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J Alzheimers Dis ; 86(1): 21-42, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736733


The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated neurological, mental health disorders, and neurocognitive issues. However, there is a lack of inexpensive and efficient brain evaluation and screening systems. As a result, a considerable fraction of patients with neurocognitive or psychobehavioral predicaments either do not get timely diagnosed or fail to receive personalized treatment plans. This is especially true in the elderly populations, wherein only 16% of seniors say they receive regular cognitive evaluations. Therefore, there is a great need for development of an optimized clinical brain screening workflow methodology like what is already in existence for prostate and breast exams. Such a methodology should be designed to facilitate objective early detection and cost-effective treatment of such disorders. In this paper we have reviewed the existing clinical protocols, recent technological advances and suggested reliable clinical workflows for brain screening. Such protocols range from questionnaires and smartphone apps to multi-modality brain mapping and advanced imaging where applicable. To that end, the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) proposes the Brain, Spine and Mental Health Screening (NEUROSCREEN) as a multi-faceted approach. Beside other assessment tools, NEUROSCREEN employs smartphone guided cognitive assessments and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as well as potential genetic testing for cognitive decline risk as inexpensive and effective screening tools to facilitate objective diagnosis, monitor disease progression, and guide personalized treatment interventions. Operationalizing NEUROSCREEN is expected to result in reduced healthcare costs and improving quality of life at national and later, global scales.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Mapping , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Male , Quality of Life
Front Neurol ; 12: 603767, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090412


Objective: Telerehabilitation (TR) is now, in the context of COVID-19, more clinically relevant than ever as a major source of outpatient care. The social network of a patient is a critical yet understudied factor in the success of TR that may influence both engagement in therapy programs and post-stroke outcomes. We designed a 12-week home-based TR program for stroke patients and evaluated which social factors might be related to motor gains and reduced depressive symptoms. Methods: Stroke patients (n = 13) with arm motor deficits underwent supervised home-based TR for 12 weeks with routine assessments of motor function and mood. At the 6-week midpoint, we mapped each patient's personal social network and evaluated relationships between social network metrics and functional improvements from TR. Finally, we compared social networks of TR patients with a historical cohort of 176 stroke patients who did not receive any TR to identify social network differences. Results: Both network size and network density were related to walk time improvement (p = 0.025; p = 0.003). Social network density was related to arm motor gains (p = 0.003). Social network size was related to reduced depressive symptoms (p = 0.015). TR patient networks were larger (p = 0.012) and less dense (p = 0.046) than historical stroke control networks. Conclusions: Social network structure is positively related to improvement in motor status and mood from TR. TR patients had larger and more open social networks than stroke patients who did not receive TR. Understanding how social networks intersect with TR outcomes is crucial to maximize effects of virtual rehabilitation.