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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(19)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066189

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effects of frailty and the perceived quality of life (QOL) on the long-term survival (at least 1 year) of patients ≥ 80 years hospitalized for COVID-19 and the predictors of frailty and QOL deterioration in survivors. Design: This is a single-center, prospective observational cohort study. Setting and Participants: The study was conducted in a teaching hospital and enrolled all COVID-19 patients ≥80 years old consecutively hospitalized between April 2020 and March 2021. Methods: Clinical variables assessed in the Emergency Department (ED), and during hospitalization, were evaluated for association with all-cause death at a follow-up. Frailty was assessed by the clinical frailty scale (CFS), and the QOL was assessed by the five-level EuroQol EQ-5d tool. Multivariate Cox regression analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent factors for poor outcomes. Results: A total of 368 patients aged ≥80 years survived the index hospitalization (age 85 years [interquartile range 82-89]; males 163 (44.3%)). Compared to non-frail patients (CFS 1-3), patients with CFS 4-6 and patients with CFS 7-9 had an increased risk of death (hazard ratio 6.75 [1.51, 30.2] and HR 3.55 [2.20, 5.78], respectively). In patients alive at the 1-year follow-up, the baseline QOL was an independent predictor of an increase in frailty (OR 1.12 [1.01, 1.24]). Male sex was associated with lower odds of QOL worsening (OR 0.61 [0.35, 1.07]). Conclusions and Implications: In older adults ≥80 years hospitalized for COVID-19, the frailty assessment by the CFS could effectively stratify the risk of long-term death after discharge. In survivors, the hospitalization could produce a long-term worsening in frailty, particularly in patients with a pre-existing reduced baseline QOL. A long-term reduction in the perceived QOL is frequent in ≥80 survivors, and the effect appears more pronounced in female patients.

2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928516

ABSTRACT

Chest pain and dyspnea are common symptoms in patients presenting to the emergency room (ER); oftentimes it is not possible to clearly identify the underlying cause, which may cause the patient to have to return to the ER. In other cases, while it is possible to identify the underlying cause, it is necessary to perform a large number of tests before being able to make a diagnosis. Over the last twenty years, emergency medicine physicians have had the possibility of using ultrasound to help them make and rule out diagnoses. Specific ultrasound tests have been designed to evaluate patients presenting with specific symptoms to ensure a fast, yet complete, evaluation. In this paper, we examine the role of ultrasound in helping physicians understand the etiology behind chest pain and dyspnea. We analyze the different diseases and disorders which may cause chest pain and dyspnea as symptoms and discuss the corresponding ultrasound findings.

4.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 8: 23337214221079956, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794045

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS CoV-2 pandemic still generates a very high number of affected patients and a significant mortality rate. It is essential to establish objective criteria to stratify COVID-19 death risk. Frailty has been identified as a potential determinant of increased vulnerability in older adults affected by COVID-19, because it may suggest alterations of physical performance and functional autonomy. Methods: We have conducted a narrative review of the literature on the evidences regarding COVID-19 and the frailty condition. Thirteen observational studies were included. Conclusion: Data emerging from the studies indicate that older COVID-19 patients with a frailty condition have an increased risk of mortality compared with non-frail patients, and this association is independent of other clinical and demographic factors. A frailty evaluation is required to help clinicians to better stratify the overall risk of death for older patients with COVID-19.

5.
J Clin Med ; 11(8)2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785784

ABSTRACT

2020 will be remembered worldwide as the year of COVID-19 outbreak. The onset of this pandemic abruptly changed everybody's life and, in a particular manner, doctors' lives. Our hand surgery department became rapidly one of the first COVID-19-specialized wards in Italy, impacting considerably the authors' routines and activities. In this paper, the authors focus on how the demographics of patients with hand trauma changed and how they had to modify their activity. The authors retrospectively took into consideration all patients reaching their emergency department (ED) with hand trauma between 9 March 2020 (the day of the beginning of the first lockdown in Italy) and 8 March 2021 and compared them to those who reached the ED in the three previous years. Authors have analyzed the number of patients, their gender and age, the severity of their trauma, where the trauma occurred, the type of lesion, the percentage of patients who underwent surgery, and the percentage of patients who had an emergency admission. In the last year, the number of patients reaching the ED for a hand trauma has been reduced by two thirds (975 patients during the past year), the mean age of those patients has slightly increased, the severity of cases has increased, places of trauma and type of lesions have changed, and, lastly, the percentage of patients needing surgery who were admitted immediately has increased. This paper shows how the type of patients reaching the ED changed and discusses how surgeons evolved and modified their habits in treating those patients during the first lockdown and the year that followed.

6.
Biomedicines ; 10(4)2022 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776130

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has raised concerns in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), not only due to consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 itself but also as a possible cause of IBD relapse. The main objective of this study was to assess the role of SARS-CoV-2 in IBD clinical recurrence in a cohort of patients undergoing biological therapy. Second, we evaluated the difference in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels between the start and end of the follow-up period (ΔCRP) and the rate of biological therapy discontinuation. Patients with IBD positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with non-infected patients. IBD recurrence was defined as the need for intensification of current therapy. We enrolled 95 IBD patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 190 non-infected patients. During follow-up, 11 of 95 (11.6%) SARS-CoV-2-infected patients experienced disease recurrence compared to 21 of 190 (11.3%) in the control group (p = 0.894). Forty-six (48.4%) SARS-CoV-2-infected patients discontinued biological therapy versus seven (3.7%) in the control group (p < 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, biological agent discontinuation (p = 0.033) and ΔCRP (p = 0.017), but not SARS-CoV-2 infection (p = 0.298), were associated with IBD recurrence. SARS-CoV-2 infection was not associated with increased IBD recurrence rates in this cohort of patients treated with biological agents.

7.
Gerontology & geriatric medicine ; 8, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733377

ABSTRACT

Introduction The SARS CoV-2 pandemic still generates a very high number of affected patients and a significant mortality rate. It is essential to establish objective criteria to stratify COVID-19 death risk. Frailty has been identified as a potential determinant of increased vulnerability in older adults affected by COVID-19, because it may suggest alterations of physical performance and functional autonomy. Methods We have conducted a narrative review of the literature on the evidences regarding COVID-19 and the frailty condition. Thirteen observational studies were included. Conclusion Data emerging from the studies indicate that older COVID-19 patients with a frailty condition have an increased risk of mortality compared with non-frail patients, and this association is independent of other clinical and demographic factors. A frailty evaluation is required to help clinicians to better stratify the overall risk of death for older patients with COVID-19.

8.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(5): 1167-1172, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694659

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute wheezing is a common clinical presentation of viral respiratory infections in children, which can also be caused by exposure to allergens and, rarely, by foreign body inhalation. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) outbreak, several public health interventions have been adopted to reduce viral spread. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures on Pediatric Emergency Department (ED) admission for acute wheezing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared demographics and clinical data of patients admitted to the ED for acute wheezing during the COVID-19 outbreak and in the 5 previous years through a retrospective cross-sectional study. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 outbreak we observed an average drop of 83% in pediatric ED admission for acute wheezing, compared to the 5 previous years. In this period, 121 (80.7%) children presented with wheezing and 29 (19.3%) with bronchiolitis. The mean age of the sample was higher compared to the 5 previous years. We also noted an increased number of children presenting with higher acuity color codes during the COVID-19 period, while no differences emerged as for the hospitalizations. During the pandemic we recorded a decrease in the number of viral infections detected. Only two cases of wheezing associated with SARS-CoV-2 were identified. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 outbreak and the national lockdown led to a drop of the number of admission to the ED for wheezing in children. This could be due to a reduction in the circulation of common respiratory viruses and partially to a reduced exposure to aeroallergens during the COVID-19 period. Future epidemiological surveillance studies will be needed to support these prelimianry findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Dec 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572559

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has been shaking lives around the world for nearly two years. The discovery of highly effective vaccines has not been able to stop the transmission of the virus. SARS-CoV-2 shows completely different clinical manifestations. A large percentage (about 40%) of admitted patients require treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU). This study investigates the factors associated with admission of COVID-19 patients to the ICU and whether it is possible to obtain a score that can help the emergency physician to select the hospital ward. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively recorded 313 consecutive patients who were presented to the emergency department (ED) of our hospital and had a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on an oropharyngeal swab. We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate demographic, clinical, and laboratory data statistically associated with ICU admission. These variables were used to create a prognostic score for ICU admission. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) of the score for predicting ICU admission during hospitalization were calculated. Results: Of the variables evaluated, only blood type A (p = 0.003), PaO2/FiO2 (p = 0.002), LDH (p = 0.004), lactate (p = 0.03), dyspnea (p = 0.03) and SpO2 (p = 0.0228) were significantly associated with ICU admission after adjusting for sex, age and comorbidity using multiple logistic regression analysis. We used these variables to create a prognostic score called GOL2DS (group A, PaO2/FiO2, LDH, lactate and dyspnea, and SpO2), which had high accuracy in predicting ICU admission (AUROC 0.830 [95% CI, 0.791-0.892). Conclusions: In our single-center experience, the GOL2DS score could be useful in identifying patients at high risk for ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(8): 2335-2343, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 experienced an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. AIMS: To evaluate the effect of chronic oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy, both with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), on prognosis of COVID-19 older patients. METHODS: Single-center prospective study conducted in the Emergency Department (ED) of a teaching hospital, referral center for COVID-19 in central Italy. We evaluated all the patients ≥ 65 years, consecutively admitted to our ED for confirmed COVID-19. We compared the clinical outcome of those who were on chronic OAC at ED admission with those who did not, using a propensity score matched paired cohort of controls. The primary study endpoint was all-cause in-hospital death. Patients were matched for age, sex, clinical comorbidities, and clinical severity at presentation (based on NEWS ≥ 6). Study parameters were assessed for association to all-cause in-hospital death by a multivariate Cox regression analysis to identify independent risk factor for survival. RESULTS: Although overall mortality was slightly higher for anticoagulated patients compared to controls (63.3% vs 43.5%, p = 0.012), the multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death was not significant (HR = 1.56 [0.78-3.12]; p = 0.208). Both DOACs (HR 1.46 [0.73-2.92]; p = 0.283) and VKAs (HR 1.14 [0.48-2.73]; p = 0.761) alone did not affect overall survival in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Among older patients hospitalized for COVID-19, chronic OAC therapy was not associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital death. Moreover, our data suggest similar outcome both for patients on VKAs or in patients on DOACs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin K
11.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A prothrombotic state, attributable to excessive inflammation, cytokine storm, hypoxia, and immobilization, is a feature of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Up to 30% of patients with severe COVID-19 remain at high risk of thromboembolic events despite anticoagulant administration, with adverse impact on in-hospital prognosis. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 4742 patients with acute infectious respiratory disease (AIRD); 2579 were diagnosed to have COVID-19 and treated with heparin, whereas 2163 had other causes of AIRD. We compared the incidence and predictors of total, arterial, and venous thrombosis, both in the whole population and in a propensity score-matched subpopulation of 3036 patients (1518 in each group). RESULTS: 271 thrombotic events occurred in the whole population: 121 (4.7%) in the COVID-19 group and 150 (6.9%) in the no-COVID-19 group (p < 0.001). No differences in the incidence of total (p = 0.11), arterial (p = 0.26), and venous (p = 0.38) thrombosis were found between the two groups after adjustment for confounding clinical variables and in the propensity score-matched subpopulation. Likewise, there were no significant differences in bleeding rates between the two groups. Clinical predictors of arterial thrombosis included age (p = 0.006), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.034), peripheral artery disease (p < 0.001), and previous stroke (p < 0.001), whereas history of solid cancer (p < 0.001) and previous deep vein thrombosis (p = 0.007) were associated with higher incidence of venous thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 treated with heparin do not seem to show significant differences in the cumulative incidence of thromboembolic events as well as in the incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis separately, compared with AIRD patients with different etiological diagnosis.

12.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430772

ABSTRACT

Myopericarditis is an inflammatory heart condition involving the pericardium and myocardium. It can lead to heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia and sudden death. Its pathogenesis is mainly mediated by viral infections but also can be induced by bacterial infections, toxic substances and immune mediated disorders. All these conditions can produce severe inflammation and myocardial injury, often associated with a poor prognosis. The specific roles of these different pathogens (in particular viruses), the interaction with the host, the interplay with gut microbiota, and the immune system responses to them are still not completely clear and under investigation. Interestingly, some research has demonstrated the contribution of the gut microbiota, and its related metabolites (some of which can mimic the cardiac myosin), in cardiac inflammation and in the progression of this disease. They can stimulate a continuous and inadequate immune response, with a subsequent myocardial inflammatory damage. The aim of our review is to investigate the role of gut microbiota in myopericarditis, especially for the cardiovascular implications of COVID-19 viral infection, based on the idea that the modulation of gut microbiota can be a new frontier in the cardiological field to prevent or treat inflammatory cardiomyopathies.

13.
Europace ; 23(1): 123-129, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387869

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The main severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are pneumonia and respiratory distress syndrome. Recent studies, however, reported that cardiac injury, as assessed by troponin levels, is associated with a worse outcome in these patients. No study hitherto assessed whether the simple standard electrocardiogram (ECG) may be helpful for risk stratification in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 324 consecutive patients admitted to our Emergency Department with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Standard 12-lead ECG recorded on admission was assessed for cardiac rhythm and rate, atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction, abnormal Q/QS wave, ST segment and T wave changes, corrected QT interval, and tachyarrhythmias. At a mean follow-up of 31 ± 11 days, 44 deaths occurred (13.6%). Most ECG variables were significantly associated with mortality, including atrial fibrillation (P = 0.002), increasing heart rate (P = 0.002), presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB; P < 0.001), QRS duration (P <0 .001), a QRS duration of ≥110 ms (P < 0.001), ST segment depression (P < 0.001), abnormal Q/QS wave (P = 0.034), premature ventricular complexes (PVCs; P = 0.051), and presence of any ECG abnormality [hazard ratio (HR) 4.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.40-8.76; P < 0.001]. At multivariable analysis, QRS duration (P = 0.002), QRS duration ≥110 ms (P = 0.03), LBBB (P = 0.014) and presence of any ECG abnormality (P = 0.04) maintained a significant independent association with mortality. CONCLUSION: Our data show that standard ECG can be helpful for an initial risk stratification of patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2 infectious disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Rate , Action Potentials , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
14.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(9): 1845-1852.e1, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345368

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in a cohort of adults aged ≥80 years, the overlapping effect of clinical severity, comorbidities, cognitive impairment, and frailty, for the in-hospital death risk stratification of COVID-19 older patients since emergency department (ED) admission. DESIGN: Single-center prospective observational cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted in the ED of a teaching hospital that is a referral center for COVID-19 in central Italy. We enrolled all patients with aged ≥80 years old consecutively admitted to the ED between April 2020 and March 2021. METHODS: Clinical variables assessed in the ED were evaluated for the association with all-cause in-hospital death. Evaluated parameters were severity of disease, frailty, comorbidities, cognitive impairment, delirium, and dependency in daily life activities. Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for poor outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 729 patients aged ≥80 years were enrolled [median age 85 years (interquartile range 82-89); 346 were males (47.3%)]. According to the Clinical Frailty Scale, 61 (8.4%) were classified as fit, 417 (57.2%) as vulnerable, and 251 (34.4%) as frail. Severe disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-2.59], ≥3 comorbidities (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.11-2.13), male sex (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.14-1.87), and frailty (HR 6.93, 95% CI 1.69-28.27) for vulnerable and an overall HR of 12.55 (95% CI 2.96-53.21) for frail were independent risk factors for in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The ED approach to older patients with COVID-19 should take into account the functional and clinical characteristics of patients being admitted. A sole evaluation based on the clinical severity and the presence of comorbidities does not reflect the complexity of this population. A comprehensive evaluation based on clinical severity, multimorbidity, and frailty could effectively predict the clinical risk of in-hospital death for patients with COVID-19 aged ≥80 years at the time of ED presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Adult , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(8): 2484-2488, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219130

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on pediatric emergency department (ED) visits for acute bronchiolitis during the epidemic season. METHODS: A retrospective analytical cross-sectional study was performed in our hospital, analyzing medical charts of all children under 2 years of age with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis admitted to our ED in the last years. Demographics and clinical data of patients affected with acute bronchiolitis during the 2020-2021 season-COVID-19 outbreak-were compared to those of the 5 previous years. RESULTS: We observed an average drop of 84% of the rate of acute bronchiolitis managed by pediatricians in ED in 2020-2021 compared with bronchiolitis seasons of 5 previous years. We also reported, during the COVID-19 outbreak, a higher number of children affected by acute bronchiolitis referred to ED as Emergency Consultations who required hospitalization. Regarding etiological agents, no differences in respiratory virus circulation, especially RSV, were observed in the two groups. The multivariate analysis showed no correlation between the diagnosis of RSV bronchiolitis and COVID-19 period or prematurity; lower age was associated with an increased likelihood of exhibiting RSV bronchiolitis (odds ratio 0.9; 95% confidence interval 0.86-0.95 p < .01). CONCLUSION: Our data emphasize the reduction in the rate of admission to pediatric ED for acute bronchiolitis during the COVID-19 outbreak, regardless of changes in circulating respiratory viruses. Therefore we want to highlight the importance of nonpharmacological preventive hygiene measures that should be maintained even at the end of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis , COVID-19 , Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 75: 136-139, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210816

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. The impact of thrombotic complications has been increasingly recognized as an important component of this disease. CASE REPORTS: We describe four cases of spontaneous acute aortic thrombosis in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection observed from March to December 2020 at Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Gemelli IRCCS in Rome, Italy.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , Embolectomy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(7): 1849-1855, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141492

ABSTRACT

It has been proposed that vaccines may exert an unspecific protective effect against infectious agents, different than expected. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic infection with high mortality in older patients due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The high number of vaccinations may be one of the reasons why children show a lower susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and milder severity when compared to adults. We have designed a study aimed at investigating whether the influenza vaccine may reduce the susceptibility and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We retrospectively enrolled 635 patients who accessed our Emergency Department from March 1st to June 30th, 2020, and were diagnosed with COVID-19 infection confirmed by an RT-PCR on an oropharyngeal swab. Clinical data, outcomes, and influenza vaccination status were collected from the electronic medical records of our Hospital. We also used data from the Italian Health Ministry to compare the prevalence of flu vaccination among the general population of the Lazio Region and our enrolled patients. We then compared clinical outcomes between vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients, by univariate and multivariate analysis. COVID-19-positive patients older than 65 years reported a lower prevalence of flu vaccination when compared to the general population residing in the Lazio (p = 0.004). After correction for gender, age, and comorbidities, we found a lower risk of death at 60 days in patients with flu vaccination than in not vaccinated patients (p = 0.001). Our study shows that flu vaccination could reduce the mortality of COVID-19. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this result.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Prognosis
18.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 95: 104383, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101106

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To date, mainly due to age-related vulnerability and to coexisting comorbidities, older patients often face a more severe COVID-19. This study aimed to identify at Emergency Department (ED) admission the predictors of in-hospital mortality and suitable scores for death risk stratification among COVID-19 patients ≥ 80 years old. METHODS: Single-centre prospective study conducted in the ED of an university hospital, referral center for COVID-19 in central Italy. We included 239 consecutive patients ≥ 80 years old with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. The primary study endpoint was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed on significant variables at univariate analysis to identify independent risk factor for death. Overall performance in predicting mortality of WHO severity scale, APACHE II score, NEWS score, and CURB-65 was calculated. RESULTS: Median age was 85 [82-89] and 112 were males (46.9%). Globally, 77 patients (32.2%) deceased. The presence of consolidations at chest x-ray and the hypoxemic respiratory failure were significant predictors of poor prognosis. Moreover, age ≥ 85 years, dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), and dementia were risk factors for death, even after adjusting for clinical covariates and disease severity. All the evaluated scores showed a fairly good predictive value in identifying patients who could experience a worse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients ≥ 80 years old hospitalized with COVID-19, not only a worse clinical and radiological presentation of the disease, but also the increasing age, dementia, and impairment in ADL were strong risk factors for in-hospital death, regardless of disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Activities of Daily Living , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(1): 37-43, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Several scoring systems have been specifically developed for risk stratification in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: We compared, in a cohort of confirmed COVID-19 older patients, three specifically developed scores with a previously established early warning score. Main endpoint was all causes in-hospital death. SETTING: This is a single-center, retrospective observational study, conducted in the Emergency Department (ED) of an urban teaching hospital, referral center for COVID-19. PARTICIPANTS: We reviewed the clinical records of the confirmed COVID-19 patients aged 60 years or more consecutively admitted to our ED over a 6-week period (March 1st to April 15th, 2020). A total of 210 patients, aged between 60 and 98 years were included in the study cohort. MEASUREMENTS: International Severe Acute Respiratory Infection Consortium Clinical Characterization Protocol-Coronavirus Clinical Characterization Consortium (ISARIC-4C) score, COVID-GRAM Critical Illness Risk Score (COVID-GRAM), quick COVID-19 Severity Index (qCSI), National Early Warning Score (NEWS). RESULTS: Median age was 74 (67-82) and 133 (63.3%) were males. Globally, 42 patients (20.0%) deceased. All the score evaluated showed a fairly good predictive value with respect to in-hospital death. The ISARIC-4C score had the highest area under ROC curve (AUROC) 0.799 (0.738-0.851), followed by the COVID-GRAM 0.785 (0.723-0.838), NEWS 0.764 (0.700-0.819), and qCSI 0.749 (0.685-0.806). However, these differences were not statistical significant. CONCLUSION: Among the evaluated scores, the ISARIC-4C and the COVID-GRAM, calculated at ED admission, had the best performance, although the qCSI had similar efficacy by evaluating only three items. However, the NEWS, already widely validated in clinical practice, had a similar performance and could be appropriate for older patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
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