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1.
Transfus Apher Sci ; : 103513, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937260

ABSTRACT

Even after two years of the pandemic, a completely effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2 has not yet been established. Considering this fact and the emergence of successive new viral variants, the development of therapies based on natural polyclonal antibodies recovered from convalescent plasma remains relevant. This study presents a comparison between different methods of screening antibodies in samples of 41 individuals previously diagnosed with COVID-19. We found a significant correlation between Abbot Architect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and Abbott Allinity SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quantitative assay intensity of reactivity and neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers. Thus, we propose an initial antibody screening with IgG anti-N Abbott Architect test, with an index of, for example, > 3.25 or SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quantitative Abbott Allinity assay > 137.65 AU/mL as good predictors of Nab ≥ 1:80. For the quantitative method, this threshold demonstrated a 100 % sensitivity and 80 % specificity, with 97.3 % accuracy. An interesting observation was the increase in the neutralizing activity of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with the longest interval between the end of the symptoms and the collection, demonstrating that the delay in plasma collection does not affect the achievement of adequate nAbs levels. These results demonstrate the possibility of using faster and more widely available commercial serological tests with a good correlation with viral neutralization tests in culture, allowing for optimized large-scale donor selection, which will be of utmost importance for the development of therapies such as hyperimmune immunoglobulin.

2.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 10: 100216, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740018

ABSTRACT

Background: Administration of convalescent plasma may serve as an adjunct to supportive treatment to prevent COVID-19 progression and death. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2 volumes of intravenous convalescent plasma (CP) with high antibody titers for the treatment of severe cases of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a Bayesian, randomized, open-label, multicenter, controlled clinical trial in 7 Brazilian hospitals. Adults admitted to hospital with positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV2, within 10 days of the symptom onset, were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive standard of care (SoC) alone, or in combination with 200 mL (150-300 mL) of CP (Low-volume), or 400 mL (300-600 mL) of CP (High-volume); infusion had to be performed within 24 h of randomization. Randomization was centralized, stratified by center. The primary outcome was the time until clinical improvement up to day 28, measured by the WHO ten-point scale, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Interim and terminal analyses were performed in a Bayesian framework. Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04415086. Findings: Between June 2, 2020, and November 18, 2020, 129 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to SoC (n = 42), Low-volume (n = 43) or High-volume (n = 44) CP. Donors presented a median titer of neutralizing antibodies of 1:320 (interquartile range, 1:160 to 1:1088). No evidence of any benefit of convalescent plasma was observed, with Bayesian estimate of 28-day clinical improvement of 72.7% (95%CI, 58.8 to 84.7) in the SoC versus 64.1% (95%ci, 53.8 to 73.7) in the pooled experimental groups (mean difference of -8.7%, 95%CI, -24.6 to 8.2). There was one case of cutaneous mild allergic reaction related to plasma transfusion and one case of suspected transfusion-related acute lung injury but deemed not to be related to convalescent plasma infusion. Interpretation: In this prospective, randomized trial of adult hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, convalescent plasma was not associated with clinical benefits. Funding: Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo.

3.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(10): e527-e535, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mutations accrued by SARS-CoV-2 lineage P.1-first detected in Brazil in early January, 2021-include amino acid changes in the receptor-binding domain of the viral spike protein that also are reported in other variants of concern, including B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. We aimed to investigate whether isolates of wild-type P.1 lineage SARS-CoV-2 can escape from neutralising antibodies generated by a polyclonal immune response. METHODS: We did an immunological study to assess the neutralising effects of antibodies on lineage P.1 and lineage B isolates of SARS-CoV-2, using plasma samples from patients previously infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Two specimens (P.1/28 and P.1/30) containing SARS-CoV-2 lineage P.1 (as confirmed by viral genome sequencing) were obtained from nasopharyngeal and bronchoalveolar lavage samples collected from patients in Manaus, Brazil, and compared against an isolate of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B (SARS.CoV2/SP02.2020) recovered from a patient in Brazil in February, 2020. Isolates were incubated with plasma samples from 21 blood donors who had previously had COVID-19 and from a total of 53 recipients of the chemically inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine CoronaVac: 18 individuals after receipt of a single dose and an additional 20 individuals (38 in total) after receipt of two doses (collected 17-38 days after the most recent dose); and 15 individuals who received two doses during the phase 3 trial of the vaccine (collected 134-230 days after the second dose). Antibody neutralisation of P.1/28, P.1/30, and B isolates by plasma samples were compared in terms of median virus neutralisation titre (VNT50, defined as the reciprocal value of the sample dilution that showed 50% protection against cytopathic effects). FINDINGS: In terms of VNT50, plasma from individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 had an 8·6 times lower neutralising capacity against the P.1 isolates (median VNT50 30 [IQR <20-45] for P.1/28 and 30 [<20-40] for P.1/30) than against the lineage B isolate (260 [160-400]), with a binominal model showing significant reductions in lineage P.1 isolates compared with the lineage B isolate (p≤0·0001). Efficient neutralisation of P.1 isolates was not seen with plasma samples collected from individuals vaccinated with a first dose of CoronaVac 20-23 days earlier (VNT50s below the limit of detection [<20] for most plasma samples), a second dose 17-38 days earlier (median VNT50 24 [IQR <20-25] for P.1/28 and 28 [<20-25] for P.1/30), or a second dose 134-260 days earlier (all VNT50s below limit of detection). Median VNT50s against the lineage B isolate were 20 (IQR 20-30) after a first dose of CoronaVac 20-23 days earlier, 75 (<20-263) after a second dose 17-38 days earlier, and 20 (<20-30) after a second dose 134-260 days earlier. In plasma collected 17-38 days after a second dose of CoronaVac, neutralising capacity against both P.1 isolates was significantly decreased (p=0·0051 for P.1/28 and p=0·0336 for P.1/30) compared with that against the lineage B isolate. All data were corroborated by results obtained through plaque reduction neutralisation tests. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 lineage P.1 might escape neutralisation by antibodies generated in response to polyclonal stimulation against previously circulating variants of SARS-CoV-2. Continuous genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 combined with antibody neutralisation assays could help to guide national immunisation programmes. FUNDING: São Paulo Research Foundation, Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation and Funding Authority for Studies, Medical Research Council, National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, National Institutes of Health. TRANSLATION: For the Portuguese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States , Vaccination
5.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; 17(1): 14, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency is the most prevalent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency in adults. Affected patients fail to mount an appropriate humoral response against community acquired infectious diseases and recent reports have provided data supporting the increased susceptibility of these patients to severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. In this context, the infusion of COVID-19 convalescent plasma could represent an effective therapeutic strategy. CASE PRESENTATION: 25-year old woman diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency in 2013, developed severe COVID-19 that rapidly progressed to pneumonia presenting with multiple bilateral lung opacities that were both central and peripheral and presented as ground-glass and consolidation types involving all lobes, bilaterally. As blood oxygen saturation decayed and lung abnormalities were not responsive to large spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids, patient was placed on mechanical ventilation and compassionate-use of approved COVID-19 convalescent donor plasma was introduced. The patient presented a rapid response to the approach and mechanical ventilation could be interrupted 24 h after first dose of COVID-19 convalescent donor plasma. As a whole, the patient received four doses of 200 mL convalescent plasma during a period of 6 days. There was rapid improvement of clinical status, with interruption of supplemental oxygen therapy after 6 days and reduction of lung abnormalities as evidence by sequential computed tomography scans. CONCLUSIONS: This is a single patient report that adds to other few reports on common variable immunodeficiency and agammaglobulinemia, suggesting that COVID-19 convalescent donor plasma could be a valuable therapeutic approach to treat patients affected by dysgammaglobulinemias and presenting severe COVID-19.

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