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1.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997811

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although the understanding of several aspects of long COVID-19 syndrome is increasing, there is limited literature regarding the treatment of these signs and symptoms. The aim of our systematic review was to understand which therapies have proved effective against the symptoms of long COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic search for randomized controlled or clinical trials in several databases was conducted through 15 May 2022. Specific inclusion criteria included: (1) intervention studies, either randomized controlled (RCTs) or clinical trials; (2) diagnosis of long COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization criteria; (3) presence of long COVID-19 for at least 12 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: We initially found 1638 articles to screen. After removing 1602 works based on their title/abstract, we considered 35 full texts, and among them, two intervention studies were finally included. The first RCT focused on the greater improvement of treatment combining olfactory rehabilitation with oral supplementation with Palmitoylethanolamide and Luteolin in patients with olfactory dysfunction after COVID-19. The second study evaluated the positive impact of aromatherapy vs. standard care in adult females affected by fatigue. CONCLUSION: Our systematic review found only two intervention studies focused on patients affected by long COVID-19. More intervention studies are needed to investigate potentially positive interventions for long COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Luteolin , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847566

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has undone years of progress in providing essential TB services and controlling the TB burden. Italy, a low TB burden country, has an incidence of 7.1 cases per 100,000 people. To control the TB spreading in Italy is critical to investigate the characteristics of patients with the worst outcomes and the highest risk of adverse events related to antituberculosis therapy. Therefore, we conducted a large retrospective study in TB patients admitted to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases University of Bari, Italy, in order to describe the clinical presentation and the factors associated with adverse events and outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the patients admitted to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases from January 2013 to 15 December 2021. We stratified our cohort into two groups: <65 years of age and ≥65 years in order to assess any differences between the two groups. Two logistic regression models were implemented considering the dependent variables as: (I) the adverse events; and (II) the unsuccessful treatments. Results: In total, 206 consecutive patients [60% (n = 124) M, median age 39 years, range 16-92] were diagnosed and admitted with TB at Clinic of Infectious Diseases. Of the whole sample, 151 (74%) were <65 years and 55 (26%) were ≥65. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were detected (p-value < 0.05) for nationality (p-value = 0.01), previous contact with TB patient (p-value = 0.00), type of TB (p-value = 0.00), unsuccessful treatment (p-value = 0.00), length of hospitalization (p-value = 0.02) and diagnostic delay (p-value = 0.01). Adverse events related to TB drug regimen were reported in 24% (n = 49). Age < 65 years (O.R. = 3.91; 95% CI 1.72-4.21), non-Italian nationality (O.R. = 4.45; 95% CI 2.22-4.98.), homeless (O.R. = 3.23; 95% CI 2.58-4.54), presence of respiratory symptoms (O.R. = 1.23; 95% CI 1.10-1.90), diagnostic delay (O.R = 2.55; 95% CI 1.98-3.77) resulted associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome (death, failure or lost to follow up). Finally, age < 65 years (O.R. = 1.73; 95% CI 1.31-2.49), presence of pulmonary TB (O.R. = 1.15; 95% CI 1.02-1.35), length of hospitalization (O.R. = 1.82; 95% CI 1.35-2.57) and TB culture positive (O.R. = 1.35; 95% CI 1.12-1.82) were associated with adverse events in our populations. Conclusions: The pharmacological approach alone seems insufficient to treat and cure a disease whose ethiopathogenesis is not only due to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but also to the poverty or the social fragility. Our data suggest that young foreigners, the homeless, and the people with low social and economic status are at higher risk of an unfavorable outcome in low incidence TB countries. Targeted actions to support this highly vulnerable population both in terms of outcome and occurrence of adverse events are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Delayed Diagnosis , Hospitals , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Young Adult
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