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1.
Eur J Neurosci ; 27(2): 294-300, 2008 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18190522

ABSTRACT

Administration of VP025 (Vasogen Inc.), a novel drug formulation based on phospholipid nanoparticles incorporating phosphatidylglycerol, has previously been shown to have a neuroprotective effect in the brain. We examined the effect of VP025 in a rat model of Parkinson's disease, the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion of the medial forebrain bundle. VP025 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was administered to rats 14 days, 13 days and 1 day before the unilateral 6-OHDA lesion. Functional integrity of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons was assessed 7 and 21 days later by amphetamine-induced rotational testing and we observed that rotational counts were significantly less in rats that were pretreated with VP025 compared with PBS-pretreated 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Neurochemical analysis at 10 and 28 days after lesion revealed that VP025 protected against a 6-OHDA-induced decrease in concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites. Immunocytochemical studies of the ipsilateral substantia nigra showed that VP025 significantly inhibited 6-OHDA-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons. We also observed that increases in immunostaining for activated microglia and for activated p38 in dopaminergic neurons of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were prevented by VP025. This study shows that VP025 has significant protective effects on the 6-OHDA-lesioned nigrostriatal pathway and may therefore have potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.


Subject(s)
Disease Models, Animal , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxidopamine/toxicity , Parkinson Disease, Secondary/drug therapy , Phosphatidylglycerols/therapeutic use , Phospholipids/therapeutic use , Animals , Male , Neuroprotective Agents/chemistry , Parkinson Disease, Secondary/chemically induced , Parkinson Disease, Secondary/metabolism , Parkinson Disease, Secondary/pathology , Phosphatidylglycerols/chemistry , Phospholipids/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
2.
Phytochemistry ; 68(3): 266-74, 2007 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17182070

ABSTRACT

From dengue to herpes and influenza to AIDS, the phytoestrogens that are present in many fruits and vegetables have been shown to exert anti-viral properties. Here we review the various different anti-viral mechanisms employed by phytoestrogens.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Malus/chemistry , Phytoestrogens/administration & dosage , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Herpesviridae/drug effects , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects
3.
J Virol ; 75(16): 7435-52, 2001 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11462016

ABSTRACT

Here we provide the first report of protection against a vaginal challenge with a highly virulent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) by using a vaccine vector. New poliovirus vectors based on Sabin 1 and 2 vaccine strain viruses were constructed, and these vectors were used to generate a series of new viruses containing SIV gag, pol, env, nef, and tat in overlapping fragments. Two cocktails of 20 transgenic polioviruses (SabRV1-SIV and SabRV2-SIV) were inoculated into seven cynomolgus macaques. All monkeys produced substantial anti-SIV serum and mucosal antibody responses. SIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses were detected in three of seven monkeys after vaccination. All 7 vaccinated macaques, as well as 12 control macaques, were challenged vaginally with pathogenic SIVmac251. Strikingly, four of the seven vaccinated animals exhibited substantial protection against the vaginal SIV challenge. All 12 control monkeys became SIV positive. In two of the seven SabRV-SIV-vaccinated monkeys we found no virological evidence of infection following challenge, indicating that these two monkeys were completely protected. Two additional SabRV-SIV-vaccinated monkeys exhibited a pronounced reduction in postacute viremia to <10(3) copies/ml, suggesting that the vaccine elicited an effective cellular immune response. Three of six control animals developed clinical AIDS by 48 weeks postchallenge. In contrast, all seven vaccinated monkeys remained healthy as judged by all clinical parameters. These results demonstrate the efficacy of SabRV as a potential human vaccine vector, and they show that the use of a vaccine vector cocktail expressing an array of defined antigenic sequences can be an effective vaccination strategy in an outbred population.


Subject(s)
Arenaviruses, New World , Genetic Vectors , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Arenaviruses, New World/genetics , Arenaviruses, New World/immunology , Female , Humans , Macaca , Recombination, Genetic , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Vagina/virology
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 98(12): 6895-900, 2001 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11371613

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses evolve rapidly. One source of this ability to rapidly change is the apparently high mutation frequency in RNA virus populations. A high mutation frequency is a central tenet of the quasispecies theory. A corollary of the quasispecies theory postulates that, given their high mutation frequency, animal RNA viruses may be susceptible to error catastrophe, where they undergo a sharp drop in viability after a modest increase in mutation frequency. We recently showed that the important broad-spectrum antiviral drug ribavirin (currently used to treat hepatitis C virus infections, among others) is an RNA virus mutagen, and we proposed that ribavirin's antiviral effect is by forcing RNA viruses into error catastrophe. However, a direct demonstration of error catastrophe has not been made for ribavirin or any RNA virus mutagen. Here we describe a direct demonstration of error catastrophe by using ribavirin as the mutagen and poliovirus as a model RNA virus. We demonstrate that ribavirin's antiviral activity is exerted directly through lethal mutagenesis of the viral genetic material. A 99.3% loss in viral genome infectivity is observed after a single round of virus infection in ribavirin concentrations sufficient to cause a 9.7-fold increase in mutagenesis. Compiling data on both the mutation levels and the specific infectivities of poliovirus genomes produced in the presence of ribavirin, we have constructed a graph of error catastrophe showing that normal poliovirus indeed exists at the edge of viability. These data suggest that RNA virus mutagens may represent a promising new class of antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Mutation , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Ribavirin/pharmacology , Base Sequence , HeLa Cells , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Poliovirus/drug effects , Poliovirus/genetics , RNA Viruses/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Nat Med ; 6(12): 1375-9, 2000 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11100123

ABSTRACT

The ribonucleoside analog ribavirin (1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxamide) shows antiviral activity against a variety of RNA viruses and is used in combination with interferon-alpha to treat hepatitis C virus infection. Here we show in vitro use of ribavirin triphosphate by a model viral RNA polymerase, poliovirus 3Dpol. Ribavirin incorporation is mutagenic, as it templates incorporation of cytidine and uridine with equal efficiency. Ribavirin reduces infectious poliovirus production to as little as 0. 00001% in cell culture. The antiviral activity of ribavirin correlates directly with its mutagenic activity. These data indicate that ribavirin forces the virus into 'error catastrophe'. Thus, mutagenic ribonucleosides may represent an important class of anti-RNA virus agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Mutagens/pharmacology , Nucleotides/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/drug effects , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Ribavirin/analogs & derivatives , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/drug effects , Poliovirus/drug effects , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
J Biol Chem ; 275(33): 25523-32, 2000 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10827187

ABSTRACT

We have constructed a structural model for poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D(pol)) in complex with a primer-template (sym/sub) and ATP. Residues found in conserved structural motifs A (Asp-238) and B (Asn-297) are involved in nucleotide selection. Asp-238 appears to couple binding of nucleotides with the correct sugar configuration to catalytic efficiency at the active site of the enzyme. Asn-297 is involved in selection of ribonucleoside triphosphates over 2'-dNTPs, a role mediated most likely via a hydrogen bond between the side chain of this residue and the 2'-OH of the ribonucleoside triphosphate. Substitutions at position 238 or 297 of 3D(pol) produced derivatives exhibiting a range of catalytic efficiencies when assayed in vitro for poly(rU) polymerase activity or sym/sub elongation activity. A direct correlation existed between activity on sym/sub and biological phenotypes; a 2.5-fold reduction in polymerase elongation rate produced virus with a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. These data permit us to propose a detailed, structural model for nucleotide selection by 3D(pol), confirm the biological relevance of the sym/sub system, and provide additional evidence for kinetic coupling between RNA synthesis and subsequent steps in the virus life cycle.


Subject(s)
Poliovirus/enzymology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Amino Acid Motifs , DNA Primers , DNA, Complementary/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/chemistry , HeLa Cells , Humans , Kinetics , Ligands , Models, Molecular , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Phenotype , Protein Structure, Tertiary , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , Temperature , Time Factors , Transfection
7.
J Virol ; 73(11): 9485-95, 1999 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10516057

ABSTRACT

Poliovirus live virus vectors are a candidate recombinant vaccine system. Previous studies using this system showed that a live poliovirus vector expressing a foreign antigen between the structural and nonstructural proteins generates both antibody and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in mice. Here we describe a novel in vitro method of cloning recombinant polioviruses involving a hybrid-PCR approach. We report the construction of recombinant vectors of two different serotypes of poliovirus-expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) antigens and the intranasal and intravenous inoculations of four adult cynomolgus macaques with these poliovirus vectors expressing the SIV proteins p17(gag) and gp41(env). All macaques generated a mucosal anti-SIV immunoglobulin A (IgA) response in rectal secretions. Two of the four macaques generated mucosal antibody responses detectable in vaginal lavages. Strong serum IgG responses lasting for at least 1 year were detected in two of the four monkeys. SIV-specific T-cell lymphoproliferative responses were detected in three of the four monkeys. SIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes were detected in two of the four monkeys. This is the first report of poliovirus-elicited vaginal IgA or cytotoxic T lymphocytes in any naturally infectable primate, including humans. These findings support the concept that a live poliovirus vector is a potentially useful delivery system that elicits humoral, mucosal, and cellular immune responses against exogenous antigens.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Immunization , Poliovirus/genetics , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Female , Gene Products, gag/immunology , Genetic Vectors , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Lymphocyte Activation , Macaca fascicularis , Poliovirus/chemistry , Poliovirus/immunology , Rectum/immunology , Serotyping , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Vagina/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology
8.
Nature ; 398(6722): 77-80, 1999 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10078533

ABSTRACT

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are thought to detect viral infections by monitoring the surface of all cells for the presence of viral peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In most cells, peptides presented by MHC class I molecules are derived exclusively from proteins synthesized by the antigen-bearing cells. Macrophages and dendritic cells also have an alternative MHC class I pathway that can present peptides derived from extracellular antigens; however, the physiological role of this process is unclear. Here we show that virally infected non-haematopoietic cells are unable to stimulate primary CTL-mediated immunity directly. Instead, bone-marrow-derived cells are required as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to initiate anti-viral CTL responses. In these APCs, the alternative (exogenous) MHC class I pathway is the obligatory mechanism for the initiation of CTL responses to viruses that infect only non-haematopoietic cells.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Membrane Proteins , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Animals , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow Cells/immunology , Bone Marrow Cells/virology , Chimera , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/immunology , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/virology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Poliovirus , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Vaccinia virus/immunology
9.
Biochemistry ; 37(30): 10808-14, 1998 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9692971

ABSTRACT

The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) Tat protein binds with high affinity to its TAR RNA site through a large set of specific RNA-protein contacts whereas human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat makes relatively few contacts to HIV TAR and requires the assistance of a cellular protein to bind with high affinity. The two TAR sites are structurally very similar, but BIV Tat appears unable to make the same set of high-affinity contacts to HIV TAR. To determine the basis of this discrimination, we examined BIV Tat binding to a series of hybrid TARs both in vivo and in vitro. We expected that differences in the architectures of the bulges might account for the binding specificity; however, the results show that flanking base pairs provide the key determinants. Based on these data, we designed a novel TAR that is recognized by both BIV Tat and HIV Tat. This RNA may be viewed as a primordial TAR from which two distinct recognition strategies can be evolved.


Subject(s)
Gene Products, tat/genetics , Gene Products, tat/metabolism , HIV-1/genetics , Immunodeficiency Virus, Bovine/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Animals , Arginine/genetics , Base Composition , Base Sequence , Cattle , Gene Products, tat/chemistry , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Protein Binding/genetics , RNA, Viral/chemistry , tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
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