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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 151(4): 926-930.e2, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies against type I IFNs occur in approximately 10% of adults with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The frequency of anti-IFN autoantibodies in children with severe sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We quantified anti-type I IFN autoantibodies in a multicenter cohort of children with severe COVID-19, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), and mild SARS-CoV-2 infections. METHODS: Circulating anti-IFN-α2 antibodies were measured by a radioligand binding assay. Whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, and functional studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to study any patients with levels of anti-IFN-α2 autoantibodies exceeding the assay's positive control. RESULTS: Among 168 patients with severe COVID-19, 199 with MIS-C, and 45 with mild SARS-CoV-2 infections, only 1 had high levels of anti-IFN-α2 antibodies. Anti-IFN-α2 autoantibodies were not detected in patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin before sample collection. Whole-exome sequencing identified a missense variant in the ankyrin domain of NFKB2, encoding the p100 subunit of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells, aka NF-κB, essential for noncanonical NF-κB signaling. The patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibited impaired cleavage of p100 characteristic of NFKB2 haploinsufficiency, an inborn error of immunity with a high prevalence of autoimmunity. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of anti-IFN-α2 autoantibodies in children and adolescents with MIS-C, severe COVID-19, and mild SARS-CoV-2 infections are rare but can occur in patients with inborn errors of immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Adult , Humans , Child , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoantibodies , NF-kappa B , Haploinsufficiency , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , NF-kappa B p52 Subunit
2.
J Pediatr ; 257: 113372, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287980

ABSTRACT

Aseptic meningitis is a rare but potentially serious complication of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. In this case series, meningitic symptoms following intravenous immunoglobulin initiation in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome were rare (7/2,086 [0.3%]). However, they required the need for additional therapy and/or readmission.


Subject(s)
Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Meningitis, Aseptic , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Aseptic/diagnosis , Meningitis, Aseptic/drug therapy , Administration, Intravenous , Disease Progression
3.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 24(5): 356-371, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used successfully to support adults with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related cardiac or respiratory failure refractory to conventional therapies. Comprehensive reports of children and adolescents with SARS-CoV-2-related ECMO support for conditions, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and acute COVID-19, are needed. DESIGN: Case series of patients from the Overcoming COVID-19 public health surveillance registry. SETTING: Sixty-three hospitals in 32 U.S. states reporting to the registry between March 15, 2020, and December 31, 2021. PATIENTS: Patients less than 21 years admitted to the ICU meeting Centers for Disease Control criteria for MIS-C or acute COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The final cohort included 2,733 patients with MIS-C ( n = 1,530; 37 [2.4%] requiring ECMO) or acute COVID-19 ( n = 1,203; 71 [5.9%] requiring ECMO). ECMO patients in both groups were older than those without ECMO support (MIS-C median 15.4 vs 9.9 yr; acute COVID-19 median 15.3 vs 13.6 yr). The body mass index percentile was similar in the MIS-C ECMO versus no ECMO groups (89.9 vs 85.8; p = 0.22) but higher in the COVID-19 ECMO versus no ECMO groups (98.3 vs 96.5; p = 0.03). Patients on ECMO with MIS-C versus COVID-19 were supported more often with venoarterial ECMO (92% vs 41%) for primary cardiac indications (87% vs 23%), had ECMO initiated earlier (median 1 vs 5 d from hospitalization), shorter ECMO courses (median 3.9 vs 14 d), shorter hospital length of stay (median 20 vs 52 d), lower in-hospital mortality (27% vs 37%), and less major morbidity at discharge in survivors (new tracheostomy, oxygen or mechanical ventilation need or neurologic deficit; 0% vs 11%, 0% vs 20%, and 8% vs 15%, respectively). Most patients with MIS-C requiring ECMO support (87%) were admitted during the pre-Delta (variant B.1.617.2) period, while most patients with acute COVID-19 requiring ECMO support (70%) were admitted during the Delta variant period. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO support for SARS-CoV-2-related critical illness was uncommon, but type, initiation, and duration of ECMO use in MIS-C and acute COVID-19 were markedly different. Like pre-pandemic pediatric ECMO cohorts, most patients survived to hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Humans , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), linked to antecedent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is associated with considerable morbidity. Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by vaccination might also decrease MIS-C likelihood. METHODS: In a multicenter case-control public health investigation of children ages 5-18 years hospitalized from July 1, 2021 to April 7, 2022, we compared the odds of being fully vaccinated (two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine ≥28 days before hospital admission) between MIS-C case-patients and hospital-based controls who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. These associations were examined by age group, timing of vaccination, and periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We compared 304 MIS-C case-patients (280 [92%] unvaccinated) with 502 controls (346 [69%] unvaccinated). MIS-C was associated with decreased likelihood of vaccination (aOR, 0.16 95% CI, 0.10-0.26), including among children ages 5-11 years (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.10-0.52), ages 12-18 years (aOR, 0.10 95% CI, 0.05-0.19), and during the Delta (aOR, 0.06 95% CI, 0.02-0.15) and Omicron (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.11-0.42) variant-predominant periods. This association persisted beyond 120 days after the second dose (aOR, 0.08, 95% CI, 0.03-0.22) in 12-18 year-olds. Among all MIS-C case-patients, 187 (62%) required intensive care unit admission and 280 (92%) vaccine-eligible patients were unvaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with two doses of BNT162b2 is associated with reduced likelihood of MIS-C in children ages 5-18 years. Most vaccine eligible hospitalized patients with MIS-C were unvaccinated.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical differences between critical illness from influenza infection versus coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been well characterized in pediatric patients. METHODS: We compared U.S. children (8 months to 17 years) admitted to the intensive care or high acuity unit with influenza (17 hospitals, 12/19/2019-3/9/2020) or COVID-19 (52 hospitals, 3/15/2020-12/31/2020). We compared demographics, underlying conditions, clinical presentation, severity, and outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we assessed the odds of death or requiring life-support for influenza versus COVID-19 after adjustment for age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and underlying conditions including obesity. RESULTS: Children with influenza (n = 179) were younger than those with COVID-19 (n = 381; median 5.2 vs. 13.8 years), less likely to be non-Hispanic black (14.5% vs. 27.6%) or Hispanic (24.0% vs. 36.2%), and less likely to have ≥1 underlying condition (66.4% vs. 78.5%) or be obese (21.4% vs. 42.2%). They were similarly likely to require invasive mechanical ventilation (both 30.2%), vasopressor support (19.6% and 19.9%), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (2.2% and 2.9%). Four children with influenza (2.2%) and 11 children with COVID-19 (2.9%) died. The odds of death or requiring life-support in children with influenza vs. COVID-19 were similar (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30 [95% CI: 0.78-2.15; P = 0.32]). Median duration of hospital stay was shorter for influenza than COVID-19 (5 versus 7 days). CONCLUSIONS: Despite differences in demographics and clinical characteristics of children with influenza or COVID-19, the frequency of life-threatening complications was similar. Our findings highlight the importance of implementing prevention measures to reduce transmission and disease severity of influenza and COVID-19.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2241622, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117818

ABSTRACT

Importance: Minimal data are available regarding the postdischarge treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Objectives: To evaluate clinical characteristics associated with duration of postdischarge glucocorticoid use and assess postdischarge clinical course, laboratory test result trajectories, and adverse events in a multicenter cohort with MIS-C. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included patients with MIS-C hospitalized with severe illness and followed up for 3 months in an ambulatory setting. Patients younger than 21 years who were admitted between May 15, 2020, and May 31, 2021, at 13 US hospitals were included. Inclusion criteria were inpatient treatment comprising intravenous immunoglobulin, diagnosis of cardiovascular dysfunction (vasopressor requirement or left ventricular ejection fraction ≤55%), and availability of complete outpatient data for 3 months. Exposures: Glucocorticoid treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were patient characteristics associated with postdischarge glucocorticoid treatment, laboratory test result trajectories, and adverse events. Multivariable regression was used to evaluate factors associated with postdischarge weight gain (≥2 kg in 3 months) and hyperglycemia during illness. Results: Among 186 patients, the median age was 10.4 years (IQR, 6.7-14.2 years); most were male (107 [57.5%]), Black non-Hispanic (60 [32.3%]), and Hispanic or Latino (59 [31.7%]). Most children were critically ill (intensive care unit admission, 163 [87.6%]; vasopressor receipt, 134 [72.0%]) and received inpatient glucocorticoid treatment (178 [95.7%]). Most were discharged with continued glucocorticoid treatment (173 [93.0%]); median discharge dose was 42 mg/d (IQR, 30-60 mg/d) or 1.1 mg/kg/d (IQR, 0.7-1.7 mg/kg/d). Inpatient severity of illness was not associated with duration of postdischarge glucocorticoid treatment. Outpatient treatment duration varied (median, 23 days; IQR, 15-32 days). Time to normalization of C-reactive protein and ferritin levels was similar for glucocorticoid duration of less than 3 weeks vs 3 or more weeks. Readmission occurred in 7 patients (3.8%); none was for cardiovascular dysfunction. Hyperglycemia developed in 14 patients (8.1%). Seventy-five patients (43%) gained 2 kg or more after discharge (median 4.1 kg; IQR, 3.0-6.0 kg). Inpatient high-dose intravenous and oral glucocorticoid therapy was associated with postdischarge weight gain (adjusted odds ratio, 6.91; 95% CI, 1.92-24.91). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort of patients with MIS-C and cardiovascular dysfunction, postdischarge glucocorticoid treatment was often prolonged, but clinical outcomes were similar in patients prescribed shorter courses. Outpatient weight gain was common. Readmission was infrequent, with none for cardiovascular dysfunction. These findings suggest that strategies are needed to optimize postdischarge glucocorticoid courses for patients with MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Hyperglycemia , Pneumonia, Viral , Child , Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Aftercare , Ventricular Function, Left , Weight Gain
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(8): 1351-1358, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigens in blood has high sensitivity in adults with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but sensitivity in pediatric patients is unclear. Recent data suggest that persistent SARS-CoV-2 spike antigenemia may contribute to multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We quantified SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) antigens in blood of pediatric patients with either acute COVID-19 or MIS-C using ultrasensitive immunoassays (Meso Scale Discovery). METHODS: Plasma was collected from inpatients (<21 years) enrolled across 15 hospitals in 15 US states. Acute COVID-19 patients (n = 36) had a range of disease severity and positive nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR within 24 hours of blood collection. Patients with MIS-C (n = 53) met CDC criteria and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (RT-PCR or serology). Controls were patients pre-COVID-19 (n = 67) or within 24 hours of negative RT-PCR (n = 43). RESULTS: Specificities of N and S assays were 95-97% and 100%, respectively. In acute COVID-19 patients, N/S plasma assays had 89%/64% sensitivity; sensitivities in patients with concurrent nasopharyngeal swab cycle threshold (Ct) ≤35 were 93%/63%. Antigen concentrations ranged from 1.28-3844 pg/mL (N) and 1.65-1071 pg/mL (S) and correlated with disease severity. In MIS-C, antigens were detected in 3/53 (5.7%) samples (3 N-positive: 1.7, 1.9, 121.1 pg/mL; 1 S-positive: 2.3 pg/mL); the patient with highest N had positive nasopharyngeal RT-PCR (Ct 22.3) concurrent with blood draw. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasensitive blood SARS-CoV-2 antigen measurement has high diagnostic yield in children with acute COVID-19. Antigens were undetectable in most MIS-C patients, suggesting that persistent antigenemia is not a common contributor to MIS-C pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Immunoassay , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2979, 2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931398

ABSTRACT

Neutralization capacity of antibodies against Omicron after a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents is not well studied. Therefore, we evaluated virus-neutralizing capacity against SARS-CoV-2 Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron variants by age-stratified analyses (<5, 5-11, 12-21 years) in 177 pediatric patients hospitalized with severe acute COVID-19, acute MIS-C, and in convalescent samples of outpatients with mild COVID-19 during 2020 and early 2021. Across all patients, less than 10% show neutralizing antibody titers against Omicron. Children <5 years of age hospitalized with severe acute COVID-19 have lower neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 variants compared with patients >5 years of age. As expected, convalescent pediatric COVID-19 and MIS-C cohorts demonstrate higher neutralization titers than hospitalized acute COVID-19 patients. Overall, children and adolescents show some loss of cross-neutralization against all variants, with the most pronounced loss against Omicron. In contrast to SARS-CoV-2 infection, children vaccinated twice demonstrated higher titers against Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron. These findings can influence transmission, re-infection and the clinical disease outcome from emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and supports the need for vaccination in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Viral Envelope Proteins
9.
Pediatrics ; 150(3)2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate risk factors for postdischarge sequelae in children and adolescents hospitalized for acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: Multicenter prospective cohort study conducted in 25 United States pediatric hospitals. Patients <21-years-old, hospitalized May 2020 to May 2021 for acute COVID-19 or MIS-C with follow-up 2 to 4 months after admission. We assessed readmissions, persistent symptoms or activity impairment, and new morbidities. Multivariable regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of 358 eligible patients, 2 to 4 month survey data were available for 119 of 155 (76.8%) with acute COVID-19 and 160 of 203 (78.8%) with MIS-C. Thirteen (11%) patients with acute COVID-19 and 12 (8%) with MIS-C had a readmission. Thirty-two (26.9%) patients with acute COVID-19 had persistent symptoms (22.7%) or activity impairment (14.3%) and 48 (30.0%) with MIS-C had persistent symptoms (20.0%) or activity impairment (21.3%). For patients with acute COVID-19, persistent symptoms (aRR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.04-1.59]) and activity impairment (aRR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.06-1.78]) were associated with more organ systems involved. Patients with MIS-C and pre-existing respiratory conditions more frequently had persistent symptoms (aRR, 3.09 [95% CI, 1.55-6.14]) and those with obesity more frequently had activity impairment (aRR, 2.52 [95% CI, 1.35-4.69]). New morbidities were infrequent (9% COVID-19, 1% MIS-C). CONCLUSIONS: Over 1 in 4 children hospitalized with acute COVID-19 or MIS-C experienced persistent symptoms or activity impairment for at least 2 months. Patients with MIS-C and respiratory conditions or obesity are at higher risk of prolonged recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aftercare , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Obesity , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
N Engl J Med ; 387(2): 109-119, 2022 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infants younger than 6 months of age are at high risk for complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and are not eligible for vaccination. Transplacental transfer of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after maternal Covid-19 vaccination may confer protection against Covid-19 in infants. METHODS: We used a case-control test-negative design to assess the effectiveness of maternal vaccination during pregnancy against hospitalization for Covid-19 among infants younger than 6 months of age. Between July 1, 2021, and March 8, 2022, we enrolled infants hospitalized for Covid-19 (case infants) and infants hospitalized without Covid-19 (control infants) at 30 hospitals in 22 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of full maternal vaccination (two doses of mRNA vaccine) among case infants and control infants during circulation of the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant (July 1, 2021, to December 18, 2021) and the B.1.1.259 (omicron) variant (December 19, 2021, to March 8, 2022). RESULTS: A total of 537 case infants (181 of whom had been admitted to a hospital during the delta period and 356 during the omicron period; median age, 2 months) and 512 control infants were enrolled and included in the analyses; 16% of the case infants and 29% of the control infants had been born to mothers who had been fully vaccinated against Covid-19 during pregnancy. Among the case infants, 113 (21%) received intensive care (64 [12%] received mechanical ventilation or vasoactive infusions). Two case infants died from Covid-19; neither infant's mother had been vaccinated during pregnancy. The effectiveness of maternal vaccination against hospitalization for Covid-19 among infants was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 65) overall, 80% (95% CI, 60 to 90) during the delta period, and 38% (95% CI, 8 to 58) during the omicron period. Effectiveness was 69% (95% CI, 50 to 80) when maternal vaccination occurred after 20 weeks of pregnancy and 38% (95% CI, 3 to 60) during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal vaccination with two doses of mRNA vaccine was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalization for Covid-19, including for critical illness, among infants younger than 6 months of age. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , mRNA Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
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