy and the association between both conditions, in a multicenter cohort of Brazilian women with respiratory symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: Ancillary analysis of the Brazilian Network of COVID-19 in Obstetrics (REBRACO) study. We performed a nested case-control analysis selecting all women with COVID-19 and compared outcomes between women with and without PE. MAIN OUTCOMES: Maternal, gestational, and clinical characteristics and perinatal outcomes. MEASURES: Prevalence ratio (PR) and its 95%CI for each of the predictors and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 203 women were included: 21 (10.3%) in PE group and 182 (89.7%) in non-PE group. Preeclampsia was not different among women with and without COVID-19 (10.3% vs 13.1%, p-value = 0.41), neither complication such as eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Chronic hypertension (33.4%) (p < 0.01) and obesity (60.0%) (p = 0.03) were the most frequent comorbidities in PE group, and they were significantly more frequent in this group. Women with PE had more cesarean section (RR 5.54 [1.33 - 23.14]) and their neonates were more frequently admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (PR 2.46[1.06 - 5.69]), most likely due to preterm-birth-related complications. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PE among women with COVID-19 infection during pregnancy was around 10%; women with COVID-19 and a history of chronic hypertension or obesity are more likely to have preeclampsia. Cesarean section is increased among women with PE and COVID-19, with increased rates of neonatal admission to intensive care units, mostly due to prematurity.

COVID-19 , Hypertension , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Obesity , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11758, 2022 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927101


Brazil presented a very high number of maternal deaths and evident delays in healthcare. We aimed at evaluating the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated outcomes in the obstetric population. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 15 Brazilian centers including symptomatic pregnant or postpartum women with suspected COVID-19 from Feb/2020 to Feb/2021. Women were followed from suspected infection until the end of pregnancy. We analyzed maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes associated with confirmed COVID-19 infection and SARS, determining unadjusted risk ratios. In total, 729 symptomatic women with suspected COVID-19 were initially included. Among those investigated for COVID-19, 51.3% (n = 289) were confirmed COVID-19 and 48% (n = 270) were negative. Initially (before May 15th), only 52.9% of the suspected cases were tested and it was the period with the highest proportion of ICU admission and maternal deaths. Non-white ethnicity (RR 1.78 [1.04-3.04]), primary schooling or less (RR 2.16 [1.21-3.87]), being overweight (RR 4.34 [1.04-19.01]) or obese (RR 6.55 [1.57-27.37]), having public prenatal care (RR 2.16 [1.01-4.68]), planned pregnancies (RR 2.09 [1.15-3.78]), onset of infection in postpartum period (RR 6.00 [1.37-26.26]), chronic hypertension (RR 2.15 [1.37-4.10]), pre-existing diabetes (RR 3.20 [1.37-7.46]), asthma (RR 2.22 [1.14-4.34]), and anaemia (RR 3.15 [1.14-8.71]) were associated with higher risk for SARS. The availability of tests and maternal outcomes varied throughout the pandemic period of the study; the beginning was the most challenging period, with worse outcomes. Socially vulnerable, postpartum and previously ill women were more likely to present SARS related to COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Maternal Death , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903475


Currently, there are no evidence-based treatment options for long COVID-19, and it is known that SARS-CoV-2 can persist in part of the infected patients, especially those with immunosuppression. Since there is a robust secretion of SARS-CoV-2-specific highly-neutralizing IgA antibodies in breast milk, and because this immunoglobulin plays an essential role against respiratory virus infection in mucosa cells, being, in addition, more potent in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 than IgG, here we report the clinical course of an NFκB-deficient patient chronically infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant, who, after a non-full effective treatment with plasma infusion, received breast milk from a vaccinated mother by oral route as treatment for COVID-19. After such treatment, the symptoms improved, and the patient was systematically tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we hypothesize that IgA and IgG secreted antibodies present in breast milk could be useful to treat persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunodeficient patients.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Eating , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Milk, Human , NF-kappa B , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 43(12): 932-939, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585681


OBJECTIVE: To study maternal anxiety in pregnant women without comorbidities in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak in Brazil and to study maternal knowledge and concerns about the pandemic. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis from a national multicenter cross-sectional study performed in 10 cities, from June to August, 2020, in Brazil. Interviewed postpartum women, without medical or obstetrical comorbidities, were included in the present subanalysis. A structured questionnaire and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were applied. RESULTS: Out of the 1,662 women, 763 (45.9%) met the criteria for the current analysis and 16.1% presented with moderate and 11.5% with severe maternal anxiety. Moderate or severe maternal anxiety was associated with high school education (odds ratio [OR]:1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.04-2.40). The protective factor was cohabiting with a partner (OR: 0.46; 95%CI: 0.29-0.73). There was a positive correlation between the total BAI score and receiving information about care in the pandemic (rpartial 0.15; p < 0.001); concern about vertical transmission of COVID-19 (rpartial 0.10; p = 0.01); receiving information about breastfeeding (rpartial 0.08; p = 0.03); concerns about prenatal care (rpartial 0.10; p = 0.01), and concerns about the baby contracting COVID-19 (rpartial 0.11; p = 0.004). The correlation was negative in the following aspects: self-confidence in protecting from COVID-19 (rpartial 0.08; p = 0.04), having learned (rpartial 0.09; p = 0.01) and self-confidence in breastfeeding (rpartial 0.22; p < 0.001) in the context of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The anxiety of pregnant women without medical or obstetrical comorbidities was associated to high school educational level and not living with a partner during the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-confidence in protecting against COVID-19 and knowledge about breastfeeding care during the pandemic reduced maternal anxiety.

OBJETIVO: Estudar a ansiedade materna em gestantes sem comorbidades no contexto do surto de COVID-19 no Brasil e estudar o conhecimento e as preocupações maternas sobre a pandemia. MéTODOS: Trata-se de análise secundária de um estudo transversal multicêntrico nacional realizado em 10 cidades, de junho a agosto de 2020, no Brasil. Mulheres no pós-parto entrevistadas, sem comorbidades médicas ou obstétricas, foram incluídas nesta subanálise. Foram aplicados um questionário estruturado e o Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck (BAI, na sigla em inglês). RESULTADOS: Das 1.662 mulheres, 763 (45,9%) atenderam aos critérios da análise atual e 16,1% apresentaram ansiedade materna moderada e 11,5% ansiedade materna grave. A ansiedade materna moderada ou grave foi associada à escolaridade no ensino médio (odds ratio [OR]: 1,58; intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 1,04­2,40). O fator protetor foi coabitar com companheiro (OR: 0,46; IC95%: 0,29­0,73). Houve correlação positiva entre a pontuação total do BAI e o recebimento de informações sobre cuidados na pandemia (rparcial 0,15; p < 0,001); preocupação com a transmissão vertical de COVID-19 (rparcial 0,10; p = 0,01); receber informações sobre amamentação (rparcial 0,08; p = 0,03); preocupações sobre cuidados pré-natais (rparcial 0,10; p = 0,01) e preocupações sobre o bebê contrair COVID-19 (rparcial 0,11; p = 0,004). A correlação foi negativa com os seguintes aspectos: ter autoconfiança para se proteger (rparcial 0,08; p = 0,04), aprender (rparcial 0,09; p = 0,01) e ter autoconfiança para amamentar (rparcial 0,22; p < 0,001) no contexto da pandemia. CONCLUSãO: A ansiedade de gestantes sem comorbidades médicas ou obstétricas esteve associada à escolaridade no ensino médio e não morar com companheiro durante a pandemia de COVID-19. A autoconfiança na proteção contra COVID-19 e o conhecimento sobre os cuidados com a amamentação durante a pandemia reduziram a ansiedade materna.

COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Anxiety/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e051284, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583104


INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and postpartum in 16 maternity hospitals. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A prospective multicentre study, with five axes. First, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among women admitted for childbirth will be described in a cross-sectional study. Second, maternal and perinatal outcomes will be assessed in a prospective cohort study including pregnant or postpartum women with suspected COVID-19. Third, a cohort of positive COVID-19 cases with sampling of a variety of biological material. Histopathological and viral analysis of biological maternal and neonatal samples will be performed, and the assessment of nutritional variables to evaluate the association between vitamin D and severity of infection. Fourth, a monitoring and evaluation committee to collect relevant healthcare information and plan actions in centres facing the pandemic. Furthermore, qualitative studies will be performed to study pregnant women, their families and health professionals. Fifth, an ecological study will monitor the number of live births, stillbirths and other outcomes to explore any trend among the periods before, during and after the pandemic. Data will systematically be collected in an electronic platform following standardised operational procedures. For quantitative study components, an appropriate statistical approach will be used for each analysis. For qualitative data, in-depth interviews recorded in audio will be transcribed, checking the text obtained with the recording. Subsequently, thematic analysis with the aid of the NVivo programme will be performed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained (letters of approval numbers 4.047.168, 4.179.679 and 4.083.988). All women will be fully informed to sign the consent form before enrolment in the study. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences.

COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Parturition , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254977, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323012


INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic posed major challenges in obstetric health care services. Preparedness, development, and implementation of new protocols were part of the needed response. This study aims to describe the strategies implemented and the perspectives of health managers on the challenges to face the pandemic in 16 different maternity hospitals that comprise a multicenter study in Brazil, called REBRACO (Brazilian network of COVID-19 during pregnancy). METHODS: Mixed-method study, with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative data on the infrastructure of the units, maternal and perinatal health indicators, modifications on staff and human resources, from January to July/2020. Also, information on total number of cases, and availability for COVID-19 testing. A qualitative study by purposeful and saturation sampling was undertaken with healthcare managers, to understand perspectives on local challenges in facing the pandemic. RESULTS: Most maternities early implemented their contingency plan. REBRACO centers reported 338 confirmed COVID-19 cases among pregnant and post-partum women up to July 2020. There were 29 maternal deaths and 15 (51.8%) attributed to COVID-19. All maternities performed relocation of beds designated to labor ward, most (75%) acquired mechanical ventilators, only the minority (25%) installed new negative air pressure rooms. Considering human resources, around 40% hired extra health professionals and increased weekly workload and the majority (68.7%) also suspended annual leaves. Only one center implemented universal screening for childbirth and 6 (37.5%) implemented COVID-19 testing for all suspected cases, while around 60% of the centers only tested moderate/severe cases with hospital admission. Qualitative results showed that main challenges experienced were related to the fear of the virus, concerns about reliability of evidence and lack of resources, with a clear need for mental health support among health professionals. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest that maternities of the REBRACO initiative underwent major changes in facing the pandemic, with limitations on testing, difficulties in infrastructure and human resources. Leadership, continuous training, implementation of evidence-based protocols and collaborative initiatives are key to transpose the fear of the virus and ascertain adequate healthcare inside maternities, especially in low and middle-income settings. Policy makers need to address the specificities in considering reproductive health and childbirth during the COVID-19 pandemic and prioritize research and timely testing availability.

COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Parturition , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 43(5): 377-383, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284748


OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic viral disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The impact of the disease among the obstetric population remains unclear, and the study of the placenta can provide valuable information. Adequate sampling of the placental tissue can help characterize the pathways of viral infections. METHODS: A protocol of placental sampling is proposed, aiming at guaranteeing representativity of the placenta and describing the adequate conservation of samples and their integrity for future analysis. The protocol is presented in its complete and simplified versions, allowing its implementation in different complexity settings. RESULTS: Sampling with the minimum possible interval from childbirth is the key for adequate sampling and storage. This protocol has already been implemented during the Zika virus outbreak. CONCLUSION: A protocol for adequate sampling and storage of placental tissue is fundamental for adequate evaluation of viral infections on the placenta. During the COVID-19 pandemic, implementation of this protocol may help to elucidate critical aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

OBJETIVO: A doença do novo coronavírus (COVID-19) é uma doença viral pandêmica causada pelo coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda 2 (SARS-CoV-2). O impacto da doença entre a população obstétrica ainda é incerto, e o estudo da placenta pode fornecer informações valiosas. Assim, a coleta adequada do tecido placentário pode ajudar a caracterizar algumas propriedades das infecções virais. MéTODOS: Um protocolo de coleta placentária é proposto, objetivando a garantia de representatividade da placenta, descrevendo a maneira de conservação adequada das amostras, e visando garantir sua integridade para análises futuras. O protocolo é apresentado em suas versões completa e simplificada, permitindo sua implementação em diferentes configurações de infraestrutura. RESULTADOS: A amostragem com o intervalo mínimo possível do parto é essencial para coleta e armazenamento adequados. Esse protocolo já foi implementado durante a epidemia de vírus Zika. CONCLUSãO: Um protocolo para coleta e armazenamento adequados de tecido placentário é fundamental para a avaliação adequada de infecções virais na placenta. Durante a pandemia de COVID-19, a implementação deste protocolo pode ajudar a elucidar aspectos críticos da infecção por SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19/virology , Placenta/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Specimen Handling/standards , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Virology/methods , Virology/standards , Virus Diseases/virology
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069838


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have an effect on maternal anxiety and influence postpartum experience. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of maternal anxiety in late pregnancy in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak in Brazil and to analyze its association with maternal knowledge and concerns about the pandemic. METHODS: This was a national multicenter cross-sectional study performed in 10 different public university hospitals, between 1 June and 31 August 2020, in Brazil. The inclusion criteria were: maternal age more than 18 years; gestational age more than 36 weeks at childbirth; single alive newborn without malformations; and absence of mental disorders. We applied a structured questionnaire to explore the knowledge and concerns about COVID-19. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). RESULTS: Of the 1662 women interviewed, the BAI score in late pregnancy indicated that 13.9% presented moderate and 9.6% severe maternal anxiety. Moderate or severe maternal anxiety was independently associated with the fear of being unaccompanied at childbirth (aOR1.12, 95% CI 1.10-1.35), and independent protective factors were confidence in knowing how to protect oneself from COVID-19 (aOR0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97) and how to safely breastfeed (aOR0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.95). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has a significant impact on maternal anxiety.