Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 25
Filter
2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(5): e188-e193, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent global outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, both before and since the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, have led to the introduction or strengthening of vaccine mandate policies to target vaccine refusal. Globally, there is wide variation in how governments and jurisdictions implement and enforce mandatory vaccination as well as the financial and educational consequences to those who fail to comply. We explored the impact of mandate vaccination policies on Australian Immunization Specialists who work in Specialist Immunization Clinics (SIC) for approving vaccine exemptions outside of the mandated criteria. In particular, their interactions with patients and families. METHODS: A national, prospective, mixed methods, survey-based study conducted with members of the Australian Adverse Event Following Immunisation Clinical Assessment Network between February 2020 and June 2020. RESULTS: Sixteen Immunization physicians and nurse practitioner specialists working in a SIC completed the survey. All sixteen respondents had been requested by parents to provide a Medical Exemptions at least once. 88% of respondents felt pressure to provide an exemption that was not medically justified according to legislation. Seventy-five percent of SIC consultants felt that the "No Jab" policies created a moderate or extreme amount of stress to both themselves and parents. All respondents reported experiencing hostility from parents with three respondents having received threats of violence. CONCLUSIONS: Mandatory vaccination policies are associated with increased vaccination coverage but can result in widened financial and social inequity, and may harm families' relationships with health care providers. Countries considering the implementation of vaccination mandates should use the least restrictive health policies to ensure a balance between the public health and individual benefit whilst minimizing burdens on health care professionals, children and their parents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Health Policy , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Programs , Parents , Prospective Studies , Vaccination , Vaccines/adverse effects
3.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764067
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e221313, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733812

ABSTRACT

Importance: The immune response in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection is not well understood. Objective: To compare seroconversion in nonhospitalized children and adults with mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and identify factors that are associated with seroconversion. Design, Setting, and Participants: This household cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 infection collected weekly nasopharyngeal and throat swabs and blood samples during the acute (median, 7 days for children and 12 days for adults [IQR, 4-13] days) and convalescent (median, 41 [IQR, 31-49] days) periods after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis for analysis. Participants were recruited at The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, from May 10 to October 28, 2020. Participants included patients who had a SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab specimen using PCR analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and cellular (T cell and B cell) responses in children and adults. Seroconversion was defined by seropositivity in all 3 (an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and 2 commercial assays: a SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay and a SARS-CoV-2 antibody ELISA) serological assays. Results: Among 108 participants with SARS-CoV-2-positive PCR findings, 57 were children (35 boys [61.4%]; median age, 4 [IQR, 2-10] years) and 51 were adults (28 women [54.9%]; median age, 37 [IQR, 34-45] years). Using the 3 established serological assays, a lower proportion of children had seroconversion to IgG compared with adults (20 of 54 [37.0%] vs 32 of 42 [76.2%]; P < .001). This result was not associated with viral load, which was similar in children and adults (mean [SD] cycle threshold [Ct] value, 28.58 [6.83] vs 24.14 [8.47]; P = .09). In addition, age and sex were not associated with seroconversion within children (median age, 4 [IQR, 2-14] years for both seropositive and seronegative groups; seroconversion by sex, 10 of 21 girls [47.6%] vs 10 of 33 boys [30.3%]) or adults (median ages, 37 years for seropositive and 40 years for seronegative adults [IQR, 34-39 years]; seroconversion by sex, 18 of 24 women [75.0%] vs 14 of 18 men [77.8%]) (P > .05 for all comparisons between seronegative and seropositive groups). Symptomatic adults had 3-fold higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels than asymptomatic adults (median, 227.5 [IQR, 133.7-521.6] vs 75.3 [IQR, 36.9-113.6] IU/mL), whereas no differences were observed in children regardless of symptoms. Moreover, differences in cellular immune responses were observed in adults compared with children with seroconversion. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that among patients with mild COVID-19, children may be less likely to have seroconversion than adults despite similar viral loads. This finding has implications for future protection after SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and for interpretation of serosurveys that involve children. Further research to understand why seroconversion and development of symptoms are potentially less likely in children after SARS-CoV-2 infection and to compare vaccine responses may be of clinical and scientific importance.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Victoria/epidemiology , Viral Load
5.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671059

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: In contrast with other respiratory viruses, children infected with SARS-CoV-2 are largely spared from severe COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To critically assess age-related differences in three host proteins involved in SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry: angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and furin. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and PubMed databases for relevant publications. Studies were eligible if they evaluated ACE2, TMPRSS2 or furin expression, methylation, or protein level in children. RESULTS: Sixteen papers were included. Age-dependent differences in membrane-bound and soluble ACE2 were shown in several studies, with ACE2 expression increasing with age. TMPRSS2 and furin are key proteases involved in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein cleavage. TMPRSS2 expression is increased by circulating androgens and is thus low in pre-pubertal children. Furin has not currently been well researched. LIMITATIONS: High levels of study heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Low expression of key host proteins may partially explain the reduced incidence of severe COVID-19 among children, although further research is needed.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e054510, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507057

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To present Australia-wide data on paediatric COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndromes to inform health service provision and vaccination prioritisation. DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre cohort study. SETTING: Eight tertiary paediatric hospitals across six Australian states and territories in an established research surveillance network-Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease (PAEDS). PARTICIPANTS: All children aged <19 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection including COVID-19, Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) and Kawasaki-like disease TS infection (KD-TS) treated at a PAEDS site from 24 March 2020 to 31 December 2020. INTERVENTION: Laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN OUTCOME: Incidence of severe disease among children with COVID-19, PIMS-TS and KD-TS. We also compared KD epidemiology before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Among 386 children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 381 (98.7%) had COVID-19 (median 6.3 years (IQR 2.1-12.8),53.3% male) and 5 (1.3%) had multisystem inflammatory syndromes (PIMS-TS, n=4; KD-TS, n=1) (median 7.9 years (IQR 7.8-9.8)). Most children with COVID-19 (n=278; 73%) were Australian-born from jurisdictions with highest community transmission. Comorbidities were present in 72 (18.9%); cardiac and respiratory comorbidities were most common (n=32/72;44%). 37 (9.7%) children with COVID-19 were hospitalised, and two (0.5%) required intensive care. Postinfective inflammatory syndromes (PIMS-TS/KD-TS) were uncommon (n=5; 1.3%), all were hospitalised and three (3/5; 60%) required intensive care management. All children recovered and there were no deaths. KD incidence remained stable during the pandemic compared with prepandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Most children with COVID-19 had mild disease. Severe disease was less frequent than reported in high prevalence settings. Preventative strategies, such as vaccination, including children and adolescents, could reduce both the acute and postinfective manifestations of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741639, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497078

ABSTRACT

Children have reduced severity of COVID-19 compared to adults and typically have mild or asymptomatic disease. The immunological mechanisms underlying these age-related differences in clinical outcomes remain unexplained. Here, we quantify 23 immune cell populations in 141 samples from children and adults with mild COVID-19 and their PCR-negative close household contacts at acute and convalescent time points. Children with COVID-19 displayed marked reductions in myeloid cells during infection, most prominent in children under the age of five. Recovery from infection in both children and adults was characterised by the generation of CD8 TCM and CD4 TCM up to 9 weeks post infection. SARS-CoV-2-exposed close contacts also had immunological changes over time despite no evidence of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection on PCR testing. This included an increase in low-density neutrophils during convalescence in both exposed children and adults, as well as increases in CD8 TCM and CD4 TCM in exposed adults. In comparison to children with other common respiratory viral infections, those with COVID-19 had a greater change in innate and T cell-mediated immune responses over time. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the immune response during and after recovery from COVID-19 in both children and adults.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Convalescence , Environmental Exposure , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunologic Memory , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
9.
Vaccine ; 39(48): 7052-7057, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487997

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggest a possible association between immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and some formulations of COVID-19 vaccine. We conducted a retrospective case series of ITP following vaccination with Vaxzevria ChadOx1-S (AstraZeneca) and mRNA Comirnaty BNT162b2 COVID-19 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccines and compare the incidence to expected background rates for Victoria during the first six months of the Australian COVID-19 vaccination roll-out in 2021. Cases were identified by reports to the Victorian state vaccine safety service, SAEFVIC, of individuals aged 18 years or older presenting with thrombocytopenia following COVID-19 vaccination without evidence of thrombosis. Twenty-one confirmed or probable cases of ITP were identified following receipt of AstraZeneca (n = 17) or Pfizer-BioNTech (n = 4) vaccines. This translates to an observed incidence of 8 per million doses for AstraZeneca vaccine, twice the expected background rate of 4.1 per million. The observed rate for Pfizer-BioNTech was consistent with the expected background rate. The median time to onset for the cases post AstraZeneca vaccination was 10 days (range 1-78) and median platelet nadir 5 × 109/L (range 0-67 × 109/L). Hospital presentations or admissions for management of symptoms such as bleeding occurred in 18 (86%) of the cases. The majority of cases (n = 11) required intervention with at least 2 therapy modalities. In conclusion, we observed a substantially higher than expected rate of ITP following AstraZeneca vaccination. ITP is the second haematological adverse event, distinct from that of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), observed following AstraZeneca vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Victoria/epidemiology
11.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 58(1): 46-53, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480193

ABSTRACT

The global disruption of the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the life of every child either directly or indirectly. This review explores the pathophysiology, immune response, clinical presentation and treatment of COVID-19 in children, summarising the most up-to-date data including recent developments regarding variants of concern. The acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 is generally mild in children, whilst the post-infectious manifestations, including paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) and 'long COVID' in children, are more complex. Given that most research on COVID-19 has focused on adult cohorts and that clinical manifestations, treatment availability and impacts differ markedly in children, research that specifically examines COVID-19 in children needs to be prioritised.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
12.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 58(1): 39-45, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467589

ABSTRACT

Children globally have been profoundly impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This review explores the direct and indirect public health impacts of COVID-19 on children. We discuss in detail the transmission dynamics, vaccination strategies and, importantly, the 'shadow pandemic', encompassing underappreciated indirect impacts of the pandemic on children. The indirect effects of COVID-19 will have a long-term impact beyond the immediate pandemic period. These include the mental health and wellbeing risks, disruption to family income and attendant stressors including increased family violence, delayed medical attention and the critical issue of prolonged loss of face-to-face learning in a normal school environment. Amplification of existing inequities and creation of new disadvantage are likely additional sequelae, with children from vulnerable families disproportionately affected. We emphasise the responsibility of paediatricians to advocate on behalf of this vulnerable group to ensure the longer-term effects of COVID-19 public health responses on the health and wellbeing of children are fully considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Child , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Med J Aust ; 215(5): 217-221, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355152

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-positive children in Australia during 2020. DESIGN, SETTING: Multicentre retrospective study in 16 hospitals of the Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative (PREDICT) network; eleven in Victoria, five in four other Australian states. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 0-17 years who presented to hospital-based COVID-19 testing clinics, hospital wards, or emergency departments during 1 February - 30 September 2020 and who were positive for SARS-CoV-2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children positive for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 393 SARS-CoV-2-positive children (181 girls, 46%) presented to the participating hospitals (426 presentations, including 131 to emergency departments [31%]), the first on 3 February 2020. Thirty-three children presented more than once (8%), including two who were transferred to participating tertiary centres (0.5%). The median age of the children was 5.3 years (IQR, 1.9-12.0 years; range, 10 days to 17.9 years). Hospital admissions followed 51 of 426 presentations (12%; 44 children), including 17 patients who were managed remotely by hospital in the home. Only 16 of the 426 presentations led to hospital medical interventions (4%). Two children (0.5%) were diagnosed with the paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). CONCLUSION: The clinical course for most SARS-CoV-2-positive children who presented to Australian hospitals was mild, and did not require medical intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Australia , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment
16.
Med J Aust ; 215(6): 273-278, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the concordance and acceptability of saliva testing with standard-of-care oropharyngeal and bilateral deep nasal swab testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children and in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective multicentre diagnostic validation study. SETTING: Royal Children's Hospital, and two general practices (cohealth, West Melbourne; Cirqit Health, Altona North) in Melbourne, July-October 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 1050 people who provided paired saliva and oropharyngeal-nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of cases in which SARS-CoV-2 was detected in either specimen type by real-time polymerase chain reaction; concordance of results for paired specimens; positive percent agreement (PPA) for virus detection, by specimen type. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 54 of 1050 people with assessable specimens (5%), including 19 cases (35%) in which both specimens were positive. The overall PPA was 72% (95% CI, 58-84%) for saliva and 63% (95% CI, 49-76%) for oropharyngeal-nasal swabs. For the 35 positive specimens from people aged 10 years or more, PPA was 86% (95% CI, 70-95%) for saliva and 63% (95% CI, 45-79%) for oropharyngeal-nasal swabs. Adding saliva testing to standard-of-care oropharyngeal-nasal swab testing increased overall case detection by 59% (95% CI, 29-95%). Providing saliva was preferred to an oropharyngeal-nasal swab by most participants (75%), including 141 of 153 children under 10 years of age (92%). CONCLUSION: In children over 10 years of age and adults, saliva testing alone may be suitable for SARS-CoV-2 detection, while for children under 10, saliva testing may be suitable as an adjunct to oropharyngeal-nasal swab testing for increasing case detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Young Adult
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2233-2235, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238860

ABSTRACT

The duration of the humoral immune response in children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is unknown. We detected specific IgG 6 months after infection in children who were asymptomatic or had mild symptoms of coronavirus disease. These findings will inform vaccination strategies and other prevention measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2037, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164849

ABSTRACT

The hallmarks of COVID-19 are higher pathogenicity and mortality in the elderly compared to children. Examining baseline SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive immunological responses, induced by circulating human coronaviruses (hCoVs), is needed to understand such divergent clinical outcomes. Here we show analysis of coronavirus antibody responses of pre-pandemic healthy children (n = 89), adults (n = 98), elderly (n = 57), and COVID-19 patients (n = 50) by systems serology. Moderate levels of cross-reactive, but non-neutralizing, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are detected in pre-pandemic healthy individuals. SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific Fcγ receptor binding accurately distinguishes COVID-19 patients from healthy individuals, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces qualitative changes to antibody Fc, enhancing Fcγ receptor engagement. Higher cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG are observed in healthy elderly, while healthy children display elevated SARS-CoV-2 IgM, suggesting that children have fewer hCoV exposures, resulting in less-experienced but more polyreactive humoral immunity. Age-dependent analysis of COVID-19 patients, confirms elevated class-switched antibodies in elderly, while children have stronger Fc responses which we demonstrate are functionally different. These insights will inform COVID-19 vaccination strategies, improved serological diagnostics and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Reactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Middle Aged , Receptors, IgG/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL