BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Advice to drink plenty of fluid is common in respiratory infections. We assessed whether low fluid intake (dehydration) altered outcomes in adults with pneumonia. METHODS: We systematically reviewed trials increasing fluid intake and well-adjusted, well-powered observational studies assessing associations between markers of low-intake dehydration (fluid intake, serum osmolality, urea or blood urea nitrogen, urinary output, signs of dehydration) and mortality in adult pneumonia patients (with any type of pneumonia, including community acquired, health-care acquired, aspiration, COVID-19 and mixed types). Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, references of reviews and included studies were searched to 30/10/2020. Studies were assessed for inclusion, risk of bias and data extracted independently in duplicate. We employed random-effects meta-analysis, sensitivity analyses, subgrouping and GRADE assessment. Prospero registration: CRD42020182599. RESULTS: We identified one trial, 20 well-adjusted cohort studies and one case-control study. None suggested that more fluid (hydration) was associated with harm. Ten of 13 well-powered observational studies found statistically significant positive associations in adjusted analyses between dehydration and medium-term mortality. The other three studies found no significant effect. Meta-analysis suggested doubled odds of medium-term mortality in dehydrated (compared to hydrated) pneumonia patients (GRADE moderate-quality evidence, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8 to 2.8, 8619 deaths in 128,319 participants). Heterogeneity was explained by a dose effect (greater dehydration increased risk of mortality further), and the effect was consistent across types of pneumonia (including community-acquired, hospital-acquired, aspiration, nursing and health-care associated, and mixed pneumonia), age and setting (community or hospital). The single trial found that educating pneumonia patients to drink ≥1.5 L fluid/d alongside lifestyle advice increased fluid intake and reduced subsequent healthcare use. No studies in COVID-19 pneumonia met the inclusion criteria, but 70% of those hospitalised with COVID-19 have pneumonia. Smaller COVID-19 studies suggested that hydration is as important in COVID-19 pneumonia mortality as in other pneumonias. CONCLUSIONS: We found consistent moderate-quality evidence mainly from observational studies that improving hydration reduces the risk of medium-term mortality in all types of pneumonia. It is remarkable that while many studies included dehydration as a potential confounder, and major pneumonia risk scores include measures of hydration, optimal fluid volume and the effect of supporting hydration have not been assessed in randomised controlled trials of people with pneumonia. Such trials, are needed as potential benefits may be large, rapid and implemented at low cost. Supporting hydration and reversing dehydration has the potential to have rapid positive impacts on pneumonia outcomes, and perhaps also COVID-19 pneumonia outcomes, in older adults.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Drinking , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
OBJECTIVES: To establish the evidence for rehabilitation interventions tested in populations of patients admitted to ICU and critical care with severe respiratory illness, and consider whether the evidence is generalizable to patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The authors undertook a rapid systematic review. Medline (via OvidSP), CINAHL Complete (via EBSCOhost), Cochrane Library, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and CENTRAL (via Wiley), Epistemonikos (via Epistemonikos.org), PEDro (via pedro.org.au) and OTseeker (via otseeker.com) searched to 7 May 2020. The authors included systematic reviews, RCTs and qualitative studies involving adults with respiratory illness requiring intensive care who received rehabilitation to enhance or restore resulting physical impairments or function. Data were extracted by one author and checked by a second. TIDier was used to guide intervention descriptions. Study quality was assessed using Critical Skills Appraisal Programme (CASP) tools. RESULTS: Six thousand nine hundred and three titles and abstracts were screened; 24 systematic reviews, 11 RCTs and eight qualitative studies were included. Progressive exercise programmes, early mobilisation and multicomponent interventions delivered in ICU can improve functional independence. Nutritional supplementation in addition to rehabilitation in post-ICU hospital settings may improve performance of activities of daily living. The evidence for rehabilitation after discharge from hospital following an ICU admission is inconclusive. Those receiving rehabilitation valued it, engendering hope and confidence. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise, early mobilisation and multicomponent programmes may improve recovery following ICU admission for severe respiratory illness that could be generalizable to those with COVID-19. Rehabilitation interventions can bring hope and confidence to individuals but there is a need for an individualised approach and the use of behaviour change strategies. Further research is needed in post-ICU settings and with those who have COVID-19. Registration: Open Science Framework https://osf.io/prc2y.