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1.
J Pers Med ; 12(6)2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911440

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the vaccine effect by comparing five groups: unvaccinated patients with Alpha variant, unvaccinated patients with Delta variant, vaccinated patients with Delta variant, unvaccinated patients with Omicron variant, and vaccinated patients with Omicron variant, assessing the "gravity" of COVID-19 pulmonary involvement, based on CT findings in critically ill patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). METHODS: Patients were selected by ICU database considering the period from December 2021 to 23 March 2022, according to the following inclusion criteria: patients with proven Omicron variant COVID-19 infection with known COVID-19 vaccination with at least two doses and with chest Computed Tomography (CT) study during ICU hospitalization. Wee also evaluated the ICU database considering the period from March 2020 to December 2021, to select unvaccinated consecutive patients with Alpha variant, subjected to CT study, consecutive unvaccinated and vaccinated patients with Delta variant, subjected to CT study, and, consecutive unvaccinated patients with Omicron variant, subjected to CT study. CT images were evaluated qualitatively using a severity score scale of 5 levels (none involvement, mild: ≤25% of involvement, moderate: 26-50% of involvement, severe: 51-75% of involvement, and critical involvement: 76-100%) and quantitatively, using the Philips IntelliSpace Portal clinical application CT COPD computer tool. For each patient the lung volumetry was performed identifying the percentage value of aerated residual lung volume. Non-parametric tests for continuous and categorical variables were performed to assess statistically significant differences among groups. RESULTS: The patient study group was composed of 13 vaccinated patients affected by the Omicron variant (Omicron V). As control groups we identified: 20 unvaccinated patients with Alpha variant (Alpha NV); 20 unvaccinated patients with Delta variant (Delta NV); 18 vaccinated patients with Delta variant (Delta V); and 20 unvaccinated patients affected by the Omicron variant (Omicron NV). No differences between the groups under examination were found (p value > 0.05 at Chi square test) in terms of risk factors (age, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, immunosuppression, chronic kidney, cardiac, pulmonary, neurologic, and liver disease, etc.). A different median value of aerated residual lung volume was observed in the Delta variant groups: median value of aerated residual lung volume was 46.70% in unvaccinated patients compared to 67.10% in vaccinated patients. In addition, in patients with Delta variant every other extracted volume by automatic tool showed a statistically significant difference between vaccinated and unvaccinated group. Statistically significant differences were observed for each extracted volume by automatic tool between unvaccinated patients affected by Alpha variant and vaccinated patients affected by Delta variant of COVID-19. Good statistically significant correlations among volumes extracted by automatic tool for each lung lobe and overall radiological severity score were obtained (ICC range 0.71-0.86). GGO was the main sign of COVID-19 lesions on CT images found in 87 of the 91 (95.6%) patients. No statistically significant differences were observed in CT findings (ground glass opacities (GGO), consolidation or crazy paving sign) among patient groups. CONCLUSION: In our study, we showed that in critically ill patients no difference were observed in terms of severity of disease or exitus, between unvaccinated and vaccinated patients. The only statistically significant differences were observed, with regard to the severity of COVID-19 pulmonary parenchymal involvement, between unvaccinated patients affected by Alpha variant and vaccinated patients affected by Delta variant, and between unvaccinated patients with Delta variant and vaccinated patients with Delta variant.

2.
Radiation ; 1(2):153, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834873

ABSTRACT

Simple SummaryThe diagnostic imaging with a chest CT in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia is the key point for early screening, differential diagnosis, staging, the severity of the disease and to plan the possible therapy in the intensive care unit. The evolution of pulmonary changes in this setting requires multiple CT scans in a short period, especially for severe illness. The aim of this study is to assess if there was a variation dose in chest CT scans in COVID-19 patients compared to a cohort with pulmonary infectious diseases at the same time of the previous year to value if there is any modification of exposure dose. We compared 1660 chest CT scans of 597 COVID-19 patients with those of patients hospitalized for infectious respiratory diseases in the same period of the previous year. Our results show that COVID-19 patients are exposed to a higher dose of radiation than other patients, especially in the younger age groups.The CT manifestation of COVID-19 patients is now well known and essentially reflects pathological changes in the lungs. Actually, there is insufficient knowledge on the long-term outcomes of this new disease, and several chest CTs might be necessary to evaluate the outcomes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the radiation dose for chest CT scans in COVID-19 patients compared to a cohort with pulmonary infectious diseases at the same time of the previous year to value if there is any modification of exposure dose. The analysis of our data shows an increase in the overall mean dose in COVID-19 patients compared with non-COVID-19 patients. In our results, the higher dose increase occurs in the younger age groups (+86% range 21–30 years and +67% range 31–40 years). Our results show that COVID-19 patients are exposed to a significantly higher dose of ionizing radiation than other patients without COVID infectious lung disease, and especially in younger age groups, although some authors have proposed the use of radiotherapy in these patients, which is yet to be validated. Our study has limitations: the use of one CT machine in a single institute and a limited number of patients.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318926

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 pathogen is a catastrophic pandemic outbreak all over the world with exponential increasing of confirmed cases and, unfortunately, deaths. In this work we propose an AI-powered pipeline, based on the deep-learning paradigm, for automated COVID-19 detection and lesion categorization from CT scans. We first propose a new segmentation module aimed at identifying automatically lung parenchyma and lobes. Next, we combined such segmentation network with classification networks for COVID-19 identification and lesion categorization. We compare the obtained classification results with those obtained by three expert radiologists on a dataset consisting of 162 CT scans. Results showed a sensitivity of 90\% and a specificity of 93.5% for COVID-19 detection, outperforming those yielded by the expert radiologists, and an average lesion categorization accuracy of over 84%. Results also show that a significant role is played by prior lung and lobe segmentation that allowed us to enhance performance by over 20 percent points. The interpretation of the trained AI models, moreover, reveals that the most significant areas for supporting the decision on COVID-19 identification are consistent with the lesions clinically associated to the virus, i.e., crazy paving, consolidation and ground glass. This means that the artificial models are able to discriminate a positive patient from a negative one (both controls and patients with interstitial pneumonia tested negative to COVID) by evaluating the presence of those lesions into CT scans. Finally, the AI models are integrated into a user-friendly GUI to support AI explainability for radiologists, which is publicly available at http://perceivelab.com/covid-ai.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317624

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is top infectious disease killer caused by a single organismresponsible for 1.5 million deaths in 2018. Both COVID 19 and the pandemic responseare risking to affect control measures for TB and continuity of essential services forpeople affected by this infection in western countries and even more in developingcountries. Knowledges about concomitant pulmonary TB and COVID-19 are extremelylimited. The double burden of these two diseases can have devastating effects. Herewe describe from both the clinical and the immunological point of view a case of apatient with in vitro immune cell anergy affected by bilateral cavitary pulmonary TB andsubsequent COVID-19-associated pneumonia with a worst outcome. COVID-19 can bea precipitating factor in TB respiratory failure and, during ongoing SARS COV 2 pandemic, clinicians must be aware of this possible coinfection in differential diagnosisof patients with active TB and new or worsening chest imaging

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294533

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused an unprecedented effect on national radiological investigations. Since the World Health Organization officially declared the COVID-19 as a global pandemic, health policies have been rapidly organized to limit the spread of the virus and decrease the risk of exposure. These restrictions, in combination with home-stay arrangements and the onset of economic recession. As a result of public policies, financial difficulties and patient fear, many radiology departments have suffered a significant reduction in diagnostic examinations with important implications for their economic stability. The aim of this work is to evaluate the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Radiology Department of an infectious disease hospital.

6.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate two commercial software and their efficacy in the assessment of chest CT sequelae in patients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia, comparing the consistency of tools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included in the study group were 120 COVID-19 patients (56 women and 104 men; 61 years of median age; range: 21-93 years) who underwent chest CT examinations at discharge between 5 March 2020 and 15 March 2021 and again at a follow-up time (3 months; range 30-237 days). A qualitative assessment by expert radiologists in the infectious disease field (experience of at least 5 years) was performed, and a quantitative evaluation using thoracic VCAR software (GE Healthcare, Chicago, Illinois, United States) and a pneumonia module of ANKE ASG-340 CT workstation (HTS Med & Anke, Naples, Italy) was performed. The qualitative evaluation included the presence of ground glass opacities (GGOs) consolidation, interlobular septal thickening, fibrotic-like changes (reticular pattern and/or honeycombing), bronchiectasis, air bronchogram, bronchial wall thickening, pulmonary nodules surrounded by GGOs, pleural and pericardial effusion, lymphadenopathy, and emphysema. A quantitative evaluation included the measurements of GGOs, consolidations, emphysema, residual healthy parenchyma, and total lung volumes for the right and left lung. A chi-square test and non-parametric test were utilized to verify the differences between groups. Correlation coefficients were used to analyze the correlation and variability among quantitative measurements by different computer tools. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. RESULTS: The correlation coefficients showed great variability among the quantitative measurements by different tools when calculated on baseline CT scans and considering all patients. Instead, a good correlation (≥0.6) was obtained for the quantitative GGO, as well as the consolidation volumes obtained by two tools when calculated on baseline CT scans, considering the control group. An excellent correlation (≥0.75) was obtained for the quantitative residual healthy lung parenchyma volume, GGO, consolidation volumes obtained by two tools when calculated on follow-up CT scans, and for residual healthy lung parenchyma and GGO quantification when the percentage change of these volumes were calculated between a baseline and follow-up scan. The highest value of accuracy to identify patients with RT-PCR positive compared to the control group was obtained by a GGO total volume quantification by thoracic VCAR (accuracy = 0.75). CONCLUSIONS: Computer aided quantification could be an easy and feasible way to assess chest CT sequelae due to COVID-19 pneumonia; however, a great variability among measurements provided by different tools should be considered.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection present a hypercoagulable condition. Anticoagulant therapy is currently recommended to reduce thrombotic risk, leading to potentially severe complications like spontaneous bleeding (SB). Percutaneous transcatheter arterial embolization (PTAE) can be life-saving in critical patients, in addition to medical therapy. We report a major COVID-19 Italian Research Hospital experience during the pandemic, with particular focus on indications and technique of embolization. METHODS: We retrospectively included all subjects with SB and with a microbiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, over one year of pandemic, selecting two different groups: (a) patients treated with PTAE and medical therapy; (b) patients treated only with medical therapy. Computed tomography (CT) scan findings, clinical conditions, and biological findings were collected. RESULTS: 21/1075 patients presented soft tissue SB with an incidence of 1.95%. 10/21 patients were treated with PTAE and medical therapy with a 30-days survival of 70%. Arterial blush, contrast late enhancement, and dimensions at CT scan were found discriminating for the embolization (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PTAE is an important tool in severely ill, bleeding COVID-19 patients. The decision for PTAE of COVID-19 patients must be carefully weighted with particular attention paid to the clinical and biological condition, hematoma location and volume.

8.
Artif Intell Med ; 118: 102114, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240193

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 pathogen has been a catastrophic pandemic outbreak all over the world, with exponential increasing of confirmed cases and, unfortunately, deaths. In this work we propose an AI-powered pipeline, based on the deep-learning paradigm, for automated COVID-19 detection and lesion categorization from CT scans. We first propose a new segmentation module aimed at automatically identifying lung parenchyma and lobes. Next, we combine the segmentation network with classification networks for COVID-19 identification and lesion categorization. We compare the model's classification results with those obtained by three expert radiologists on a dataset of 166 CT scans. Results showed a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 93.5% for COVID-19 detection, at least on par with those yielded by the expert radiologists, and an average lesion categorization accuracy of about 84%. Moreover, a significant role is played by prior lung and lobe segmentation, that allowed us to enhance classification performance by over 6 percent points. The interpretation of the trained AI models reveals that the most significant areas for supporting the decision on COVID-19 identification are consistent with the lesions clinically associated to the virus, i.e., crazy paving, consolidation and ground glass. This means that the artificial models are able to discriminate a positive patient from a negative one (both controls and patients with interstitial pneumonia tested negative to COVID) by evaluating the presence of those lesions into CT scans. Finally, the AI models are integrated into a user-friendly GUI to support AI explainability for radiologists, which is publicly available at http://perceivelab.com/covid-ai. The whole AI system is unique since, to the best of our knowledge, it is the first AI-based software, publicly available, that attempts to explain to radiologists what information is used by AI methods for making decisions and that proactively involves them in the decision loop to further improve the COVID-19 understanding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Infection ; 49(5): 1061-1064, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033792

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is top infectious disease killer caused by a single organism responsible for 1.5 million deaths in 2018. Both COVID-19 and the pandemic response are risking to affect control measures for TB and continuity of essential services for people affected by this infection in western countries and even more in developing countries. Knowledge about concomitant pulmonary TB and COVID-19 is extremely limited. The double burden of these two diseases can have devastating effects. Here, we describe from both the clinical and the immunological point of view a case of a patient with in vitro immune cell anergy affected by bilateral cavitary pulmonary TB and subsequent COVID-19-associated pneumonia with a worst outcome. COVID-19 can be a precipitating factor in TB respiratory failure and, during ongoing SARS-COV-2 pandemic, clinicians must be aware of this possible co-infection in differential diagnosis of patients with active TB and new or worsening chest imaging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 93: 192-197, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several recent case reports have described common early chest imaging findings of lung pathology caused by 2019 novel Coronavirus (SARS-COV2) which appear to be similar to those seen previously in SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infected patients. OBJECTIVE: We present some remarkable imaging findings of the first two patients identified in Italy with COVID-19 infection travelling from Wuhan, China. The follow-up with chest X-Rays and CT scans was also included, showing a progressive adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). RESULTS: Moderate to severe progression of the lung infiltrates, with increasing percentage of high-density infiltrates sustained by a bilateral and multi-segmental extension of lung opacities, were seen. During the follow-up, apart from pleural effusions, a tubular and enlarged appearance of pulmonary vessels with a sudden caliber reduction was seen, mainly found in the dichotomic tracts, where the center of a new insurgent pulmonary lesion was seen. It could be an early alert radiological sign to predict initial lung deterioration. Another uncommon element was the presence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy with short-axis oval nodes. CONCLUSIONS: Although only two patients have been studied, these findings are consistent with the radiological pattern described in literature. Finally, the pulmonary vessels enlargement in areas where new lung infiltrates develop in the follow-up CT scan, could describe an early predictor radiological sign of lung impairment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China , Disease Progression , Humans , Italy , Lung/pathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2
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