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1.
Journal of Cleaner Production ; 369(64), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2159207

ABSTRACT

From an economic point of view, the tourism sector is one of the most important in the world with religious tourism, such as pilgrimages, being a growth area. Tourism activities also make a significant contribution to CO2 emissions (roughly 8% of the world's carbon emissions). In this framework, the main objective of this research is to develop an integrated sustainable model by assessing the impact of pilgrimages to the Camino Lebaniego (Lebaniego Way) in the Cantabrian region, which is one of the most popular routes in northern Spain. To do this, it is necessary to quantify the environmental impacts of this activity since this is a key element in establishing appropriate and effective environmental management programmes. This study uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method, focused on the Carbon Footprint (CF) impact category, to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of this activity considering 'a pilgrim who completes the route in three days' as the selected functional unit (FU). In addition, the sub-sectors of accommodation, food and beverages, and waste management are taken into account. Following this route generated a total of 13.69 kg CO2 eq./FU, of which accommodation and the services offered there contributed almost 71.47%, food was 17.08%, and waste management 11.45%. The evening meal and propane consumption were the hotspots in the hostel, accounting for almost 74% of the total impact, so alternatives were proposed to reduce the impacts associated with these. In terms of transport, it was found that for the same destination, it was better to use a car rather than a plane, because the associated CO2 emissions were lower. Finally, these aspects are discussed and improvement measures for reducing GHG emissions are proposed, involving the introduction of good practices and environmental commitments from the pilgrims themselves, as well as enterprises and local communities. Ecolabels and environmental certifications should become a key tool for sending this signal to the market as should the use of public transport to the destination, among other actions. Ultimately, religious and nature tourism seems to be on the upturn, and it is likely that pilgrimage routes could be the next post-COVID travel trend.

2.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis Conference ; 6(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2128176

ABSTRACT

Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a major cause of stroke in young adults. Is more frequent in women, it may appear related to pregnancy or the use of hormonal contraceptives. Its symptoms are nonspecific, often with a normal neurological examination. Its diagnosis is based on imaging tests and in most cases, if treatment is started early, the prognosis may be favorable. Aim(s): Describe the characteristics of CVT in patients that we have had in our clinic. Method(s): We compiled data from patients with CVT followed up in our hemostasis consultation in the last 6 years. Patient data were collected through hospital medical records. Result(s): We have a series of 15 cases, most of them women (73.3%). The average age of the series is 38.6 years (range from newborn to 64 years). The most frequent symptoms were epileptic seizures in 40% and headache in 33.3%. In 45.5% of women, CVT was related to pregnancy or the puerperium, and in 27.3% of the women it was associated with taking oral contraceptives. Thrombophilia (genetic or acquired) has been found to be involved in 33.3% of cases. The remaining cases were associated with breast cancer (1), trauma (1), severe anemia (1), and SARS-CoV vaccines (1). In two cases (13.3%) decompressive neurosurgery was required. In two cases (13,3%), direct oral anticoagulant (apixaban and dabigatran) were used. In 60% of cases anticonvulsant treatment was associated. In 40% of cases, the evolution was very favorable without sequelae, recurrent headache was found in 53,3% of cases. Conclusion(s): CVT is a rare but important cause of stroke in young adults. CVT it is not easy to diagnose, partly due to its relative rarity, its multiple and various clinical manifestations and interpret correct brain imaging. We must keep it in mind to avoid delay in diagnosis and treatment. (Table Presented).

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140524, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624699

ABSTRACT

Improving the food supply chain efficiency has been identified as an essential means to enhance food security, while reducing pressure on natural resources. Adequate food loss and waste (FLW) management has been proposed as an approach to meet these objectives. The main hypothesis of this study is to consider that the "strong fluctuations and short-term changes" on eating habits may have major consequences on potential FLW generation and management, as well as on GHG emissions, all taking into account the nutritional and the economic cost. Due to the exceptional lockdown measures imposed by the Spanish government, as a consequence of the emerging coronavirus disease, COVID-19, food production and consumption systems have undergone significant changes, which must be properly studied in order to propose strategies from the lessons learned. Taking Spain as a case study, the methodological approach included a deep analysis of the inputs and outputs of the Spanish food basket, the supply chain by means of a Material Flow Analysis, as well as an economic and comprehensive nutritional assessment, all under a life cycle thinking approach. The results reveal that during the first weeks of the COVID-19 lockdown, there was no significant adjustment in overall FLW generation, but a partial reallocation from extra-domestic consumption to households occurred (12% increase in household FLW). Moreover, the economic impact (+11%), GHG emissions (+10%), and the nutritional content (-8%) complete the multivariable impact profile that the COVID-19 outbreak had on FLW generation and management. Accordingly, this study once again highlights that measures aimed at reducing FLW, particularly in the household sector, are critical to make better use of food surpluses and FLW prevention and control, allowing us to confront future unforeseen scenarios.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Refuse Disposal , Waste Management , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Food , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
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