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1.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 176, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) produced a pandemic since March 2020 by affecting more than 243 million people with more than 5 million deaths globally. SARS-CoV-2 infection is produced by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme, which among other sites is highly expressed in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels, pericytes and the heart, as well as in renal podocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells. SARS-CoV-2 and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are interconnected by risk factors association with an increased incidence of the disease and by determining de novo cardiac complications. At the same time, COVID-19 disease can lead to acute kidney injury directly, or due to sepsis, multi-organ failure and shock. Therefore, the pre-existence of both CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is linked with a higher risk of severe disease and worse prognosis. METHODS: The main aim of this study is to assess the CV risk in a CKD (stage 3 to 5), dialysis and kidney transplanted population, following SARS-CoV-2 infection, with focus on the endothelial dysfunction as compared to a control group of matched patients. By using clinical evaluation, flow-mediated dilatation, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, intima-media thickness, echocardiographic parameters, lung ultrasound, bioimpedance spectroscopy and a series of novel biomarkers, the investigators will determine the long-term impact of this disease on CV and renal outcomes. DISCUSSION: This study will address the challenges and implications in long-term CV sequeale of COVID-19 and focus on a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and possible therapeutic options. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Patient enrolment in the trial started in January 2021 and is expected to finish at the end of 2022. The study can be found on ClinicalTrials.gov database with NCT05125913 identifier. Registered on 18 November 2021 - Retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic , Endothelial Cells , Female , Humans , Kidney , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Pulse Wave Analysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 54(5): 1097-1104, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients is associated with poor prognosis. However, the incidence, risk factors and potential outcomes of AKI in hospitalized patients are not well studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in two major university hospitals. Electronic health records of the patients, 18 years or older, hospitalized between 13 April and 1 June 2020 with confirmed COVID-19 were reviewed. We described the incidence and the risk factors for AKI development in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of AKI on the length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, the admission rates to ICU, the percentage of patients with cytokine storm and in-hospital mortality rate. RESULTS: Among 770 hospitalized patients included in this study, 92 (11.9%) patients developed AKI. The length of hospitalized days (16 vs 9.9, p < 0.001) and days spent in the hospital until ICU admission (3.5 vs. 2.5, p = 0.003) were higher in the AKI group compared to patients without AKI. In addition, ICU admission rates were also significantly higher in patients with AKI (63% vs. 20.7%, p < 0.001). The percentage of patients with AKI who developed cytokine storm was significantly higher than patients without AKI (25.9% vs. 14%, p = 0.009). Furthermore, the in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with AKI (47.2% vs. 4.7%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: AKI is common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we show that AKI increases the admission rates to ICU and in-hospital mortality. Our findings suggest that AKI should be effectively managed to prevent the adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328618

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) produced a pandemic since March 2020 by affecting more than 243 million people with more than 5 million deaths globally. SARS-CoV-2 infection is produced by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme, which among other sites is highly expressed in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels, pericytes and the heart, as well as in renal podocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells. SARS-CoV-2 and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are interconnected by risk factors association with an increased incidence of the disease and by determining de novo cardiac complications. At the same time, COVID-19 disease can lead to acute kidney injury directly, or due to sepsis, multi-organ failure and shock. Therefore, the pre-existence of both CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is linked with a higher risk of severe disease and worse prognosis. Methods: The main aim of this study is to assess the CV risk in a CKD (stage 3 to 5), dialysis and kidney transplanted population, following SARS-CoV-2 infection, with focus on the endothelial dysfunction as compared to a control group of matched patients. By using clinical evaluation, flow-mediated dilatation, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, intima-media thickness, echocardiographic parameters, lung ultrasound, bioimpedance spectroscopy and a series of novel biomarkers, the investigators will determine the long-term impact of this disease on CV and renal outcomes. Discussion: This study will address the challenges and implications in long-term CV sequeale of COVID-19 and focus on a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and possible therapeutic options. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05125913. Registered November 18, 2021.

4.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(4): 547-560, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580008

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients and dialysis patients constitute a risk group for severe COVID-19. They are highly advised to get vaccinated according to the current guidelines. However, data on antibody response, cell responses and protection from events, and factors that might alter this response after a routine full series of vaccination remain incomplete for these populations. The aim of this article was to analyze the antibody responses after a full series of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in kidney transplantation and dialysis patients and to define the factors that alter seroconversion status in these populations. In this systematic review, 18 studies investigating the antibody response to full vaccination with two doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplant patients were included. Kidney transplant and dialysis patients have a lower seroconversion rate after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination than the healthy population: 27.2% for kidney transplantation, 88.5% for dialysis patients while all healthy control in these studies seroconverted. Moreover, anti-S antibody titers were lower in seroconverted kidney transplantation or dialysis patients than in healthy control in all studies that assessed this variable. Older age and dialysis vintage, immunosuppressive or chemotherapy treatment, and lower serum albumin, white blood cell, lymphocyte and hemoglobin counts were associated with lower/no antibody response to vaccination. Dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients have lower seroconversion rates after a full series of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination than the general population. Several factors are associated with an altered antibody response. A third dose could be considered in this patient group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 36(11): 2094-2105, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has exposed haemodialysis (HD) patients and kidney transplant (KT) recipients to an unprecedented life-threatening infectious disease, raising concerns about kidney replacement therapy (KRT) strategy during the pandemic. This study investigated the association of the type of KRT with COVID-19 severity, adjusting for differences in individual characteristics. METHODS: Data on KT recipients and HD patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 1 February 2020 and 1 December 2020 were retrieved from the European Renal Association COVID-19 Database. Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, frailty and comorbidities were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for 28-day mortality risk in all patients and in the subsets that were tested because of symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 1670 patients (496 functional KT and 1174 HD) were included; 16.9% of KT and 23.9% of HD patients died within 28 days of presentation. The unadjusted 28-day mortality risk was 33% lower in KT recipients compared with HD patients {HR 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.85]}. In a fully adjusted model, the risk was 78% higher in KT recipients [HR 1.78 (95% CI 1.22-2.61)] compared with HD patients. This association was similar in patients tested because of symptoms [fully adjusted model HR 2.00 (95% CI 1.31-3.06)]. This risk was dramatically increased during the first post-transplant year. Results were similar for other endpoints (e.g. hospitalization, intensive care unit admission and mortality >28 days) and across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: KT recipients had a greater risk of a more severe course of COVID-19 compared with HD patients, therefore they require specific infection mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Registries , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
7.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 54(5): 1097-1104, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients is associated with poor prognosis. However, the incidence, risk factors and potential outcomes of AKI in hospitalized patients are not well studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in two major university hospitals. Electronic health records of the patients, 18 years or older, hospitalized between 13 April and 1 June 2020 with confirmed COVID-19 were reviewed. We described the incidence and the risk factors for AKI development in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of AKI on the length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, the admission rates to ICU, the percentage of patients with cytokine storm and in-hospital mortality rate. RESULTS: Among 770 hospitalized patients included in this study, 92 (11.9%) patients developed AKI. The length of hospitalized days (16 vs 9.9, p < 0.001) and days spent in the hospital until ICU admission (3.5 vs. 2.5, p = 0.003) were higher in the AKI group compared to patients without AKI. In addition, ICU admission rates were also significantly higher in patients with AKI (63% vs. 20.7%, p < 0.001). The percentage of patients with AKI who developed cytokine storm was significantly higher than patients without AKI (25.9% vs. 14%, p = 0.009). Furthermore, the in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with AKI (47.2% vs. 4.7%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: AKI is common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we show that AKI increases the admission rates to ICU and in-hospital mortality. Our findings suggest that AKI should be effectively managed to prevent the adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(7): 1061-1072, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is concern about potential deleterious effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients with kidney failure, who often use ACEis/ARBs, are at higher risk of more severe COVID-19. However, there are no data available on the association of ACEi/ARB use with COVID-19 severity in this population. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: From the European Renal Association COVID-19 database (ERACODA), we retrieved data on kidney transplant recipients and patients on dialysis who were affected by COVID-19, between February 1 and October 1, 2020, and had information on 28-day mortality. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios for the association between ACEi/ARB use and 28-day mortality risk. Additionally, we studied the association of discontinuation of these agents with 28-day mortality. RESULTS: We evaluated 1511 patients: 459 kidney transplant recipients and 1052 patients on dialysis. At diagnosis of COVID-19, 189 (41%) of the transplant recipients and 288 (27%) of the patients on dialysis were on ACEis/ARBs. A total of 88 (19%) transplant recipients and 244 (23%) patients on dialysis died within 28 days of initial presentation. In both groups of patients, there was no association between ACEi/ARB use and 28-day mortality in both crude and adjusted models (in transplant recipients, adjusted hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.69 to 1.83; in patients on dialysis, adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.47). Among transplant recipients, ACEi/ARB discontinuation was associated with a higher mortality risk after adjustment for demographics and comorbidities, but the association was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for severity of COVID-19 (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.40 to 4.58). Among patients on dialysis, ACEi/ARB discontinuation was not associated with mortality in any model. We obtained similar results across subgroups when ACEis and ARBs were studied separately, and when other outcomes for severity of COVID-19 were studied, e.g., hospital admission, admission to the intensive care unit, or need for ventilator support. CONCLUSIONS: Among kidney transplant recipients and patients on dialysis with COVID-19, there was no significant association of ACEi/ARB use or discontinuation with mortality.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Renal Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models
9.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 389, 2021 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults at a higher risk of adverse outcomes and mortality if they get infected with Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2). These undesired outcomes are because ageing is associated with other conditions like multimorbidity, frailty and disability. This paper describes the impact of frailty on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) management and outcomes. We also try to point out the role of inflamm-ageing, immunosenescence and reduced microbiota diversity in developing a severe form of COVID-19 and a different response to COVID-19 vaccination among older frail adults. Additionally, we attempt to highlight the impact of frailty on intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes, and hence, the rationale behind using frailty as an exclusion criterion for critical care admission. Similarly, the importance of using a time-saving, validated, sensitive, and user-friendly tool for frailty screening in an acute setting as COVID-19 triage. We performed a narrative review. Publications from 1990 to March 2021 were identified by searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS. Based on this search, we have found that in older frail adults, many mechanisms contribute to the severity of COVID-19, particularly cytokine storm; those mechanisms include lower immunological capacity and status of ongoing chronic inflammation and reduced gut microbiota diversity. Higher degrees of frailty were associated with poor outcomes and higher mortality rates during and after ICU admission. Also, the response to COVID-19 vaccination among frail older adults might differ from the general population regarding effectiveness and side effects. Researches also had shown that there are many tools for identifying frailty in an acute setting that could be used in COVID-19 triage, and before ICU admission, the clinical frailty scale (CFS) was the most recommended tool. CONCLUSION: Older frail adults have a pre-existing immunopathological base that puts them at a higher risk of undesired outcomes and mortality due to COVID-19 and poor response to COVID-19 vaccination. Also, their admission in ICU should depend on their degree of frailty rather than their chronological age, which is better to be screened using the CFS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 36(11): 2094-2105, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has exposed haemodialysis (HD) patients and kidney transplant (KT) recipients to an unprecedented life-threatening infectious disease, raising concerns about kidney replacement therapy (KRT) strategy during the pandemic. This study investigated the association of the type of KRT with COVID-19 severity, adjusting for differences in individual characteristics. METHODS: Data on KT recipients and HD patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 1 February 2020 and 1 December 2020 were retrieved from the European Renal Association COVID-19 Database. Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, frailty and comorbidities were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for 28-day mortality risk in all patients and in the subsets that were tested because of symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 1670 patients (496 functional KT and 1174 HD) were included; 16.9% of KT and 23.9% of HD patients died within 28 days of presentation. The unadjusted 28-day mortality risk was 33% lower in KT recipients compared with HD patients {HR 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.85]}. In a fully adjusted model, the risk was 78% higher in KT recipients [HR 1.78 (95% CI 1.22-2.61)] compared with HD patients. This association was similar in patients tested because of symptoms [fully adjusted model HR 2.00 (95% CI 1.31-3.06)]. This risk was dramatically increased during the first post-transplant year. Results were similar for other endpoints (e.g. hospitalization, intensive care unit admission and mortality >28 days) and across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: KT recipients had a greater risk of a more severe course of COVID-19 compared with HD patients, therefore they require specific infection mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Registries , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
11.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(7): 1061-1072, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is concern about potential deleterious effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients with kidney failure, who often use ACEis/ARBs, are at higher risk of more severe COVID-19. However, there are no data available on the association of ACEi/ARB use with COVID-19 severity in this population. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: From the European Renal Association COVID-19 database (ERACODA), we retrieved data on kidney transplant recipients and patients on dialysis who were affected by COVID-19, between February 1 and October 1, 2020, and had information on 28-day mortality. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios for the association between ACEi/ARB use and 28-day mortality risk. Additionally, we studied the association of discontinuation of these agents with 28-day mortality. RESULTS: We evaluated 1511 patients: 459 kidney transplant recipients and 1052 patients on dialysis. At diagnosis of COVID-19, 189 (41%) of the transplant recipients and 288 (27%) of the patients on dialysis were on ACEis/ARBs. A total of 88 (19%) transplant recipients and 244 (23%) patients on dialysis died within 28 days of initial presentation. In both groups of patients, there was no association between ACEi/ARB use and 28-day mortality in both crude and adjusted models (in transplant recipients, adjusted hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.69 to 1.83; in patients on dialysis, adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.47). Among transplant recipients, ACEi/ARB discontinuation was associated with a higher mortality risk after adjustment for demographics and comorbidities, but the association was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for severity of COVID-19 (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.40 to 4.58). Among patients on dialysis, ACEi/ARB discontinuation was not associated with mortality in any model. We obtained similar results across subgroups when ACEis and ARBs were studied separately, and when other outcomes for severity of COVID-19 were studied, e.g., hospital admission, admission to the intensive care unit, or need for ventilator support. CONCLUSIONS: Among kidney transplant recipients and patients on dialysis with COVID-19, there was no significant association of ACEi/ARB use or discontinuation with mortality.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Renal Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models
13.
Applied Sciences ; 11(8):3482, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1186884

ABSTRACT

Early prognosis of severe disease and preventive actions hang around as the mainstay in managing the novel SARS-COV-2 outbreak due to the lack of robust therapeutic strategies. Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6 or KL-6/MUC1) is a relatively new discovered transmembrane mucoprotein that was shown to be a good predictor of disease severity in interstitial lung diseases (ILD). We aimed to systematically research the literature in order to assess the relationship between the KL-6 biomarker and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases from inception to 8 March 2021. After eligibility assessment, eight studies were finally included in the present systematic review. All included studies are observational and single-center. The data gathered suggests the importance of prognostic implications of KL-6 in COVID-19 as patients with a more severe disease had significantly higher levels of KL-6 at admission. Moreover, the KL-6 biomarker was associated with COVID-19 severity, lung lesion areas on computed tomography, pulmonary fibrosis, and coagulation disorders. The association with mortality is unclear and needs further research. More extensive trials are required to prove that facile, inexpensive, and good predictors of severe outcomes, such as KL-6, could be safely integrated into the clinical decision-making in patients with COVID-19.

14.
Arch Med Sci ; 17(2): 285-295, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145664

ABSTRACT

Since epidemiological arguments favouring self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic are widely recommended, the consequences of social isolation/loneliness of older people considered to be at higher risk for severe illness are neglected. We identified and described medical, social, psychological, and religious issues, indirectly generated by the COVID-19 lockdown. Mortality induced by SARS-CoV-2 and death from other "neglected" issues were put in balance. Arguments for strict lockdown from most European countries are compared with a relaxed approach, as has been applied in Sweden. Social isolation affects disproportionally the elderly, transforming it into a public health concern. One witnesses openly ageist discourse, while painful decisions to prioritising ventilation for younger patients deepens the sense of hopelessness. Fear has led to anxiety disorders and depression. Various religious practices provide resources for coping with isolation/overcoming loneliness. Higher levels of mortality/morbidity due to "COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19" polarisation oblige the healthcare community to find ways to provide proper care for its elders.

15.
J Nephrol ; 34(2): 365-368, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120210

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in major disruption to the delivery of both routine and urgent healthcare needs in many institutions across the globe. Vascular access (VA) for haemodalysis (HD) is considered the patient's lifeline and its maintenance is essential for the continuation of a life saving treatment. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the provision of VA for dialysis was already constrained. Throughout the pandemic, inevitably, many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not received timely intervention for VA care. This could have a detrimental impact on dialysis patient outcomes in the near future and needs to be addressed urgently. Many societies have issued prioritisation to allow rationing based on clinical risk, mainly according to estimated urgency and need for treatment. The recommendations recently proposed by the European and American Vascular Societies in the COVID-19 pandemic era regarding the triage of various vascular operations into urgent, emergent and elective are debatable. VA creation and interventions maintain the lifeline of complex HD patients, and the indication for surgery and other interventions warrants patient-specific clinical judgement and pathways. Keeping the use of central venous catheters at a minimum, with the goal of creating the right access, in the right patient, at the right time, and for the right reasons, is mandatory. These strategies may require local modifications. Risk assessments may need specific "renal pathways" to be developed rather than applying standard surgical risk stratification. In conclusion, in order to recover from the second wave of COVID-19 and prepare for further phases, the provision of the best dialysis access, including peritoneal dialysis, will require working closely with the multidisciplinary team involved in the assessment, creation, cannulation, surveillance, maintenance, and salvage of definitive access.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/standards , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/trends , Comorbidity , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/trends , Risk Assessment
16.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(4): 509-516, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060432

ABSTRACT

The issue of the COVID-19 pandemic occupies the agenda of the whole world. The pivot of this pandemic is a crucial element that has become almost as important as the virus itself, namely the lockdown. Although, the rationale for lockdown is well-sustained by strong epidemiological arguments, exploring the 'other' unwanted consequences of the contemporary COVID-19 pandemic is mandatory for coagulating a robust agreed position against the numerous problems generated by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Starting from the rationale of the lockdown, in this paper we explored and exposed the other consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic measures such as the use or abuse of human rights and freedom restrictions, economic issues, marginalized groups and eclipse of all other diseases. Our scientific attempt is to coagulate a stable position and integrate current opposing views by advancing the idea that rather than applying the uniform lockdown policy, one could recommend instead an improved model targeting more strict and more prolonged lockdowns to vulnerable risk/age groups while enabling less stringent measures for the lower-risk groups, minimizing both economic losses and deaths. Rigorous (and also governed by freedom) debating may be able to synchronize the opposed perspectives between those advocating an extreme lockdown (e.g., most of the epidemiologists and health experts), and those criticizing all restrictive measures (e.g., economists and human rights experts). Confronting the multiple facets of the public health mitigation measures is the only way to avoid contributing to history with yet another failure, as seen in other past epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Policy , Human Rights , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Pandemics/legislation & jurisprudence
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(12)2020 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034748

ABSTRACT

Coinfection with both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses seems to be a real and severe problem. However, coinfection is far from a simple matter, and cannot be considered having more unfavorable outcomes as a direct consequence. In reality, the aftermath is powerfully nuanced by the presence of risk factors and specific molecular mechanisms. Our objective was to raise awareness around the unpredictable association between COVID-19 pandemics and the upcoming flu season, and make arguments about the need to develop new routine testing protocols for both viruses, at least during the period with an expected high incidence. Our reasoning is built around the various impacts that the whole range of risk groups, common immunological mechanisms, and complex interactions, such as influenza vaccination, will have on patients' prognosis. We show that the more flawed clinical course is due to managing only one of the infections (and, subsequently, neglecting the other condition).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Coinfection/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
18.
Medicina ; 56(12):707, 2020.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-984162

ABSTRACT

Coinfection with both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses seems to be a real and severe problem. However, coinfection is far from a simple matter, and cannot be considered having more unfavorable outcomes as a direct consequence. In reality, the aftermath is powerfully nuanced by the presence of risk factors and specific molecular mechanisms. Our objective was to raise awareness around the unpredictable association between COVID-19 pandemics and the upcoming flu season, and make arguments about the need to develop new routine testing protocols for both viruses, at least during the period with an expected high incidence. Our reasoning is built around the various impacts that the whole range of risk groups, common immunological mechanisms, and complex interactions, such as influenza vaccination, will have on patients’prognosis. We show that the more flawed clinical course is due to managing only one of the infections (and, subsequently, neglecting the other condition).

19.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(11): 1973-1983, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients on kidney replacement therapy comprise a vulnerable population and may be at increased risk of death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, only limited data are available on outcomes in this patient population. METHODS: We set up the ERACODA (European Renal Association COVID-19 Database) database, which is specifically designed to prospectively collect detailed data on kidney transplant and dialysis patients with COVID-19. For this analysis, patients were included who presented between 1 February and 1 May 2020 and had complete information available on the primary outcome parameter, 28-day mortality. RESULTS: Of the 1073 patients enrolled, 305 (28%) were kidney transplant and 768 (72%) dialysis patients with a mean age of 60 ± 13 and 67 ± 14 years, respectively. The 28-day probability of death was 21.3% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 14.3-30.2%] in kidney transplant and 25.0% (95% CI 20.2-30.0%) in dialysis patients. Mortality was primarily associated with advanced age in kidney transplant patients, and with age and frailty in dialysis patients. After adjusting for sex, age and frailty, in-hospital mortality did not significantly differ between transplant and dialysis patients [hazard ratio (HR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.59-1.10, P = 0.18]. In the subset of dialysis patients who were a candidate for transplantation (n = 148), 8 patients died within 28 days, as compared with 7 deaths in 23 patients who underwent a kidney transplantation <1 year before presentation (HR adjusted for sex, age and frailty 0.20, 95% CI 0.07-0.56, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The 28-day case-fatality rate is high in patients on kidney replacement therapy with COVID-19 and is primarily driven by the risk factors age and frailty. Furthermore, in the first year after kidney transplantation, patients may be at increased risk of COVID-19-related mortality as compared with dialysis patients on the waiting list for transplantation. This information is important in guiding clinical decision-making, and for informing the public and healthcare authorities on the COVID-19-related mortality risk in kidney transplant and dialysis patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Databases, Factual , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Renal Dialysis/mortality , Waiting Lists/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/chemically induced , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate
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