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1.
eBioMedicine ; 80:104048, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821212

ABSTRACT

Summary Background COVID-19 mRNA vaccines elicit strong T and B cell responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in both SARS-CoV-2 naïve and experienced patients. However, it is unknown whether the post-vaccine CD4+ T cell responses seen in patients with a history of COVID-19 are due to restimulation of T cell clonotypes that were first activated during natural infection or if they are the result of new clones activated by the vaccine. Methods To address this question, we analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein-specific CD4+ T cell receptor repertoire before and after vaccination in 10 COVID-19 convalescent patients and 4 SARS-CoV-2 naïve healthy donor vaccine recipients. We used the viral Functional Expansion of Specific T cells (ViraFEST) assay to quantitatively identify specific SARS-CoV-2 and common cold coronavirus CD4+ T cell clonotypes post COVID-19 disease resolution and post mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Findings We found that while some preexisting T cell receptor clonotypes persisted, the post-vaccine repertoire consisted mainly of vaccine-induced clones and was largely distinct from the repertoire induced by natural infection. Vaccination-induced clones led to an overall maintenance of the total number of SARS-CoV-2 reactive clonotypes over time through expansion of novel clonotypes only stimulated through vaccination. Additionally, we demonstrated that the vaccine preferentially induces T cells that are only specific for SARS-CoV-2 antigens, rather than T cells that cross-recognize SARS-CoV-2/common cold coronaviruses. Interpretation These data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a new antigen-specific repertoire and sheds light on the differential immune responses induced by vaccination versus natural infection. Funding Bloomberg∼Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, The Johns Hopkins University, The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, NCI U54CA260492, NIH.

2.
Transplantation ; 2022 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788574

ABSTRACT

Background: Humoral responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are attenuated in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), necessitating additional booster vaccinations. The Omicron variant demonstrates substantial immune evasion, and it is unknown whether additional vaccine doses increase neutralizing capacity versus this variant of concern (VOC) among SOTRs. Methods: Within an observational cohort, 25 SOTRs with low seroresponse underwent anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike and receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin (Ig)G testing using a commercially available multiplex ELISA before and after a fourth COVID-19 vaccine dose (D4). Surrogate neutralization (percent angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibition [%ACE2i], range 0%-100% with >20% correlating with live virus neutralization) was measured against full-length spike proteins of the vaccine strain and 5 VOCs including Delta and Omicron. Changes in IgG level and %ACE2i were compared using the paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Anti-receptor-binding domain and anti-spike seropositivity increased post-D4 from 56% to 84% and 68% to 88%, respectively. Median (interquartile range) anti-spike antibody significantly increased post-D4 from 42.3 (4.9-134.2) to 228.9 (1115.4-655.8) World Health Organization binding antibody units. %ACE2i (median [interquartile range]) also significantly increased against the vaccine strain (5.8% [0%-16.8%] to 20.6% [5.8%-45.9%]) and the Delta variant (9.1% [4.9%-12.8%] to 17.1% [10.3%-31.7%]), yet neutralization versus Omicron was poor, did not increase post-D4 (4.1% [0%-6.9%] to 0.5% [0%-5.7%]), and was significantly lower than boosted healthy controls. Conclusions: Although a fourth vaccine dose increases anti-spike IgG and neutralizing capacity against many VOCs, some SOTRs may remain at high risk for Omicron infection despite boosting. Thus, additional protective interventions or alternative vaccination strategies should be urgently explored.

3.
JCI Insight ; 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in vaccinated individuals have been previously associated with suboptimal humoral immunity. However, less is known about breakthrough infections with the Omicron variant. METHODS: We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody and cellular responses in healthy vaccine recipients who experienced breakthrough infections a median of 50 days after receiving a booster mRNA vaccine with an ACE2 binding inhibition assay and an ELISpot assay respectively. RESULTS: We found high levels of antibodies that inhibited vaccine strain spike protein binding to ACE2 but lower levels that inhibited Omicron variant spike protein binding to ACE2 in four boosted vaccine recipients prior to infection. The levels of antibodies that inhibited vaccine strain and Omicron spike protein binding after breakthrough in 18 boosted vaccine recipients were similar to levels seen in COVID-19 negative boosted vaccine recipients. In contrast, boosted vaccine recipients had significantly stronger T cells responses to both vaccine strain and Omicron variant spike proteins at the time of breakthrough. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that breakthrough infections with the Omicron variant can occur despite robust immune responses to the vaccine strain spike protein. FUNDING: This work was supported by the Johns Hopkins COVID-19 Vaccine-related Research Fund and by funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease intramural program as well as awards from the National Cancer Institute (U54CA260491) and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease (K08AI156021 and U01AI138897).

4.
JCI Insight ; 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Some clinical features of severe COVID-19 represent blood vessel damage induced by activation of host immune responses, initiated by the virus. We hypothesized that autoantibodies against angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor expressed on vascular endothelium, are generated during COVID-19, and are of mechanistic importance. METHODS: The study was done in an opportunity sample of 118 COVID-19 inpatients. Autoantibodies recognizing ACE2 were detected by ELISA. Binding properties of anti-ACE2 IgM from patients were analyzed via biolayer interferometry. The effects of anti-ACE2 IgM on complement activation and endothelial function were demonstrated in a tissue-engineered pulmonary microvessel model. RESULTS: Anti-ACE2 IgM (but not IgG) were associated with severe COVID-19, found in 18/66 (27.2%) patients with severe disease compared to 2/52 (3.8%) of patients with moderate disease (OR 9.38, 95% CI 2.38-42.0; p=0.0009, Fisher's exact test). Anti-ACE2 IgM were rare (2/50) in non-COVID-19 ventilated patients with ARDS. Unexpectedly, ACE2-reactive IgM in COVID-19 do not undergo class-switching to IgG, and have apparent KD values of 5.6-21.7nM, indicating that they are T-independent. Anti-ACE2 IgM activated complement and initiated complement-binding and functional changes in endothelial cells in microvessels, suggesting that they contribute to the angiocentric pathology of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our results identify anti-ACE2 IgM as a mechanism-based biomarker strongly associated with severe clinical outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which has therapeutic implications. We anticipate that additional IgM responses may identify other COVID-19 subgroups with severe disease, and potentially other serious pandemic illnesses.

5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(3): e0239021, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765077

ABSTRACT

Emergency departments (EDs) can serve as surveillance sites for infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and to monitor the prevalence of vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients attending an urban ED in Baltimore City. Using 1,914 samples of known exposure status, we developed an algorithm to differentiate previously infected, vaccinated, and unexposed individuals using a combination of antibody assays. We applied this testing algorithm to 4,360 samples from ED patients obtained in the spring of 2020 and 2021. Using multinomial logistic regression, we determined factors associated with infection and vaccination. For the algorithm, sensitivity and specificity for identifying vaccinated individuals were 100% and 99%, respectively, and 84% and 100% for previously infected individuals. Among the ED subjects, seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2 increased from 2% to 24% between April 2020 and March 2021. Vaccination prevalence rose to 11% by mid-March 2021. Marked differences in burden of disease and vaccination coverage were seen by sex, race, and ethnicity. Hispanic patients, though accounting for 7% of the study population, had the highest relative burden of disease (17% of total infections) but with similar vaccination rates. Women and white individuals were more likely to be vaccinated than men or Black individuals. Individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 can often be differentiated from vaccinated individuals using a serologic testing algorithm. The utility of this algorithm can aid in monitoring SARS-CoV-2 exposure and vaccination uptake frequencies and can potentially reflect gender, race, and ethnic health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Seroepidemiologic Studies
6.
Viral Immunol ; 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740747

ABSTRACT

Understanding the development and sustainability of the virus-specific protective immune response to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains incomplete with respect to the appearance and disappearance of virus-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in circulation. Therefore, we performed cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma collected from 55 hospitalized patients up to 4 months after onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Spike (S)- and nucleocapsid (N)-specific IgM and IgG ASCs appeared within 2 weeks accompanied by flow cytometry increases in double negative plasmablasts consistent with a rapid extrafollicular B cell response. Total and virus-specific IgM and IgG ASCs peaked at 3-4 weeks and were still being produced at 3-4 months accompanied by increasing antibody avidity consistent with a slower germinal center B cell response. N-specific ASCs were produced for longer than S-specific ASCs and avidity maturation was greater for antibody to N than S. Patients with more severe disease produced more S-specific IgM and IgG ASCs than those with mild disease and had higher levels of N- and S-specific antibody. Women had more B cells in circulation than men and produced more S-specific IgA and IgG and N-specific IgG ASCs. Flow cytometry analysis of B cell phenotypes showed an increase in circulating B cells at 4-6 weeks with decreased percentages of switched and unswitched memory B cells. These data indicate ongoing antigen-specific stimulation, maturation, and production of ASCs for several months after onset of symptoms in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1268-1270, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699639

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that certain vaccines induce suboptimal responses in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, PLWH). However, responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have not been fully characterized in these patients. Here we show that the BNT162b2 vaccine induces robust immune responses comparable to responses in healthy donors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 254-262, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several inflammatory cytokines are upregulated in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared cytokines in COVID-19 versus influenza to define differentiating features of the inflammatory response to these pathogens and their association with severe disease. Because elevated body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for severe COVID-19, we examined the relationship of BMI to cytokines associated with severe disease. METHODS: Thirty-seven cytokines and chemokines were measured in plasma from 135 patients with COVID-19, 57 patients with influenza, and 30 healthy controls. Controlling for BMI, age, and sex, differences in cytokines between groups were determined by linear regression and random forest prediction was used to determine the cytokines most important in distinguishing severe COVID-19 and influenza. Mediation analysis was used to identify cytokines that mediate the effect of BMI and age on disease severity. RESULTS: Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly increased in COVID-19 versus influenza patients, whereas granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IFN-λ1, IL-10, IL-15, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 were significantly elevated in the influenza group. In subgroup analysis based on disease severity, IL-18, IL-6, and TNF-α were elevated in severe COVID-19, but not in severe influenza. Random forest analysis identified high IL-6 and low IFN-λ1 levels as the most distinct between severe COVID-19 and severe influenza. Finally, IL-1RA was identified as a potential mediator of the effects of BMI on COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to activation of fundamentally different innate immune pathways in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and influenza infection, and emphasize drivers of severe COVID-19 to focus both mechanistic and therapeutic investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Chemokines , Cytokines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JCI Insight ; 7(5)2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662370

ABSTRACT

Benchmarks for protective immunity from infection or severe disease after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are still being defined. Here, we characterized virus neutralizing and ELISA antibody levels, cellular immune responses, and viral variants in 4 separate groups: healthy controls (HCs) weeks (early) or months (late) following vaccination in comparison with symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 after partial or full mRNA vaccination. During the period of the study, most symptomatic breakthrough infections were caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant. Neutralizing antibody levels in the HCs were sustained over time against the vaccine parent virus but decreased against the Alpha variant, whereas IgG titers and T cell responses against the parent virus and Alpha variant declined over time. Both partially and fully vaccinated patients with symptomatic infections had lower virus neutralizing antibody levels against the parent virus than the HCs, similar IgG antibody titers, and similar virus-specific T cell responses measured by IFN-γ. Compared with HCs, neutralization activity against the Alpha variant was lower in the partially vaccinated infected patients and tended to be lower in the fully vaccinated infected patients. In this cohort of breakthrough infections, parent virus neutralization was the superior predictor of breakthrough infections with the Alpha variant of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Am J Transplant ; 22(4): 1253-1260, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583700

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses are attenuated in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) and breakthrough infections are more common. Additional SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses increase anti-spike IgG in some SOTRs, but it is uncertain whether neutralization of variants of concern (VOCs) is enhanced. We tested 47 SOTRs for clinical and research anti-spike IgG, pseudoneutralization (ACE2 blocking), and live-virus neutralization (nAb) against VOCs before and after a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose (70% mRNA, 30% Ad26.COV2.S) with comparison to 15 healthy controls after two mRNA vaccine doses. We used correlation analysis to compare anti-spike IgG assays and focused on thresholds associated with neutralization. A third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose increased median total anti-spike (1.6-fold), pseudoneutralization against VOCs (2.5-fold vs. Delta), and neutralizing antibodies (1.4-fold against Delta). However, neutralization activity was significantly lower than healthy controls (p < .001); 32% of SOTRs had zero detectable nAb against Delta after third vaccination compared to 100% for controls. Correlation with nAb was seen at anti-spike IgG >4 Log10 (AU/ml) on the Euroimmun ELISA and >4 Log10 (AU/ml) on the MSD research assay. These findings highlight benefits of a third vaccine dose for some SOTRs and the need for alternative strategies to improve protection in a significant subset of this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccines, Synthetic
11.
Future Virol ; 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438394

ABSTRACT

We present here an evidence-based review of the utility, timing, and indications for laboratory test use in the domains of inflammation, cardiology, hematology, nephrology and co-infection for clinicians managing the care of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Levels of IL-6, CRP, absolute lymphocyte count, neutrophils and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio obtained upon admission may help predict the severity of COVID-19. Elevated LDH, ferritin, AST, and d-dimer are associated with severe illness and mortality. Elevated cardiac troponin at hospital admission can alert clinicians to patients at risk for cardiac complications. Elevated proBNP may help distinguish a cardiac complication from noncardiac etiologies. Evaluation for co-infection is typically unnecessary in nonsevere cases but is essential in severe COVID-19, intensive care unit patients, and immunocompromised patients.

13.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374291

ABSTRACT

A complex interplay exists between plasma lipoproteins and inflammation, as evidenced from studies on atherosclerosis. Alterations in plasma lipoprotein levels in the context of infectious diseases, particularly respiratory viral infections, such as SARS-CoV-2, have become of great interest in recent years, due to their potential utility as prognostic markers. Patients with severe COVID-19 have been reported to have low levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, but elevated levels of triglycerides. However, a detailed characterization of the particle counts and sizes of the different plasma lipoproteins in patients with COVID-19 has yet to be reported. In this pilot study, NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize lipoprotein particle numbers and sizes, and various metabolites, in 32 patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit. Our study revealed markedly reduced HDL particle (HDL-P) numbers at presentation, especially low numbers of small HDL-P (S-HDL-P), and high counts of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle (TRL-P), particularly the very small and small TRL subfractions. Moreover, patients with severe COVID-19 were found to have remarkably elevated GlycA levels, and elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Finally, we detected elevated levels of lipoproteins X and Z in most participants, which are distinct markers of hepatic dysfunction, and that was a novel finding.

15.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 606-615, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe clinical phenotype of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that remains poorly understood. METHODS: Hospitalized children <18 years of age with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (N = 53) were recruited into a prospective cohort study; 32 had confirmed COVID-19, with 16 meeting the US Centers for Disease Control criteria for MIS-C. Differences in nasopharyngeal viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) levels, SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, and cytokine/chemokine profiles were examined, including after adjustments for age and sex. RESULTS: The median ages for those with and without MIS-C were 8.7 years (interquartile range [IQR], 5.5-13.9) and 2.2 years (IQR, 1.1-10.5), respectively (P = .18), and nasopharyngeal levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNA did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (median 63 848.25 copies/mL versus 307.1 copies/mL, P = .66); 75% of those with MIS-C were antibody positive compared with 44% without (P = .026). Levels of 14 of 37 cytokines/chemokines (interleukin [IL]-1RA, IL-2RA, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1, IP-10, macrophage-inflammatory protein [MIP]-1α, MCP-2, MIP-1ß, eotaxin) were significantly higher in children with MIS-C compared to those without, irrespective of age or sex (false discovery rate <0.05; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The distinct pattern of heightened cytokine/chemokine dysregulation observed with MIS-C, compared with acute COVID-19, occurs across the pediatric age spectrum and with similar levels of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , Serologic Tests , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Viral Load
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1268-1270, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320297

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that certain vaccines induce suboptimal responses in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, PLWH). However, responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have not been fully characterized in these patients. Here we show that the BNT162b2 vaccine induces robust immune responses comparable to responses in healthy donors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab195, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sustained molecular detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in the upper respiratory tract (URT) in mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common. We sought to identify host and immune determinants of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. METHODS: Ninety-five symptomatic outpatients self-collected midturbinate nasal, oropharyngeal (OP), and gingival crevicular fluid (oral fluid) samples at home and in a research clinic a median of 6 times over 1-3 months. Samples were tested for viral RNA, virus culture, and SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronavirus antibodies, and associations were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Viral RNA clearance, as measured by SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in 507 URT samples occurred a median (interquartile range) 33.5 (17-63.5) days post-symptom onset. Sixteen nasal-OP samples collected 2-11 days post-symptom onset were virus culture positive out of 183 RT-PCR-positive samples tested. All participants but 1 with positive virus culture were negative for concomitant oral fluid anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The mean time to first antibody detection in oral fluid was 8-13 days post-symptom onset. A longer time to first detection of oral fluid anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99; P = .020) and body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 (aHR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18-0.78; P = .009) were independently associated with a longer time to SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA clearance. Fever as 1 of first 3 COVID-19 symptoms correlated with shorter time to viral RNA clearance (aHR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.02-4.18; P = .044). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that delayed rise of oral fluid SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, elevated BMI, and absence of early fever are independently associated with delayed URT viral RNA clearance.

18.
J Clin Invest ; 131(10)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDRecent studies have reported T cell immunity to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in unexposed donors, possibly due to crossrecognition by T cells specific for common cold coronaviruses (CCCs). True T cell crossreactivity, defined as the recognition by a single TCR of more than one distinct peptide-MHC ligand, has never been shown in the context of SARS-CoV-2.METHODSWe used the viral functional expansion of specific T cells (ViraFEST) platform to identify T cell responses crossreactive for the spike (S) glycoproteins of SARS-CoV-2 and CCCs at the T cell receptor (TCR) clonotype level in convalescent COVID-19 patients (CCPs) and SARS-CoV-2-unexposed donors. Confirmation of SARS-CoV-2/CCC crossreactivity and assessments of functional avidity were performed using a TCR cloning and transfection system.RESULTSMemory CD4+ T cell clonotypes that crossrecognized the S proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and at least one other CCC were detected in 65% of CCPs and unexposed donors. Several of these TCRs were shared among multiple donors. Crossreactive T cells demonstrated significantly impaired SARS-CoV-2-specific proliferation in vitro relative to monospecific CD4+ T cells, which was consistent with lower functional avidity of their TCRs for SARS-CoV-2 relative to CCC.CONCLUSIONSOur data confirm, for what we believe is the first time, the existence of unique memory CD4+ T cell clonotypes crossrecognizing SARS-CoV-2 and CCCs. The lower avidity of crossreactive TCRs for SARS-CoV-2 may be the result of antigenic imprinting, such that preexisting CCC-specific memory T cells have reduced expansive capacity upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are needed to determine how these crossreactive T cell responses affect clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.FUNDINGNIH funding (U54CA260492, P30CA006973, P41EB028239, R01AI153349, R01AI145435-A1, R21AI149760, and U19A1088791) was provided by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Cancer Institute, and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. The Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, The Johns Hopkins University Provost, and The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation provided funding for this study.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Male , Middle Aged
19.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 606-615, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe clinical phenotype of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that remains poorly understood. METHODS: Hospitalized children <18 years of age with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (N = 53) were recruited into a prospective cohort study; 32 had confirmed COVID-19, with 16 meeting the US Centers for Disease Control criteria for MIS-C. Differences in nasopharyngeal viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) levels, SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, and cytokine/chemokine profiles were examined, including after adjustments for age and sex. RESULTS: The median ages for those with and without MIS-C were 8.7 years (interquartile range [IQR], 5.5-13.9) and 2.2 years (IQR, 1.1-10.5), respectively (P = .18), and nasopharyngeal levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNA did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (median 63 848.25 copies/mL versus 307.1 copies/mL, P = .66); 75% of those with MIS-C were antibody positive compared with 44% without (P = .026). Levels of 14 of 37 cytokines/chemokines (interleukin [IL]-1RA, IL-2RA, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1, IP-10, macrophage-inflammatory protein [MIP]-1α, MCP-2, MIP-1ß, eotaxin) were significantly higher in children with MIS-C compared to those without, irrespective of age or sex (false discovery rate <0.05; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The distinct pattern of heightened cytokine/chemokine dysregulation observed with MIS-C, compared with acute COVID-19, occurs across the pediatric age spectrum and with similar levels of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , Serologic Tests , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Viral Load
20.
J Clin Invest ; 131(10)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDRecent studies have reported T cell immunity to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in unexposed donors, possibly due to crossrecognition by T cells specific for common cold coronaviruses (CCCs). True T cell crossreactivity, defined as the recognition by a single TCR of more than one distinct peptide-MHC ligand, has never been shown in the context of SARS-CoV-2.METHODSWe used the viral functional expansion of specific T cells (ViraFEST) platform to identify T cell responses crossreactive for the spike (S) glycoproteins of SARS-CoV-2 and CCCs at the T cell receptor (TCR) clonotype level in convalescent COVID-19 patients (CCPs) and SARS-CoV-2-unexposed donors. Confirmation of SARS-CoV-2/CCC crossreactivity and assessments of functional avidity were performed using a TCR cloning and transfection system.RESULTSMemory CD4+ T cell clonotypes that crossrecognized the S proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and at least one other CCC were detected in 65% of CCPs and unexposed donors. Several of these TCRs were shared among multiple donors. Crossreactive T cells demonstrated significantly impaired SARS-CoV-2-specific proliferation in vitro relative to monospecific CD4+ T cells, which was consistent with lower functional avidity of their TCRs for SARS-CoV-2 relative to CCC.CONCLUSIONSOur data confirm, for what we believe is the first time, the existence of unique memory CD4+ T cell clonotypes crossrecognizing SARS-CoV-2 and CCCs. The lower avidity of crossreactive TCRs for SARS-CoV-2 may be the result of antigenic imprinting, such that preexisting CCC-specific memory T cells have reduced expansive capacity upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are needed to determine how these crossreactive T cell responses affect clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.FUNDINGNIH funding (U54CA260492, P30CA006973, P41EB028239, R01AI153349, R01AI145435-A1, R21AI149760, and U19A1088791) was provided by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Cancer Institute, and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. The Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, The Johns Hopkins University Provost, and The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation provided funding for this study.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Male , Middle Aged
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