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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(6): ofac171, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908873

ABSTRACT

Background: Global efforts are needed to elucidate the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the underlying cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including seroprevalence, risk factors, and long-term sequelae, as well as immune responses after vaccination across populations and the social dimensions of prevention and treatment strategies. Methods: In the United States, the National Cancer Institute in partnership with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, established the SARS-CoV-2 Serological Sciences Network (SeroNet) as the nation's largest coordinated effort to study coronavirus disease 2019. The network comprises multidisciplinary researchers bridging gaps and fostering collaborations among immunologists, epidemiologists, virologists, clinicians and clinical laboratories, social and behavioral scientists, policymakers, data scientists, and community members. In total, 49 institutions form the SeroNet consortium to study individuals with cancer, autoimmune disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, transplant recipients, as well as otherwise healthy pregnant women, children, college students, and high-risk occupational workers (including healthcare workers and first responders). Results: Several studies focus on underrepresented populations, including ethnic minorities and rural communities. To support integrative data analyses across SeroNet studies, efforts are underway to define common data elements for standardized serology measurements, cellular and molecular assays, self-reported data, treatment, and clinical outcomes. Conclusions: In this paper, we discuss the overarching framework for SeroNet epidemiology studies, critical research questions under investigation, and data accessibility for the worldwide scientific community. Lessons learned will help inform preparedness and responsiveness to future emerging diseases.

2.
mSphere ; : e0019322, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891742

ABSTRACT

In October 2020, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Serological Sciences Network (SeroNet) was established to study the immune response to COVID-19, and "to develop, validate, improve, and implement serological testing and associated technologies" (https://www.cancer.gov/research/key-initiatives/covid-19/coronavirus-research-initiatives/serological-sciences-network). SeroNet is comprised of 25 participating research institutions partnering with the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) and the SeroNet Coordinating Center. Since its inception, SeroNet has supported collaborative development and sharing of COVID-19 serological assay procedures and has set forth plans for assay harmonization. To facilitate collaboration and procedure sharing, a detailed survey was sent to collate comprehensive assay details and performance metrics on COVID-19 serological assays within SeroNet. In addition, FNLCR established a protocol to calibrate SeroNet serological assays to reference standards, such as the U.S. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serology standard reference material and first WHO international standard (IS) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (20/136), to facilitate harmonization of assay reporting units and cross-comparison of study data. SeroNet institutions reported development of a total of 27 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods, 13 multiplex assays, and 9 neutralization assays and use of 12 different commercial serological methods. FNLCR developed a standardized protocol for SeroNet institutions to calibrate these diverse serological assays to reference standards. In conclusion, SeroNet institutions have established a diverse array of COVID-19 serological assays to study the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and vaccines. Calibration of SeroNet serological assays to harmonize results reporting will facilitate future pooled data analyses and study cross-comparisons. IMPORTANCE SeroNet institutions have developed or implemented 61 diverse COVID-19 serological assays and are collaboratively working to harmonize these assays using reference materials to establish standardized reporting units. This will facilitate clinical interpretation of serology results and cross-comparison of research data.

3.
Gut ; 71(5): 879-888, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether famotidine improved inflammation and symptomatic recovery in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fully remote, phase 2 clinical trial (NCT04724720) enrolling symptomatic unvaccinated adult outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 between January 2021 and April 2021 from two US centres. Patients self-administered 80 mg famotidine (n=28) or placebo (n=27) orally three times a day for 14 consecutive days. Endpoints were time to (primary) or rate of (secondary) symptom resolution, and resolution of inflammation (exploratory). RESULTS: Of 55 patients in the intention-to-treat group (median age 35 years (IQR: 20); 35 women (64%); 18 African American (33%); 14 Hispanic (26%)), 52 (95%) completed the trial, submitting 1358 electronic symptom surveys. Time to symptom resolution was not statistically improved (p=0.4). Rate of symptom resolution was improved for patients taking famotidine (p<0.0001). Estimated 50% reduction of overall baseline symptom scores were achieved at 8.2 days (95% CI: 7 to 9.8 days) for famotidine and 11.4 days (95% CI: 10.3 to 12.6 days) for placebo treated patients. Differences were independent of patient sex, race or ethnicity. Five self-limiting adverse events occurred (famotidine, n=2 (40%); placebo, n=3 (60%)). On day 7, fewer patients on famotidine had detectable interferon alpha plasma levels (p=0.04). Plasma immunoglobulin type G levels to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid core protein were similar between both arms. CONCLUSIONS: Famotidine was safe and well tolerated in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Famotidine led to earlier resolution of symptoms and inflammation without reducing anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity. Additional randomised trials are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Famotidine , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(10): 1257-1259, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541092

ABSTRACT

We performed a prospective study of 501 patients, regardless of symptoms, admitted to the hospital, to estimate the predictive value of a negative nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At a positivity rate of 10.2%, the estimated negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.2% and the NPV rose as prevalence decreased during the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3027-e3032, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can be detected in respiratory samples by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or other molecular methods. Accessibility of diagnostic testing for COVID-19 has been limited by intermittent shortages of supplies required for testing, including flocked nasopharyngeal (FLNP) swabs. METHODS: We developed a 3-dimensional printed nasopharyngeal (3DP) swab as a replacement of the FLNP swab. The performance of 3DP and FLNP swabs were compared in a clinical trial of symptomatic patients at 3 clinical sites (n = 291) using 3 SARS-CoV-2 emergency use authorization tests: a modified version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel and 2 commercial automated formats, Roche Cobas and NeuMoDx. RESULTS: The cycle threshold-C(t)-values from the gene targets and the RNase P gene control in the CDC assay showed no significant differences between swabs for both gene targets (P = .152 and P = .092), with the RNase P target performing significantly better in the 3DP swabs (P < .001). The C(t) values showed no significant differences between swabs for both viral gene targets in the Roche cobas assay (P = .05 and P = .05) as well as the NeuMoDx assay (P = .401 and P = .484). The overall clinical correlation of COVID-19 diagnosis between all methods was 95.88% (Kappa 0.901). CONCLUSIONS: The 3DP swabs were equivalent to standard FLNP in 3 testing platforms for SARS-CoV-2. Given the need for widespread testing, 3DP swabs printed onsite are an alternate to FLNP that can rapidly scale in response to acute needs when supply chain disruptions affect availability of collection kits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Humans , Nasopharynx , Printing, Three-Dimensional , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling
6.
Acad Pathol ; 8: 23742895211044811, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443783

ABSTRACT

The 2021 Association of Pathology Chairs Annual Meeting included a chairs' session and a premeeting discussion-group webinar sponsored by the Senior Fellows Group (former chairs of academic departments of pathology who have remained active in the Association of Pathology Chairs) focused on generating discretionary income for departments. Discretionary income was defined as revenue that can be used by the department with few, if any, restrictions. Such income is particularly desirable given limitations on departmental budgets. Four discussion-group panelists presented the funds-flow model in their respective institutions and how they derived and used discretionary income. Discretionary income was obtained from both external sources (eg, philanthropy, indirect cost recovery, partnerships with outside entities, medical education courses, research laboratory agreements, clinical trials) and internal sources (eg, core facilities, institutional programmatic support, institutional incentive programs). Significant departmental variations were associated with differences in institutional financial structure and policies, revenue-generating capabilities of the department and individual faculty, practice plan policies, donor intentions, and geographic market forces. Most finances were dependent upon a robust funds-flow model. Uses of discretionary funds included salary support, recruitment expenses (including start-up packages), research equipment, space renovation, social events, support of academic programs, and travel. Panelists also discussed particular challenges of discretionary-fund generation and use during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Notably, each institution had its own unique methodology for generating discretionary income, and no obvious standard approach was identified. The 2 moderators emphasized the importance of identifying and understanding opportunities, issues, and institutional culture surrounding generation and use of discretionary funds.

8.
Acad Pathol ; 8: 23742895211006818, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225750

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, created an unprecedented need for comprehensive laboratory testing of populations, in order to meet the needs of medical practice and to guide the management and functioning of our society. With the greater New York metropolitan area as an epicenter of this pandemic beginning in March 2020, a consortium of laboratory leaders from the assembled New York academic medical institutions was formed to help identify and solve the challenges of deploying testing. This report brings forward the experience of this consortium, based on the real-world challenges which we encountered in testing patients and in supporting the recovery effort to reestablish the health care workplace. In coordination with the Greater New York Hospital Association and with the public health laboratory of New York State, this consortium communicated with state leadership to help inform public decision-making addressing the crisis. Through the length of the pandemic, the consortium has been a critical mechanism for sharing experience and best practices in dealing with issues including the following: instrument platforms, sample sources, test performance, pre- and post-analytical issues, supply chain, institutional testing capacity, pooled testing, biospecimen science, and research. The consortium also has been a mechanism for staying abreast of state and municipal policies and initiatives, and their impact on institutional and laboratory operations. The experience of this consortium may be of value to current and future laboratory professionals and policy-makers alike, in dealing with major events that impact regional laboratory services.

9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(5): 1077-1082, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034416

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Liver chemistry abnormalities are a frequent manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but are usually transient and resolve with disease resolution. METHODS: We describe the clinical course and histologic features of 3 adults who developed prolonged and severe cholestasis during recovery from critical cardiopulmonary COVID-19. RESULTS: These patients had clinical and histologic features similar to secondary sclerosing cholangitis of the critically ill patient, but with unique histologic features including severe cholangiocyte injury and intrahepatic microangiopathy suggestive of direct hepatic injury from COVID-19. DISCUSSION: We believe that these cases constitute a novel severe post-COVID-19 cholangiopathy with potential for long-term hepatic morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cholangitis , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver , Adult , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/methods , Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance/methods , Cholangitis/diagnosis , Cholangitis/virology , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness , Diagnosis, Differential , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Female , Humans , Liver/blood supply , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver/pathology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(12): 3204-3213, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the greater New York metropolitan area became an epicenter for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The initial evolution of case incidence has not been well characterized. METHODS: Northwell Health Laboratories tested 46 793 persons for SARS-CoV-2 from 4 March through 10 April. The primary outcome measure was a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2. The secondary outcomes included patient age, sex, and race, if stated; dates the specimen was obtained and the test result; clinical practice site sources; geolocation of patient residence; and hospitalization. RESULTS: From 8 March through 10 April, a total of 26 735 of 46 793 persons (57.1%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Males of each race were disproportionally more affected than females above age 25, with a progressive male predominance as age increased. Of the positive persons, 7292 were hospitalized directly upon presentation; an additional 882 persons tested positive in an ambulatory setting before subsequent hospitalization, a median of 4.8 days later. Total hospitalization rate was thus 8174 persons (30.6% of positive persons). There was a broad range (>10-fold) in the cumulative number of positive cases across individual zip codes following documented first caseincidence. Test positivity was greater for persons living in zip codes with lower annual household income. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal that SARS-CoV-2 incidence emerged rapidly and almost simultaneously across a broad demographic population in the region. These findings support the premise that SARS-CoV-2 infection was widely distributed prior to virus testing availability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , New York
11.
JAMA ; 323(20): 2052-2059, 2020 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101977

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes of US patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a US health care system. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of patients with COVID-19 admitted to 12 hospitals in New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County, New York, within the Northwell Health system. The study included all sequentially hospitalized patients between March 1, 2020, and April 4, 2020, inclusive of these dates. Exposures: Confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by positive result on polymerase chain reaction testing of a nasopharyngeal sample among patients requiring admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical outcomes during hospitalization, such as invasive mechanical ventilation, kidney replacement therapy, and death. Demographics, baseline comorbidities, presenting vital signs, and test results were also collected. Results: A total of 5700 patients were included (median age, 63 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 52-75; range, 0-107 years]; 39.7% female). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (3026; 56.6%), obesity (1737; 41.7%), and diabetes (1808; 33.8%). At triage, 30.7% of patients were febrile, 17.3% had a respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths/min, and 27.8% received supplemental oxygen. The rate of respiratory virus co-infection was 2.1%. Outcomes were assessed for 2634 patients who were discharged or had died at the study end point. During hospitalization, 373 patients (14.2%) (median age, 68 years [IQR, 56-78]; 33.5% female) were treated in the intensive care unit care, 320 (12.2%) received invasive mechanical ventilation, 81 (3.2%) were treated with kidney replacement therapy, and 553 (21%) died. As of April 4, 2020, for patients requiring mechanical ventilation (n = 1151, 20.2%), 38 (3.3%) were discharged alive, 282 (24.5%) died, and 831 (72.2%) remained in hospital. The median postdischarge follow-up time was 4.4 days (IQR, 2.2-9.3). A total of 45 patients (2.2%) were readmitted during the study period. The median time to readmission was 3 days (IQR, 1.0-4.5) for readmitted patients. Among the 3066 patients who remained hospitalized at the final study follow-up date (median age, 65 years [IQR, 54-75]), the median follow-up at time of censoring was 4.5 days (IQR, 2.4-8.1). Conclusions and Relevance: This case series provides characteristics and early outcomes of sequentially hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the New York City area.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
12.
J Exp Med ; 217(6)2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72158

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel, viral-induced respiratory disease that in ∼10-15% of patients progresses to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) triggered by a cytokine storm. In this Perspective, autopsy results and literature are presented supporting the hypothesis that a little known yet powerful function of neutrophils-the ability to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)-may contribute to organ damage and mortality in COVID-19. We show lung infiltration of neutrophils in an autopsy specimen from a patient who succumbed to COVID-19. We discuss prior reports linking aberrant NET formation to pulmonary diseases, thrombosis, mucous secretions in the airways, and cytokine production. If our hypothesis is correct, targeting NETs directly and/or indirectly with existing drugs may reduce the clinical severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Extracellular Traps , Lung Diseases , Neutrophils/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Lung Diseases/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
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