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3.
Int J Dermatol ; 60(8): 956-963, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The infection by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with multiple cutaneous manifestations, although characterization of them in Hispanic patients with darker skin phototypes is lacking. The objective of this study is to characterize the clinical dermatological manifestations associated with COVID-19 infection in cases with few or without general symptoms in patients from Latin America. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a questionnaire that was made for health professionals (physicians with a specialty in dermatology) to investigate dermatological lesions associated with COVID-19 infection in patients from 25 countries of Latin America. The survey was active from June 9 to July 30, 2020. RESULTS: In this study, information was collected from a total of 347 patients. We found a female gender predominance: 179/347 (51.6%). The mean age at presentation was 40.87 years. The most frequent dermatological manifestations were maculopapular rash and urticarial lesions, followed by papulovesicular lesions, vesicular lesions, chilblain-like lesions, papular lesions, ecchymosis, petechial purpura, pityriasis rosea-like lesions, pruritus, palmoplantar dysesthesias, transient livedo, acral necrosis, palpable purpura, livedo racemosa, and retiform purpura. As far as we know, there are no previous reports of pruritus and palmoplantar dysesthesias. CONCLUSIONS: This registry emphasizes skin manifestations as an important criterion for establishing the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection in Latin American countries. This information will be useful for the early identification of suspected cases by health professionals (dermatologists and nondermatologists) and will allow contact tracing to mitigate the impact on health systems at different levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(6): e14068, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153451

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic presents several dermatological manifestations described in the present indexed literature, with around 700 cases reported until May 2020, some described as urticaria or urticarial rashes. Urticaria is constituted by evanescent erythematous-edematous lesions (wheals and flare), which does not persist in the same site for more than 24 to 48 hours and appears in other topographic localization, resolving without residual hyper pigmentation. During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, some cytokines are synthesized, including Interferon (IFN) type I, TNF-α, and chemokines which may induce mast cells (MCs) and basophils degranulation by mechanisms similar to the autoinflammatory monogenic or polygenic diseases. In this article, we discuss the spectrum of the urticaria and urticarial-like lesions in the COVID-19's era, besides other aspects related to innate and adaptative immune response to viral infections, interactions between dermal dendritic cells and MCs, and degranulation of MCs by different stimuli. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells share, in allergic patients, expression of the high-affinity IgE receptors on cell membranes and demonstrated a low pattern of type I IFN secretion in viral infections. We discuss the previous descriptions of the effects of omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed to IgE and high-affinity IgE receptors, to improve the IFN responses and enhance their antiviral effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Omalizumab/pharmacology , Urticaria/virology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Mast Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Urticaria/drug therapy , Urticaria/immunology
5.
Allergy ; 76(3): 816-830, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960768

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically disrupts health care around the globe. The impact of the pandemic on chronic urticaria (CU) and its management are largely unknown. AIM: To understand how CU patients are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic; how specialists alter CU patient management; and the course of CU in patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our cross-sectional, international, questionnaire-based, multicenter UCARE COVID-CU study assessed the impact of the pandemic on patient consultations, remote treatment, changes in medications, and clinical consequences. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic severely impairs CU patient care, with less than 50% of the weekly numbers of patients treated as compared to before the pandemic. Reduced patient referrals and clinic hours were the major reasons. Almost half of responding UCARE physicians were involved in COVID-19 patient care, which negatively impacted on the care of urticaria patients. The rate of face-to-face consultations decreased by 62%, from 90% to less than half, whereas the rate of remote consultations increased by more than 600%, from one in 10 to more than two thirds. Cyclosporine and systemic corticosteroids, but not antihistamines or omalizumab, are used less during the pandemic. CU does not affect the course of COVID-19, but COVID-19 results in CU exacerbation in one of three patients, with higher rates in patients with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic brings major changes and challenges for CU patients and their physicians. The long-term consequences of these changes, especially the increased use of remote consultations, require careful evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Urticaria/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Young Adult
6.
Dermatol Ther ; 34(1): e14565, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939714

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 generates a complex systemic inflammatory response that can lead to death due to wide macrophage activation, endothelial damage, and coagulation in critically ill patients. SARS-CoV-2-induced lung injury due to inflammatory mediated thrombosis could be similar to the livedoid vasculopathy in the skin, supporting a translational comparison of these clinical settings. In this article, we discuss anticoagulation, suppression of inflammatory response, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the context of severe COVID-19 and livedoid vasculopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Skin Diseases/etiology , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Rev Med Virol ; 30(5): e2130, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641059

ABSTRACT

The SARS-Cov-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus composed of 16 non-structural proteins (NSP 1-16) with specific roles in the replication of coronaviruses. NSP3 has the property to block host innate immune response and to promote cytokine expression. NSP5 can inhibit interferon (IFN) signalling and NSP16 prevents MAD5 recognition, depressing the innate immunity. Dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages are the first cell lineage against viruses' infections. The IFN type I is the danger signal for the human body during this clinical setting. Protective immune responses to viral infection are initiated by innate immune sensors that survey extracellular and intracellular space for foreign nucleic acids. In Covid-19 the pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, but viral and host factors seem to play a key role. Important points in severe Covid-19 are characterized by an upregulated innate immune response, hypercoagulopathy state, pulmonary tissue damage, neurological and/or gastrointestinal tract involvement, and fatal outcome in severe cases of macrophage activation syndrome, which produce a 'cytokine storm'. These systemic conditions share polymorphous cutaneous lesions where innate immune system is involved in the histopathological findings with acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypercoagulability, hyperferritinemia, increased serum levels of D-dimer, lactic dehydrogenase, reactive-C-protein and serum A amyloid. It is described that several polymorphous cutaneous lesions similar to erythema pernio, urticarial rashes, diffuse or disseminated erythema, livedo racemosa, blue toe syndrome, retiform purpura, vesicles lesions, and purpuric exanthema or exanthema with clinical aspects of symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema. This review describes the complexity of Covid-19, its pathophysiological and clinical aspects.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Erythema/immunology , Exanthema/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disease Progression , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Erythema/pathology , Erythema/virology , Exanthema/pathology , Exanthema/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , Macrophages/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
Inflamm Res ; 69(8): 745-756, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-Cov-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus, a Betacoronavirus, composed of 16 non-structural proteins, with specific roles in replication of coronaviruses. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is not yet fully understood. The virus and host factors interplay among distinct outcomes of infected patients. METHODS: Using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) in PubMed, authors searched for articles cotaining information on COVID-19 and the skin. RESULTS: The pathophysiology of the disease is multifactorial: association with innate immune response, hypercoagulability state, lung tissue damage, neurological and/or gastrointestinal tract involvement, monocytic/macrophage activation syndrome, culminating in exaggerated cytokine secretion, called "cytokine storm", which leads to worsening and death. These systemic conditions may be associated with cutaneous lesions, that have polymorphic aspects, where at histopathological level show involvement in different skin changes. These lesions may be associated with multisystemic manifestations that could occur due to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and transmembrane serine protease action, allowing the pulmonary infection and possibly skin manifestation. Several reports in literature show cutaneous lesions similar to chilblain, urticarial eruptions, diffuse or disseminated erythema, livedo racemosa, blue toe syndrome, retiform purpura, vesicle trunk, purpuric exanthema or exanthema with clinical aspects of symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) and others. CONCLUSIONS: This review describes the complexity of Covid-19, pathophysiological and clinical aspects, dermatological finding and other dermatological conditions associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Arterioles/pathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Capillaries/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Endothelium/pathology , Endothelium/virology , Humans , Immune System , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/virology , Treatment Outcome
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