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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320841

ABSTRACT

Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is important for evaluating the impact of a disease in the longer term across the physical and psychological domains of human functioning. The aim of this study is to evaluate HRQL in COVID-19 survivors in Italy using the short form 36-items questionnaire (SF-36). Methods: This is an observational study involving adults discharged home following a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related hospital admission. Baseline demographic and clinical data including the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were collected. The validated Italian version of SF-36 was administered cross-sectionally. The SF-36 contains eight scales measuring limitations in physical and social functioning, the impact on roles and activities, fatigue, emotional well-being, pain and general health perception. Results: A total of 35 patients, with a mean age of 60 years, completed the SF-36. The results showed difficulties across the physical and psychological domains, particularly affecting the return to previous roles and activities. A higher burden of co-morbidities as well as a more severe muscle weakness was associated to a lower physical functioning. Younger age, rather than older, correlated to a perceived greater limitation in physical functioning and vitality. Conclusions: COVID-19 survivors particularly the ones of working age may need support for resuming their premorbid level of functioning and returning to work.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296942

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of the factors contributing to the development of protective immunity after vaccination with COVID-19 mRNA vaccines is fragmentary. Thus we employed high-temporal-resolution transcriptome profiling and in-depth characterization of antibody production approaches to investigate responses to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. There were marked differences in the timing and amplitude of the responses to the priming and booster doses. Notably, two distinct interferon signatures were identified, that differed based on their temporal patterns of induction. The first signature (S1), which was preferentially induced by type I interferon, peaked at day 2 post-prime and at day 1 post-boost, and in both instances was associated with subsequent development of the antibody response. In contrast, the second interferon signature (S2) peaked at day 1 both post-prime and post-boost but was found to be potently induced only post-boost, where it coincided with a robust inflammation peak. Notably, we also observed post-prime-like (S1++,S20/+) and post-boost-like (S1++,S2++) patterns of interferon response among COVID-19 patients. A post-boost-like signature was observed in most severely ill patients at admission to the intensive care unit and was associated with a shorter hospital stay. Interestingly, severely ill patients who stayed hospitalized the longest showed a peculiar pattern of interferon induction (S1-/0,S2+), that we did not observe following the administration of mRNA vaccines. In summary, high temporal resolution profiling revealed an elaborate array of immune responses elicited by priming and booster doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Furthermore, it contributed to the identification of distinct interferon-response phenotypes underpinning vaccine immunogenicity and the course of COVID-19 disease.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e044497, 2021 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013055

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Accurate triage is an important first step to effectively manage the clinical treatment of severe cases in a pandemic outbreak. In the current COVID-19 global pandemic, there is a lack of reliable clinical tools to assist clinicians to perform accurate triage. Host response biomarkers have recently shown promise in risk stratification of disease progression; however, the role of these biomarkers in predicting disease progression in patients with COVID-19 is unknown. Here, we present a protocol outlining a prospective validation study to evaluate the biomarkers' performance in predicting clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective validation study assesses patients infected with COVID-19, in whom blood samples are prospectively collected. Recruited patients include a range of infection severity from asymptomatic to critically ill patients, recruited from the community, outpatient clinics, emergency departments and hospitals. Study samples consist of peripheral blood samples collected into RNA-preserving (PAXgene/Tempus) tubes on patient presentation or immediately on study enrolment. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) will be performed on total RNA extracted from collected blood samples using primers specific to host response gene expression biomarkers that have been previously identified in studies of respiratory viral infections. The RT-PCR data will be analysed to assess the diagnostic performance of individual biomarkers in predicting COVID-19-related outcomes, such as viral pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome or bacterial pneumonia. Biomarker performance will be evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This research protocol aims to study the host response gene expression biomarkers in severe respiratory viral infections with a pandemic potential (COVID-19). It has been approved by the local ethics committee with approval number 2020/ETH00886. The results of this project will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Time Factors
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(23)2020 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954620

ABSTRACT

Liguria is a northwestern region of Italy that, since the WHO has declared COVID-19 as a pandemic (11 March 2020), presented 108 patients hospitalized, 34 of which were in the intensive care unit. Due to this serious epidemiological emergency, the transformation of a long-distance ferry ship into a hospital ship for COVID-19 patients who were still positive after the acute phase of the illness was carried out to free up hospital beds for patients in the acute phase. The ship was moored in the port of Genoa, the capital of Liguria. The conversion was localized to a single deck, where designated healthcare areas were identified. From 23 March to 18 June 2020, 191 patients were admitted onto the ship; they were provided with high-level healthcare guaranteed by the multi-disciplinary nature of clinical competencies available. Patients had a favorable outcome in all cases, confirmed by their recovery and negative swab results. Moreover, no cases of voluntary discharge were recorded. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only example in the world in which a passenger ship was transformed into a ship hospital for COVID patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals/classification , Ships , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
5.
Eur Radiol Exp ; 4(1): 39, 2020 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) enables quantification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, helping in outcome prediction. METHODS: From 1 to 22 March 2020, patients with pneumonia symptoms, positive lung CT scan, and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were consecutively enrolled. Clinical data was collected. Outcome was defined as favourable or adverse (i.e., need for mechanical ventilation or death) and registered over a period of 10 days following CT. Volume of disease (VoD) on CT was calculated semi-automatically. Multiple linear regression was used to predict VoD by clinical/laboratory data. To predict outcome, important features were selected using a priori analysis and subsequently used to train 4 different models. RESULTS: A total of 106 consecutive patients were enrolled (median age 63.5 years, range 26-95 years; 41/106 women, 38.7%). Median duration of symptoms and C-reactive protein (CRP) was 5 days (range 1-30) and 4.94 mg/L (range 0.1-28.3), respectively. Median VoD was 249.5 cm3 (range 9.9-1505) and was predicted by lymphocyte percentage (p = 0.008) and CRP (p < 0.001). Important variables for outcome prediction included CRP (area under the curve [AUC] 0.77), VoD (AUC 0.75), age (AUC 0.72), lymphocyte percentage (AUC 0.70), coronary calcification (AUC 0.68), and presence of comorbidities (AUC 0.66). Support vector machine had the best performance in outcome prediction, yielding an AUC of 0.92. CONCLUSIONS: Measuring the VoD using a simple CT post-processing tool estimates SARS-CoV-2 burden. CT and clinical data together enable accurate prediction of short-term clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Outcome Assessment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
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