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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0153822, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879119

ABSTRACT

Equitable access to vaccines is necessary to limit the global impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the emergence of new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants. In previous studies, we described the development of a low-cost vaccine based on a Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) expressing the prefusion-stabilized spike protein from SARS-CoV-2, named NDV-HXP-S. Here, we present the development of next-generation NDV-HXP-S variant vaccines, which express the stabilized spike protein of the Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants of concerns (VOC). Combinations of variant vaccines in bivalent, trivalent, and tetravalent formulations were tested for immunogenicity and protection in mice. We show that the trivalent preparation, composed of the ancestral Wuhan, Beta, and Delta vaccines, substantially increases the levels of protection and of cross-neutralizing antibodies against mismatched, phylogenetically distant variants, including the currently circulating Omicron variant. IMPORTANCE This manuscript describes an extended work on the Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based vaccine focusing on multivalent formulations of NDV vectors expressing different prefusion-stabilized versions of the spike proteins of different SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC). We demonstrate here that this low-cost NDV platform can be easily adapted to construct vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Importantly, we show that the trivalent preparation, composed of the ancestral Wuhan, Beta, and Delta vaccines, substantially increases the levels of protection and of cross-neutralizing antibodies against mismatched, phylogenetically distant variants, including the currently circulating Omicron variant. We believe that these findings will help to guide efforts for pandemic preparedness against new variants in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Mice , Newcastle disease virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
Mol Ther ; 30(5): 1822-1849, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1663944

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic viruses continually pose a pandemic threat. Infection of humans with viruses for which we typically have little or no prior immunity can result in epidemics with high morbidity and mortality. These epidemics can have public health and economic impact and can exacerbate civil unrest or political instability. Changes in human behavior in the past few decades-increased global travel, farming intensification, the exotic animal trade, and the impact of global warming on animal migratory patterns, habitats, and ecosystems-contribute to the increased frequency of cross-species transmission events. Investing in the pre-clinical advancement of vaccine candidates against diverse emerging viral threats is crucial for pandemic preparedness. Replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors have demonstrated their utility as an outbreak-responsive vaccine platform during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Ad vectors are easy to engineer; are amenable to rapid, inexpensive manufacturing; are relatively safe and immunogenic in humans; and, importantly, do not require specialized cold-chain storage, making them an ideal platform for equitable global distribution or stockpiling. In this review, we discuss the progress in applying Ad-based vaccines against emerging viruses and summarize their global safety profile, as reflected by their widespread geographic use during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Viral Vaccines , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ecosystem , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
PLoS Biol ; 19(12): e3001384, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573706

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been highly efficient in protecting against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the emergence of viral variants that are more transmissible and, in some cases, escape from neutralizing antibody responses has raised concerns. Here, we evaluated recombinant protein spike antigens derived from wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and from variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 for their immunogenicity and protective effect in vivo against challenge with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in the mouse model. All proteins induced high neutralizing antibodies against the respective viruses but also induced high cross-neutralizing antibody responses. The decline in neutralizing titers between variants was moderate, with B.1.1.7-vaccinated animals having a maximum fold reduction of 4.8 against B.1.351 virus. P.1 induced the most cross-reactive antibody responses but was also the least immunogenic in terms of homologous neutralization titers. However, all antigens protected from challenge with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in a mouse model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Reactions , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Vero Cells
4.
Sci Adv ; 7(49): eabl8213, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553714

ABSTRACT

Vaccines derived from chimpanzee adenovirus Y25 (ChAdOx1), human adenovirus type 26 (HAdV-D26), and human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-C5) are critical in combatting the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. As part of the largest vaccination campaign in history, ultrarare side effects not seen in phase 3 trials, including thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), a rare condition resembling heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), have been observed. This study demonstrates that all three adenoviruses deployed as vaccination vectors versus SARS-CoV-2 bind to platelet factor 4 (PF4), a protein implicated in the pathogenesis of HIT. We have determined the structure of the ChAdOx1 viral vector and used it in state-of-the-art computational simulations to demonstrate an electrostatic interaction mechanism with PF4, which was confirmed experimentally by surface plasmon resonance. These data confirm that PF4 is capable of forming stable complexes with clinically relevant adenoviruses, an important step in unraveling the mechanisms underlying TTS.

5.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750493

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a worldwide pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. Development of animal models that recapitulate important aspects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critical for the evaluation of vaccines and antivirals, and understanding disease pathogenesis. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to use the same entry receptor as SARS-CoV-1, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2)(1-3). Due to amino acid differences between murine and hACE2, inbred mouse strains fail to support high titer viral replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Therefore, a number of transgenic and knock-in mouse models, as well as viral vector-mediated hACE2 delivery systems have been developed. Here we compared the K18-hACE2 transgenic model to adenovirus-mediated delivery of hACE2 to the mouse lung. We show that K18-hACE2 mice replicate virus to high titers in both the lung and brain leading to lethality. In contrast, adenovirus-mediated delivery results in viral replication to lower titers limited to the lung, and no clinical signs of infection with a challenge dose of 10 (4) plaque forming units. The K18-hACE2 model provides a stringent model for testing the ability of vaccines and antivirals to protect against disease, whereas the adenovirus delivery system has the flexibility to be used across multiple genetic backgrounds and modified mouse strains.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6197, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493100

ABSTRACT

Rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines has helped mitigating SARS-CoV-2 spread, but more equitable allocation of vaccines is necessary to limit the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the emergence of additional variants of concern. We have developed a COVID-19 vaccine candidate based on Newcastle disease virus (NDV) that can be manufactured at high yields in embryonated eggs. Here, we show that the NDV vector expressing an optimized spike antigen (NDV-HXP-S) is a versatile vaccine inducing protective antibody responses. NDV-HXP-S can be administered intramuscularly as inactivated vaccine or intranasally as live vaccine. We show that NDV-HXP-S GMP-produced in Vietnam, Thailand and Brazil is effective in the hamster model. Furthermore, we show that intramuscular vaccination with NDV-HXP-S reduces replication of tested variants of concerns in mice. The immunity conferred by NDV-HXP-S effectively counteracts SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice and hamsters.


Subject(s)
Newcastle disease virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Newcastle disease virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccines, Attenuated/therapeutic use
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6097, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475295

ABSTRACT

Effective treatments against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed. Monoclonal antibodies have shown promising results in patients. Here, we evaluate the in vivo prophylactic and therapeutic effect of COVA1-18, a neutralizing antibody highly potent against the B.1.1.7 isolate. In both prophylactic and therapeutic settings, SARS-CoV-2 remains undetectable in the lungs of treated hACE2 mice. Therapeutic treatment also causes a reduction in viral loads in the lungs of Syrian hamsters. When administered at 10 mg kg-1 one day prior to a high dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in cynomolgus macaques, COVA1-18 shows very strong antiviral activity in the upper respiratory compartments. Using a mathematical model, we estimate that COVA1-18 reduces viral infectivity by more than 95% in these compartments, preventing lymphopenia and extensive lung lesions. Our findings demonstrate that COVA1-18 has a strong antiviral activity in three preclinical models and could be a valuable candidate for further clinical evaluation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tissue Distribution , Viral Load
9.
mBio ; 12(4): e0100221, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327614

ABSTRACT

After first emerging in late 2019 in China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has since caused a pandemic leading to millions of infections and deaths worldwide. Vaccines have been developed and authorized, but the supply of these vaccines is currently limited. With new variants of the virus now emerging and spreading globally, it is essential to develop therapeutics that are broadly protective and bind conserved epitopes in the receptor binding domain (RBD) or the full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we generated mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against different epitopes on the RBD and assessed binding and neutralization of authentic SARS-CoV-2. We demonstrate that antibodies with neutralizing activity, but not nonneutralizing antibodies, lower viral titers in the lungs when administered in a prophylactic setting in vivo in a mouse challenge model. In addition, most of the MAbs cross-neutralize the B.1.351 as well as the B.1.1.7 variant in vitro. IMPORTANCE Cross-neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants by RBD-targeting antibodies is still not well understood, and very little is known about the potential protective effect of nonneutralizing antibodies in vivo. Using a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies, we investigate both of these points.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load
11.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115091

ABSTRACT

The spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the prime target for vaccine development. The spike protein mediates both binding to host cells and membrane fusion and is also so far the only known viral target of neutralizing antibodies. Coronavirus spike proteins are large trimers that are relatively unstable, a feature that might be enhanced by the presence of a polybasic cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2 spike. Exchange of K986 and V987 for prolines has been shown to stabilize the trimers of SARS-CoV-1 and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike proteins. Here, we test multiple versions of a soluble spike protein for their immunogenicity and protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in a mouse model that transiently expresses human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 via adenovirus transduction. Variants tested include spike proteins with a deleted polybasic cleavage site, proline mutations, or a combination thereof, besides the wild-type protein. While all versions of the protein were able to induce neutralizing antibodies, only the antigen with both a deleted cleavage site and the K986P and V987P (PP) mutations completely protected from challenge in this mouse model.IMPORTANCE A vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed. A better understanding of antigen design and attributes that vaccine candidates need to have to induce protective immunity is of high importance. The data presented here validate the choice of antigens that contain the PP mutations and suggest that deletion of the polybasic cleavage site may lead to a further-optimized design.


Subject(s)
Proline/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Mice , Mutation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
12.
Science ; 371(6532): 926-931, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048642

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral proteins interact with the eukaryotic translation machinery, and inhibitors of translation have potent antiviral effects. We found that the drug plitidepsin (aplidin), which has limited clinical approval, possesses antiviral activity (90% inhibitory concentration = 0.88 nM) that is more potent than remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro by a factor of 27.5, with limited toxicity in cell culture. Through the use of a drug-resistant mutant, we show that the antiviral activity of plitidepsin against SARS-CoV-2 is mediated through inhibition of the known target eEF1A (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A). We demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of plitidepsin treatment in two mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a reduction of viral replication in the lungs by two orders of magnitude using prophylactic treatment. Our results indicate that plitidepsin is a promising therapeutic candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/biosynthesis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Depsipeptides/administration & dosage , Depsipeptides/therapeutic use , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung/virology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mutation , Peptides, Cyclic , Phosphoproteins/biosynthesis , Phosphoproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(17): 9467-9473, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037522

ABSTRACT

The search for vaccines that protect from severe morbidity and mortality because of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a race against the clock and the virus. Here we describe an amphiphilic imidazoquinoline (IMDQ-PEG-CHOL) TLR7/8 adjuvant, consisting of an imidazoquinoline conjugated to the chain end of a cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol) macromolecular amphiphile. It is water-soluble and exhibits massive translocation to lymph nodes upon local administration through binding to albumin, affording localized innate immune activation and reduction in systemic inflammation. The adjuvanticity of IMDQ-PEG-CHOL was validated in a licensed vaccine setting (quadrivalent influenza vaccine) and an experimental trimeric recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein vaccine, showing robust IgG2a and IgG1 antibody titers in mice that could neutralize viral infection in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cholesterol/analogs & derivatives , Cholesterol/immunology , Cholesterol/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Imidazoles/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Membrane Glycoproteins/agonists , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Quinolines/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use , Toll-Like Receptor 7/agonists , Toll-Like Receptor 8/agonists
14.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900770

ABSTRACT

The search for vaccines that protect from severe morbidity and mortality as a result of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a race against the clock and the virus. Several vaccine candidates are currently being tested in the clinic. Inactivated virus and recombinant protein vaccines can be safe options but may require adjuvants to induce robust immune responses efficiently. In this work we describe the use of a novel amphiphilic imidazoquinoline (IMDQ-PEG-CHOL) TLR7/8 adjuvant, consisting of an imidazoquinoline conjugated to the chain end of a cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol) macromolecular amphiphile). This amphiphile is water soluble and exhibits massive translocation to lymph nodes upon local administration, likely through binding to albumin. IMDQ-PEG-CHOL is used to induce a protective immune response against SARS-CoV-2 after single vaccination with trimeric recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the BALB/c mouse model. Inclusion of amphiphilic IMDQ-PEG-CHOL in the SARS-CoV-2 spike vaccine formulation resulted in enhanced immune cell recruitment and activation in the draining lymph node. IMDQ-PEG-CHOL has a better safety profile compared to native soluble IMDQ as the former induces a more localized immune response upon local injection, preventing systemic inflammation. Moreover, IMDQ-PEG-CHOL adjuvanted vaccine induced enhanced ELISA and in vitro microneutralization titers, and a more balanced IgG2a/IgG1 response. To correlate vaccine responses with control of virus replication in vivo, vaccinated mice were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 virus after being sensitized by intranasal adenovirus-mediated expression of the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene. Animals vaccinated with trimeric recombinant spike protein vaccine without adjuvant had lung virus titers comparable to non-vaccinated control mice, whereas animals vaccinated with IMDQ-PEG-CHOL-adjuvanted vaccine controlled viral replication and infectious viruses could not be recovered from their lungs at day 4 post infection. In order to test whether IMDQ-PEG-CHOL could also be used to adjuvant vaccines currently licensed for use in humans, proof of concept was also provided by using the same IMDQ-PEG-CHOL to adjuvant human quadrivalent inactivated influenza virus split vaccine, which resulted in enhanced hemagglutination inhibition titers and a more balanced IgG2a/IgG1 antibody response. Enhanced influenza vaccine responses correlated with better virus control when mice were given a lethal influenza virus challenge. Our results underscore the potential use of IMDQ-PEG-CHOL as an adjuvant to achieve protection after single immunization with recombinant protein and inactivated virus vaccines against respiratory viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses.

15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2433-2445, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872909

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a worldwide pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. Development of animal models that recapitulate important aspects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critical for the evaluation of vaccines and antivirals, and understanding disease pathogenesis. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to use the same entry receptor as SARS-CoV-1, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) [1-3]. Due to amino acid differences between murine and hACE2, inbred mouse strains fail to support high titer viral replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Therefore, a number of transgenic and knock-in mouse models, as well as viral vector-mediated hACE2 delivery systems have been developed. Here we compared the K18-hACE2 transgenic model to adenovirus-mediated delivery of hACE2 to the mouse lung. We show that K18-hACE2 mice replicate virus to high titers in the nasal turbinates, lung and brain, with high lethality, and cytokine/chemokine production. In contrast, adenovirus-mediated delivery results in viral replication to lower titers limited to the nasal turbinates and lung, and no clinical signs of infection. The K18-hACE2 model provides a stringent model for testing vaccines and antivirals, whereas the adenovirus delivery system has the flexibility to be used across multiple genetic backgrounds and modified mouse strains.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS Virus/growth & development , Virus Replication/genetics , A549 Cells , Adenoviridae/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment
16.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808208

ABSTRACT

The spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the prime target for vaccine development. The spike protein mediates both binding to host cells and membrane fusion and is also so far the only known viral target of neutralizing antibodies. Coronavirus spike proteins are large trimers that are relatively instable, a feature that might be enhanced by the presence of a polybasic cleavage site in the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Exchange of K986 and V987 to prolines has been shown to stabilize the trimers of SARS-CoV-1 and the Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus spikes. Here, we test multiple versions of a soluble spike protein for their immunogenicity and protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in a mouse model that transiently expresses human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 via adenovirus transduction. Variants tested include spike protein with a deleted polybasic cleavage site, the proline mutations, a combination thereof, as well as the wild type protein. While all versions of the protein were able to induce neutralizing antibodies, only the antigen with both a deleted cleavage site and the PP mutations completely protected from challenge in this mouse model. IMPORTANCE: A vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed. A better understanding of antigen design and attributes that vaccine candidates need to have to induce protective immunity is of high importance. The data presented here validates the choice of antigens that contain the PP mutation and suggests that deletion of the polybasic cleavage site could lead to a further optimized design.

17.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(3): 360-363, 2020 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753785

ABSTRACT

In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, three papers describe the pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with the SARS-CoV-2 spike. This VSV-CoV-2-S platform allows virus neutralization assays to be performed at BSL-2 and also has applications as a candidate vectored vaccine to elicit protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
18.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665205

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a worldwide pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. Development of animal models that recapitulate important aspects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critical for the evaluation of vaccines and antivirals, and understanding disease pathogenesis. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to use the same entry receptor as SARS-CoV-1, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2)(1-3). Due to amino acid differences between murine and hACE2, inbred mouse strains fail to support high titer viral replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Therefore, a number of transgenic and knock-in mouse models, as well as viral vector-mediated hACE2 delivery systems have been developed. Here we compared the K18-hACE2 transgenic model to adenovirus-mediated delivery of hACE2 to the mouse lung. We show that K18-hACE2 mice replicate virus to high titers in both the lung and brain leading to lethality. In contrast, adenovirus-mediated delivery results in viral replication to lower titers limited to the lung, and no clinical signs of infection with a challenge dose of 10 4 plaque forming units. The K18-hACE2 model provides a stringent model for testing the ability of vaccines and antivirals to protect against disease, whereas the adenovirus delivery system has the flexibility to be used across multiple genetic backgrounds and modified mouse strains.

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