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1.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has emerged as a promising target against the hyperactive host immune response associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We conducted a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at 21 locations in the United States to investigate the efficacy and safety of gimsilumab, an anti-GM-CSF monoclonal antibody, for hospitalized COVID-19 patients with elevated inflammatory markers and hypoxemia (BREATHE). Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive two doses of intravenous gimsilumab or placebo one week apart. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality rate at day 43. Key secondary outcomes were ventilator-free survival rate, ventilator-free days, and time to hospital discharge. Enrollment was halted early for futility based on an interim analysis. RESULTS: 225 out of the planned 270 patients were randomized and dosed. 44.9% of patients were Hispanic or Latino. The gimsilumab and placebo groups experienced an all-cause mortality rate at day 43 of 28.3% and 23.2%, respectively [adjusted difference = 5.1% versus placebo; 95% confidence interval (-6%, 17%); p = 0.377]. Overall mortality rates at 24 weeks were similar across the treatment arms. The key secondary endpoints demonstrated no significant differences between groups. Despite high background use of corticosteroids and anticoagulants, adverse events were generally balanced between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Gimsilumab did not improve mortality or other key clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and evidence of systemic inflammation. The utility of anti-GM-CSF therapy for COVID-19 remains unclear. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Clinical trial registration available at www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov, ID: NCT04351243.

2.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 8(4): 414-426, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737432

ABSTRACT

The Losartan Effects on Emphysema Progression (LEEP) trial was designed to test the hypothesis that losartan slows progression of emphysema in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (NCT00720226). It was conducted by the Pulmonary Trials Cooperative consortium, in collaboration with the American Lung Association Airways Clinical Research Centers network. We describe the design of the trial and challenges for recruitment and follow-up of participants. LEEP is a placebo-controlled, parallel randomized trial, allocation ratio of 1:1, with a planned sample size of 220. Primary eligibility criteria were mild emphysema based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans with 5% to 35% voxels <-950 Hounsfield units (HU), airway obstruction based on spirometry, and not taking an angiotensin receptor blocker or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Participants received either losartan or placebo for 48 weeks. A total of 2779 individuals were screened to enroll 220 eligible participants at 26 clinical sites, all located in the continental United States. Recruitment took 45% longer than planned (32 months versus 22 months), with an average accrual rate of 6.7 participants per month. Recruitment challenges included identification of eligible participants who were not already taking or who did not have an established clinical indication for an angiotensin receptor blocker or ACE inhibitor drug and recalls of contaminated lots of losartan by the Food and Drug Administration. A number of recruitment initiatives were launched in response. Recruitment was completed in February 2020, just prior to a nationwide shutdown of research activities due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

3.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 1433323, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1697599

ABSTRACT

We performed a database mining on 102 transcriptomic datasets for the expressions of 29 m6A-RNA methylation (epitranscriptomic) regulators (m6A-RMRs) in 41 diseases and cancers and made significant findings: (1) a few m6A-RMRs were upregulated; and most m6A-RMRs were downregulated in sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, and trauma; (2) half of 29 m6A-RMRs were downregulated in atherosclerosis; (3) inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis modulated m6A-RMRs more than lupus and psoriasis; (4) some organ failures shared eight upregulated m6A-RMRs; end-stage renal failure (ESRF) downregulated 85% of m6A-RMRs; (5) Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections modulated m6A-RMRs the most among viral infections; (6) proinflammatory oxPAPC modulated m6A-RMRs more than DAMP stimulation including LPS and oxLDL; (7) upregulated m6A-RMRs were more than downregulated m6A-RMRs in cancer types; five types of cancers upregulated ≥10 m6A-RMRs; (8) proinflammatory M1 macrophages upregulated seven m6A-RMRs; (9) 86% of m6A-RMRs were differentially expressed in the six clusters of CD4+Foxp3+ immunosuppressive Treg, and 8 out of 12 Treg signatures regulated m6A-RMRs; (10) immune checkpoint receptors TIM3, TIGIT, PD-L2, and CTLA4 modulated m6A-RMRs, and inhibition of CD40 upregulated m6A-RMRs; (11) cytokines and interferons modulated m6A-RMRs; (12) NF-κB and JAK/STAT pathways upregulated more than downregulated m6A-RMRs whereas TP53, PTEN, and APC did the opposite; (13) methionine-homocysteine-methyl cycle enzyme Mthfd1 downregulated more than upregulated m6A-RMRs; (14) m6A writer RBM15 and one m6A eraser FTO, H3K4 methyltransferase MLL1, and DNA methyltransferase, DNMT1, regulated m6A-RMRs; and (15) 40 out of 165 ROS regulators were modulated by m6A eraser FTO and two m6A writers METTL3 and WTAP. Our findings shed new light on the functions of upregulated m6A-RMRs in 41 diseases and cancers, nine cellular and molecular mechanisms, novel therapeutic targets for inflammatory disorders, metabolic cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, organ failures, and cancers.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/metabolism , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Datasets as Topic , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Metabolic Diseases/genetics , Methylation
4.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 8(4): 414-426, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404124

ABSTRACT

The Losartan Effects on Emphysema Progression (LEEP) trial was designed to test the hypothesis that losartan slows progression of emphysema in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (NCT00720226). It was conducted by the Pulmonary Trials Cooperative consortium, in collaboration with the American Lung Association Airways Clinical Research Centers network. We describe the design of the trial and challenges for recruitment and follow-up of participants. LEEP is a placebo-controlled, parallel randomized trial, allocation ratio of 1:1, with a planned sample size of 220. Primary eligibility criteria were mild emphysema based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans with 5% to 35% voxels <-950 Hounsfield units (HU), airway obstruction based on spirometry, and not taking an angiotensin receptor blocker or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Participants received either losartan or placebo for 48 weeks. A total of 2779 individuals were screened to enroll 220 eligible participants at 26 clinical sites, all located in the continental United States. Recruitment took 45% longer than planned (32 months versus 22 months), with an average accrual rate of 6.7 participants per month. Recruitment challenges included identification of eligible participants who were not already taking or who did not have an established clinical indication for an angiotensin receptor blocker or ACE inhibitor drug and recalls of contaminated lots of losartan by the Food and Drug Administration. A number of recruitment initiatives were launched in response. Recruitment was completed in February 2020, just prior to a nationwide shutdown of research activities due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

5.
Biomedicines ; 9(7)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302153

ABSTRACT

Alveolar type II (ATII) cells proliferate and restore the injured epithelium. It has been described that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes diffuse alveolar damage in the lungs. However, host factors facilitating virus infection in ATII cells are not well known. We determined the SARS-CoV-2-related genes and protein expression using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, in ATII cells isolated from young and elderly non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. Cells were also obtained from lung transplants of emphysema patients. ACE2 has been identified as the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and we found significantly increased levels in young and elderly smokers and emphysema patients. The viral entry depends on TMPRSS2 protease activity, and a higher expression was detected in elderly smokers and ex-smokers and emphysema patients. Both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 mRNA levels were higher in this disease in comparison with non-smokers. CD209L serves as a receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and we found increased levels in ATII cells obtained from smokers and in emphysema patients. Also, our data suggest CD209L regulation by miR142. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was detected in ATII cells in this disease. Our results suggest that upregulation of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors in ATII cells in aging, smokers, and emphysema patients may facilitate infection.

6.
Chest ; 159(4): 1679, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275201
7.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 8(2): 255-268, 2021 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comorbid disease is a risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. However, initial rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in case series were low and severity of COVID-19 in COPD patients was variable. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients admitted with COVID-19 and evaluated outcomes in those with and without COPD and/or emphysema. Patients were identified as having COPD if they had a diagnosis in the medical record and a history of airflow-obstruction on spirometry, or a history of tobacco use and prescribed long-acting bronchodilator(s). Computed tomography scans were evaluated by radiologists. Propensity matching was performed for age, body mass index (BMI), and serologic data correlated with severity of COVID-19 disease (D-dimer, C-reactive protein, ferritin, fibrinogen, absolute lymphocyte count, lymphocyte percentage, and lactate dehydrogenase). RESULTS: Of 577 patients admitted with COVID-19, 103 had a diagnosis of COPD and/or emphysema. The COPD/emphysema cohort was older (67 versus 58, p<0.0001) than the other cohort and had a lower BMI. Among unmatched cohorts those with COPD/emphysema had higher rates of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (35% versus 24.9%, p=0.036) and maximal respiratory support requirements, with more frequent invasive mechanical ventilation (21.4% versus 11.8%), but no significant difference in mortality. After propensity-matching there was no difference in ICU admission, maximal respiratory support requirements, or mortality. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses yielded similar results. DISCUSSION: Our propensity-matched retrospective cohort study suggests that patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who have COPD and/or emphysema may not have worse outcomes than those without these comorbid conditions.

8.
JAMA ; 325(18): 1841-1851, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237391

ABSTRACT

Importance: Alteration in lung microbes is associated with disease progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Objective: To assess the effect of antimicrobial therapy on clinical outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Pragmatic, randomized, unblinded clinical trial conducted across 35 US sites. A total of 513 patients older than 40 years were randomized from August 2017 to June 2019 (final follow-up was January 2020). Interventions: Patients were randomized in a 1:1 allocation ratio to receive antimicrobials (n = 254) or usual care alone (n = 259). Antimicrobials included co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim 160 mg/sulfamethoxazole 800 mg twice daily plus folic acid 5 mg daily, n = 128) or doxycycline (100 mg once daily if body weight <50 kg or 100 mg twice daily if ≥50 kg, n = 126). No placebo was administered in the usual care alone group. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was time to first nonelective respiratory hospitalization or all-cause mortality. Results: Among the 513 patients who were randomized (mean age, 71 years; 23.6% women), all (100%) were included in the analysis. The study was terminated for futility on December 18, 2019. After a mean follow-up time of 13.1 months (median, 12.7 months), a total of 108 primary end point events occurred: 52 events (20.4 events per 100 patient-years [95% CI, 14.8-25.9]) in the usual care plus antimicrobial therapy group and 56 events (18.4 events per 100 patient-years [95% CI, 13.2-23.6]) in the usual care group, with no significant difference between groups (adjusted HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.71-1.53; P = .83]. There was no statistically significant interaction between the effect of the prespecified antimicrobial agent (co-trimoxazole vs doxycycline) on the primary end point (adjusted HR, 1.15 [95% CI 0.68-1.95] in the co-trimoxazole group vs 0.82 [95% CI, 0.46-1.47] in the doxycycline group; P = .66). Serious adverse events occurring at 5% or greater among those treated with usual care plus antimicrobials vs usual care alone included respiratory events (16.5% vs 10.0%) and infections (2.8% vs 6.6%); adverse events of special interest included diarrhea (10.2% vs 3.1%) and rash (6.7% vs 0%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, the addition of co-trimoxazole or doxycycline to usual care, compared with usual care alone, did not significantly improve time to nonelective respiratory hospitalization or death. These findings do not support treatment with these antibiotics for the underlying disease. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02759120.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Doxycycline/adverse effects , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/mortality , Lung/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/adverse effects
9.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 66, 2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The large airway epithelial barrier provides one of the first lines of defense against respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19. Substantial inter-individual variability in individual disease courses is hypothesized to be partially mediated by the differential regulation of the genes that interact with the SARS-CoV-2 virus or are involved in the subsequent host response. Here, we comprehensively investigated non-genetic and genetic factors influencing COVID-19-relevant bronchial epithelial gene expression. METHODS: We analyzed RNA-sequencing data from bronchial epithelial brushings obtained from uninfected individuals. We related ACE2 gene expression to host and environmental factors in the SPIROMICS cohort of smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and replicated these associations in two asthma cohorts, SARP and MAST. To identify airway biology beyond ACE2 binding that may contribute to increased susceptibility, we used gene set enrichment analyses to determine if gene expression changes indicative of a suppressed airway immune response observed early in SARS-CoV-2 infection are also observed in association with host factors. To identify host genetic variants affecting COVID-19 susceptibility in SPIROMICS, we performed expression quantitative trait (eQTL) mapping and investigated the phenotypic associations of the eQTL variants. RESULTS: We found that ACE2 expression was higher in relation to active smoking, obesity, and hypertension that are known risk factors of COVID-19 severity, while an association with interferon-related inflammation was driven by the truncated, non-binding ACE2 isoform. We discovered that expression patterns of a suppressed airway immune response to early SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to other viruses, are similar to patterns associated with obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, which may thus contribute to a COVID-19-susceptible airway environment. eQTL mapping identified regulatory variants for genes implicated in COVID-19, some of which had pheWAS evidence for their potential role in respiratory infections. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide evidence that clinically relevant variation in the expression of COVID-19-related genes is associated with host factors, environmental exposures, and likely host genetic variation.


Subject(s)
Bronchi , COVID-19/genetics , Respiratory Mucosa , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Asthma/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Gene Expression , Genetic Variation , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Quantitative Trait Loci , Risk Factors , Smoking/genetics
10.
Chest ; 159(1): e7-e11, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064922

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality because of a lack of effective therapies. Therapeutic strategies under investigation target the overactive cytokine response with anti-cytokine or immunomodulators therapies. We present a unique case of severe cytokine storm resistant to multiple anti-cytokine therapies, but eventually responsive to etoposide. Thus, etoposide may have a role as salvage therapy in treatment of cytokine storm in COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of use of etoposide in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Aged , Female , Humans , Salvage Therapy/methods , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(1): 24-36, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060510

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has raised many questions about the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and whether modifications of their therapy are required. It has raised questions about recognizing and differentiating coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from COPD given the similarity of the symptoms. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Science Committee used established methods for literature review to present an overview of the management of patients with COPD during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unclear whether patients with COPD are at increased risk of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2. During periods of high community prevalence of COVID-19, spirometry should only be used when it is essential for COPD diagnosis and/or to assess lung function status for interventional procedures or surgery. Patients with COPD should follow basic infection control measures, including social distancing, hand washing, and wearing a mask or face covering. Patients should remain up to date with appropriate vaccinations, particularly annual influenza vaccination. Although data are limited, inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting bronchodilators, roflumilast, or chronic macrolides should continue to be used as indicated for stable COPD management. Systemic steroids and antibiotics should be used in COPD exacerbations according to the usual indications. Differentiating symptoms of COVID-19 infection from chronic underlying symptoms or those of an acute COPD exacerbation may be challenging. If there is suspicion for COVID-19, testing for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered. Patients who developed moderate-to-severe COVID-19, including hospitalization and pneumonia, should be treated with evolving pharmacotherapeutic approaches as appropriate, including remdesivir, dexamethasone, and anticoagulation. Managing acute respiratory failure should include appropriate oxygen supplementation, prone positioning, noninvasive ventilation, and protective lung strategy in patients with COPD and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Patients who developed asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 should be followed with the usual COPD protocols. Patients who developed moderate or worse COVID-19 should be monitored more frequently and accurately than the usual patients with COPD, with particular attention to the need for oxygen therapy.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Disease Management , Lung/physiopathology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/prevention & control , Societies, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
14.
N Engl J Med ; 384(1): 20-30, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pneumonia is often associated with hyperinflammation. Despite the disproportionate incidence of Covid-19 among underserved and racial and ethnic minority populations, the safety and efficacy of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab in patients from these populations who are hospitalized with Covid-19 pneumonia are unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) patients hospitalized with Covid-19 pneumonia who were not receiving mechanical ventilation to receive standard care plus one or two doses of either tocilizumab (8 mg per kilogram of body weight intravenously) or placebo. Site selection was focused on the inclusion of sites enrolling high-risk and minority populations. The primary outcome was mechanical ventilation or death by day 28. RESULTS: A total of 389 patients underwent randomization, and the modified intention-to-treat population included 249 patients in the tocilizumab group and 128 patients in the placebo group; 56.0% were Hispanic or Latino, 14.9% were Black, 12.7% were American Indian or Alaska Native, 12.7% were non-Hispanic White, and 3.7% were of other or unknown race or ethnic group. The cumulative percentage of patients who had received mechanical ventilation or who had died by day 28 was 12.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.5 to 16.9) in the tocilizumab group and 19.3% (95% CI, 13.3 to 27.4) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for mechanical ventilation or death, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.97; P = 0.04 by the log-rank test). Clinical failure as assessed in a time-to-event analysis favored tocilizumab over placebo (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.93). Death from any cause by day 28 occurred in 10.4% of the patients in the tocilizumab group and 8.6% of those in the placebo group (weighted difference, 2.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -5.2 to 7.8). In the safety population, serious adverse events occurred in 38 of 250 patients (15.2%) in the tocilizumab group and 25 of 127 patients (19.7%) in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with Covid-19 pneumonia who were not receiving mechanical ventilation, tocilizumab reduced the likelihood of progression to the composite outcome of mechanical ventilation or death, but it did not improve survival. No new safety signals were identified. (Funded by Genentech; EMPACTA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04372186.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Rate
15.
Chest ; 159(1): e7-e11, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-928874

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality because of a lack of effective therapies. Therapeutic strategies under investigation target the overactive cytokine response with anti-cytokine or immunomodulators therapies. We present a unique case of severe cytokine storm resistant to multiple anti-cytokine therapies, but eventually responsive to etoposide. Thus, etoposide may have a role as salvage therapy in treatment of cytokine storm in COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of use of etoposide in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Aged , Female , Humans , Salvage Therapy/methods , Severity of Illness Index
17.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(3): 585-591.e2, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been associated with a hypercoagulable state. Emerging data from China and Europe have consistently shown an increased incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We aimed to identify the VTE incidence and early predictors of VTE at our high-volume tertiary care center. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 147 patients who had been admitted to Temple University Hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from April 1, 2020 to April 27, 2020. We first identified the VTE (pulmonary embolism [PE] and deep vein thrombosis [DVT]) incidence in our cohort. The VTE and no-VTE groups were compared by univariable analysis for demographics, comorbidities, laboratory data, and treatment outcomes. Subsequently, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the early predictors of VTE. RESULTS: The 147 patients (20.9% of all admissions) admitted to a designated COVID-19 unit at Temple University Hospital with a high clinical suspicion of acute VTE had undergone testing for VTE using computed tomography pulmonary angiography and/or extremity venous duplex ultrasonography. The overall incidence of VTE was 17% (25 of 147). Of the 25 patients, 16 had had acute PE, 14 had had acute DVT, and 5 had had both PE and DVT. The need for invasive mechanical ventilation (adjusted odds ratio, 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-9.55) and the admission D-dimer level ≥1500 ng/mL (adjusted odds ratio, 3.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-9.78) were independent markers associated with VTE. The all-cause mortality in the VTE group was greater than that in the non-VTE group (48% vs 22%; P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: Our study represents one of the earliest reported from the United States on the incidence rate of VTE in patients with COVID-19. Patients with a high clinical suspicion and the identified risk factors (invasive mechanical ventilation, admission D-dimer level ≥1500 ng/mL) should be considered for early VTE testing. We did not screen all patients admitted for VTE; therefore, the true incidence of VTE could have been underestimated. Our findings require confirmation in future prospective studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Pulmonary Embolism , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/etiology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(1): 88-95, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797474

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop predictive criteria for COVID-19-associated cytokine storm (CS), a severe hyperimmune response that results in organ damage in some patients infected with COVID-19. We hypothesised that criteria for inflammation and cell death would predict this type of CS. METHODS: We analysed 513 hospitalised patients who were positive for COVID-19 reverse transcriptase PCR and for ground-glass opacity by chest high-resolution CT. To achieve an early diagnosis, we analysed the laboratory results of the first 7 days of hospitalisation. We implemented logistic regression and principal component analysis to determine the predictive criteria. We used a 'genetic algorithm' to derive the cut-offs for each laboratory result. We validated the criteria with a second cohort of 258 patients. RESULTS: We found that the criteria for macrophage activation syndrome, haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and the HScore did not identify the COVID-19 cytokine storm (COVID-CS). We developed new predictive criteria, with sensitivity and specificity of 0.85 and 0.80, respectively, comprising three clusters of laboratory results that involve (1) inflammation, (2) cell death and tissue damage, and (3) prerenal electrolyte imbalance. The criteria identified patients with longer hospitalisation and increased mortality. These results highlight the relevance of hyperinflammation and tissue damage in the COVID-CS. CONCLUSIONS: We propose new early predictive criteria to identify the CS occurring in patients with COVID-19. The criteria can be readily used in clinical practice to determine the need for an early therapeutic regimen, block the hyperimmune response and possibly decrease mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 31: 101227, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779616

ABSTRACT

We report four individuals admitted for acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 who demonstrated significant clinical improvement prior to discharge and subsequently were readmitted with worsening respiratory failure, elevated inflammatory markers and worsening chest imaging. We propose a multi-disciplinary discharge criterion to establish a safer discharge process including trending inflammatory markers, daily imaging and pursuing follow up CT chest, particularly in individuals with significant morbidities and health disparities.

20.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 236, 2020 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-768484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of COVID-19 viral pneumonia. The exact incidence and risk factors are still unknown. Herein we review the incidence and outcomes of pneumothorax in over 3000 patients admitted to our institution for suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of COVID-19 cases admitted to our hospital. Patients who were diagnosed with a spontaneous pneumothorax were identified to calculate the incidence of this event. Their clinical characteristics were thoroughly documented. Data regarding their clinical outcomes were gathered. Each case was presented as a brief synopsis. RESULTS: Three thousand three hundred sixty-eight patients were admitted to our institution between March 1st, 2020 and June 8th, 2020 for suspected COVID 19 pneumonia, 902 patients were nasopharyngeal swab positive. Six cases of COVID-19 patients who developed spontaneous pneumothorax were identified (0.66%). Their baseline imaging showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidations, mostly in the posterior and peripheral lung regions. 4/6 cases were associated with mechanical ventilation. All patients required placement of a chest tube. In all cases, mortality (66.6%) was not directly related to the pneumothorax. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare complication of COVID-19 viral pneumonia and may occur in the absence of mechanical ventilation. Clinicians should be vigilant about the diagnosis and treatment of this complication.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/therapy , Pneumothorax/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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