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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(4): 677-686, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with kidney failure requiring KRT are at high risk of complications and death following SARS-CoV-2 infection, with variable antibody responses to vaccination reported. We investigated the effects of COVID-19 vaccination on the incidence of infection, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19 infection. METHODS: The study design was an observational data linkage cohort study. Multiple health care datasets were linked to ascertain all SARS-CoV-2 testing, vaccination, hospitalization, and mortality data for all patients treated with KRT in Scotland from the start of the pandemic over a period of 20 months. Descriptive statistics, survival analyses, and vaccine effectiveness were calculated. RESULTS: As of September 19, 2021, 93% (n=5281) of the established KRT population in Scotland had received two doses of an approved SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Over the study period, there were 814 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection (15.1% of the KRT population). Vaccine effectiveness rates against infection and hospitalization were 33% (95% CI, 0 to 52) and 38% (95% CI, 0 to 57), respectively. Within 28 days of a SARS-CoV-2-positive PCR test, 9.2% of fully vaccinated individuals died (7% patients on dialysis and 10% kidney transplant recipients). This compares to <0.1% of the vaccinated general Scottish population admitted to the hospital or dying due to COVID-19 during that period. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that a primary vaccine course of two doses has limited effect on COVID-19 infection and its complications in patients with KRT. Adjunctive strategies to reduce risk of both COVID-19 infection and its complications in this population are urgently required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland , Vaccination
2.
J Infect ; 83(1): 96-103, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198895

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients requiring haemodialysis are at increased risk of serious illness with SARS-CoV-2 infection. To improve the understanding of transmission risks in six Scottish renal dialysis units, we utilised the rapid whole-genome sequencing data generated by the COG-UK consortium. METHODS: We combined geographical, temporal and genomic sequence data from the community and hospital to estimate the probability of infection originating from within the dialysis unit, the hospital or the community using Bayesian statistical modelling and compared these results to the details of epidemiological investigations. RESULTS: Of 671 patients, 60 (8.9%) became infected with SARS-CoV-2, of whom 16 (27%) died. Within-unit and community transmission were both evident and an instance of transmission from the wider hospital setting was also demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: Near-real-time SARS-CoV-2 sequencing data can facilitate tailored infection prevention and control measures, which can be targeted at reducing risk in these settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bayes Theorem , Hospitals , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects
3.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 419, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a worldwide pandemic with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, overwhelming healthcare systems globally. Preliminary reports suggest a high incidence of infection and mortality with SARS-CoV-2 in patients receiving kidney replacement therapy (KRT). The aims of this study are to report characteristics, rates and outcomes of all patients affected by infection with SARS-CoV-2 undergoing KRT in Scotland. METHODS: Study design was an observational cohort study. Data were linked between the Scottish Renal Registry, Health Protection Scotland and the Scottish Intensive Care Society Audit Group national data sets using a unique patient identifier (Community Health Index (CHI)) for each individual by the Public Health and Intelligence unit of Public Health, Scotland. Descriptive statistics and survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: During the period 1st March 2020 to 31st May 2020, 110 patients receiving KRT tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 amounting to 2% of the prevalent KRT population. Of those affected, 86 were receiving haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and 24 had a renal transplant. Patients who tested positive were older and more likely to reside in more deprived postcodes. Mortality was high at 26.7% in the dialysis patients and 29.2% in the transplant patients. CONCLUSION: The rate of detected SARS-CoV-2 in people receiving KRT in Scotland was relatively low but with a high mortality for those demonstrating infection. Although impossible to confirm, it appears that the measures taken within dialysis units coupled with the national shielding policy, have been effective in protecting this population from infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Renal Replacement Therapy , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology
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