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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 850846, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775681

ABSTRACT

A relevant portion of patients with disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) experience negative outcome, and several laboratory tests have been proposed to predict disease severity. Among others, dramatic changes in peripheral blood cells have been described. We developed and validated a laboratory score solely based on blood cell parameters to predict survival in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We retrospectively analyzed 1,619 blood cell count from 226 consecutively hospitalized COVID-19 patients to select parameters for inclusion in a laboratory score predicting severity of disease and survival. The score was derived from lymphocyte- and granulocyte-associated parameters and validated on a separate cohort of 140 consecutive COVID-19 patients. Using ROC curve analysis, a best cutoff for score of 30.6 was derived, which was associated to an overall 82.0% sensitivity (95% CI: 78-84) and 82.5% specificity (95% CI: 80-84) for detecting outcome. The scoring trend effectively separated survivor and non-survivor groups, starting 2 weeks before the end of the hospitalization period. Patients' score time points were also classified into mild, moderate, severe, and critical according to the symptomatic oxygen therapy administered. Fluctuations of the score should be recorded to highlight a favorable or unfortunate trend of the disease. The predictive score was found to reflect and anticipate the disease gravity, defined by the type of the oxygen support used, giving a proof of its clinical relevance. It offers a fast and reliable tool for supporting clinical decisions and, most important, triage in terms of not only prioritization but also allocation of limited medical resources, especially in the period when therapies are still symptomatic and many are under development. In fact, a prolonged and progressive increase of the score can suggest impaired chances of survival and/or an urgent need for intensive care unit admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Oxygen , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311147

ABSTRACT

Background: To assess differences in the probability of COVID-19-related death between native Italians and immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19. Methods This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data conducted at the ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco Hospital in Milan, Italy, between 21 February and 31 November 2020. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the impact of the patients' origin on the probability of COVID-19-related death. Results The study population consisted of 1,179 COVID-19 patients: 921 Italians (78.1%) and 258 immigrants (21.9%) from Latin America (99, 38.4%), Asia (72, 27.9%), Africa (50, 19.4%) and central/eastern Europe (37, 14.3%). The Italians were older (p < 0.001) and more frequently affected by co-morbidities (p < 0.001). Mortality was significantly greater among the Italians than the immigrants as a whole (26.6% vs 12.8%;p < 0.001), and significantly greater among the immigrants from Latin America than among those from Asia, Africa and central/eastern Europe (21.2% vs 8.3%, 6% and 8.1%, respectively;p = 0.016). Multivariate analyses showed that a Latin American origin was independently associated with an increased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.17–3.23). Conclusions Our findings support the need to strengthen COVID-19 information and prevention initiatives in the Latin American community living in Milan.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 63, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To compare differences in the probability of COVID-19-related death between native Italians and immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study of prospectively collected data was conducted at the ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco Hospital in Milan, Italy, between 21 February and 31 November 2020. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the impact of the patients' origin on the probability of COVID-19-related death. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 1,179 COVID-19 patients: 921 Italians (78.1%) and 258 immigrants (21.9%) who came from Latin America (99, 38%), Asia (72, 28%), Africa (50, 19%) and central/eastern Europe (37, 14%). The Italians were significantly older than the immigrants (median age 70 years, interquartile range (IQR) 58-79 vs 51 years, IQR 41-60; p < 0.001), and more frequently had one or more co-morbidities (79.1% vs 53.9%; p < 0.001). Mortality was significantly greater among the Italians than the immigrants as a whole (26.6% vs 12.8%; p < 0.001), and significantly greater among the immigrants from Latin America than among those from Asia, Africa or central/eastern Europe (21% vs 8%, 6% and 8%; p = 0.016). Univariable analysis showed that the risk of COVID-19-related death was lower among the immigrants (hazard ratio [HR] 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.63; p < 0.0001], but the risk of Latin American immigrants did not significantly differ from that of the Italians (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.47-1.15; p = 0.183). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable analysis showed that there was no difference in the risk of death between the immigrants and the Italians (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.70-1.55; p = 0.831), but being of Latin American origin was independently associated with an increased risk of death (aHR 1.95, 95% CI 1.17-3.23; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was lower among the immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19 than among their Italian counterparts, but this difference disappeared after adjusting for confounders. However, the increased risk of death among immigrants of Latin American origin suggests that COVID-19 information and prevention initiatives need to be strengthened in this sub-population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Aged , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 793191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608200

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific antibody production and plasma neutralizing capacity against B.1 wild-type-like strain, and Gamma/P.1 and Delta/B.1.617.2 variants-of-concern, in subjects with different Covid-19 disease and vaccination histories. Methods: Adult subjects were: 1) Unvaccinated/hospitalized for Covid-19; 2) Covid-19-recovered followed by one BNT162b2 vaccine dose; and 3) Covid-19-naïve/2-dose BNT162b2 vaccinated. Multiplex Luminex® immunoassays measured IgG, IgA, and IgM plasma levels against SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), spike-1 (S), and nucleocapsid proteins. Neutralizing activity was determined in Vero E6 cytopathic assays. Results: Maximum anti-RBD IgG levels were similar in Covid-19­recovered individuals 8‒10 days after single-dose vaccination and in Covid-19-naïve subjects 7 days after 2nd vaccine dosing; both groups had ≈2­fold higher anti-RBD IgG levels than Unvaccinated/Covid-19 subjects tracked through 2 weeks post-symptom onset. Anti-S IgG expression patterns were similar to RBD within each group, but with lower signal strengths. Viral antigen-specific IgA and IgM levels were more variable than IgG patterns. Anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulins were not detected in Covid-19-naïve subjects. Neutralizing activity against the B.1 strain, and Gamma/P.1 and Delta/B.1.617.2 variants, was highest in Covid­19-recovered/single-dose vaccinated subjects; although neutralization against the Delta variant in this group was only 26% compared to B.1 neutralization, absolute anti-Delta titers suggested maintained protection. Neutralizing titers against the Gamma and Delta variants were 33‒77% and 26‒67%, respectively, versus neutralization against the B.1 strain (100%) in the three groups. Conclusion: These findings support SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine usefulness regardless of Covid-19 history, and confirm remarkable protection provided by a single vaccine dose in people who have recovered from Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells
5.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104931, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318940

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first European country hit by the COVID-19 pandemic and has the highest number of recorded COVID-19 deaths in Europe. This prospective cohort study of the correlates of the risk of death in COVID-19 patients was conducted at the Infectious Diseases and Intensive Care units of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy. The clinical characteristics of all the COVID-19 patients hospitalised in the early days of the epidemic (21 February -19 March 2020) were recorded upon admission, and the time-dependent probability of death was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method (censored as of 20 April 2020). Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the factors independently associated with the risk of death. Forty-eight (20.6 %) of the 233 patients followed up for a median of 40 days (interquartile range 33-47) died during the follow-up. Most were males (69.1 %) and their median age was 61 years (IQR 50-72). The time-dependent probability of death was 19.7 % (95 % CI 14.6-24.9 %) 30 days after hospital admission. Age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.08, 95 % CI 1.48-2.92 per ten years more) and obesity (aHR 3.04, 95 % CI 1.42-6.49) were independently associated with an increased risk of death, which was also associated with critical disease (aHR 8.26, 95 % CI 1.41-48.29), C-reactive protein levels (aHR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.02-1.35 per 50 mg/L more) and creatinine kinase levels above 185 U/L (aHR 2.58, 95 % CI 1.37-4.87) upon admission. Case-fatality rate of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the early days of the Italian epidemic was about 20 %. Our study adds evidence to the notion that older age, obesity and more advanced illness are factors associated to an increased risk of death among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Drugs Aging ; 37(12): 925-933, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalised with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19)] infection are frequently older with co-morbidities and receiving polypharmacy, all of which are known risk factors for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The pharmacological burden may be further aggravated by the addition of treatments for COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of potential DDIs upon admission and during hospitalisation in patients with COVID-19 treated at our hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 502 patients with COVID-19 (mean age 61 ± 16 years, range 15-99) treated at our hospital with a proven diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalised between 21 February and 30 April 2020 and treated with at least two drugs. RESULTS: Overall, 68% of our patients with COVID-19 were exposed to at least one potential DDI, and 55% were exposed to at least one potentially severe DDI. The proportion of patients experiencing potentially severe DDIs increased from 22% upon admission to 80% during hospitalisation. Furosemide, amiodarone and quetiapine were the main drivers of potentially severe DDIs upon admission, and hydroxychloroquine and particularly lopinavir/ritonavir were the main drivers during hospitalisation. The majority of potentially severe DDIs carried an increased risk of cardiotoxicity. No potentially severe DDIs were identified in relation to tocilizumab and remdesivir. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalised patients with COVID-19, concomitant treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine led to a dramatic increase in the number of potentially severe DDIs. Given the high risk of cardiotoxicity and the scant and conflicting data concerning their efficacy in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection, the use of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19 with polypharmacy needs to be carefully considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Interactions , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Polypharmacy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Young Adult
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