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2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332985

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT NVX-CoV2373 is an adjuvanted recombinant full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer protein vaccine demonstrated to be protective against COVID-19 in efficacy trials. Here we demonstrate that vaccinated subjects made CD4 + T cell responses after one and two doses of NVX-CoV2373, and a subset of individuals made CD8 + T cell responses. Characterization of the vaccine-elicited CD8 + T cells demonstrated IFN γ production. Characterization of the vaccine-elicited CD4 + T cells revealed both circulating T follicular helper cells (cT FH ) and T H 1 cells (IFN γ , TNFα, and IL-2) were detectable within 7 days of the primary immunization. Spike-specific CD4 + T cells were correlated with the magnitude of the later SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titers, indicating that robust generation of CD4 + T cells, capable of supporting humoral immune responses, may be a key characteristic of NVX-CoV2373 which utilizes Matrix-M™ adjuvant.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331101

ABSTRACT

Multiple COVID-19 vaccines, representing diverse vaccine platforms, successfully protect against symptomatic COVID-19 cases and deaths. Head-to-head comparisons of T cell, B cell, and antibody responses to diverse vaccines in humans are likely to be informative for understanding protective immunity against COVID-19, with particular interest in immune memory. Here, SARS-CoV-2-spike-specific immune responses to Moderna mRNA-1273, Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2, Janssen Ad26.COV2.S and Novavax NVX-CoV2373 were examined longitudinally for 6 months. 100% of individuals made memory CD4+ T cells, with cTfh and CD4-CTL highly represented after mRNA or NVX-CoV2373 vaccination. mRNA vaccines and Ad26.COV2.S induced comparable CD8+ T cell frequencies, though memory CD8+ T cells were only detectable in 60-67% of subjects at 6 months. Ad26.COV2.S was not the strongest immunogen by any measurement, though the Ad26.COV2.S T cell, B cell, and antibody responses were relatively stable over 6 months. A differentiating feature of Ad26.COV2.S immunization was a high frequency of CXCR3+ memory B cells. mRNA vaccinees had substantial declines in neutralizing antibodies, while memory T cells and B cells were comparatively stable over 6 months. These results of these detailed immunological evaluations may also be relevant for vaccine design insights against other pathogens.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330081

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant of concern comprises three sublineages designated BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3, with BA.2 steadily replacing the globally dominant BA.1. We show that the large number of BA.1 and BA.2 spike mutations severely dampen plasma neutralizing activity elicited by infection or seven clinical vaccines, with cross-neutralization of BA.2 being consistently more potent than that of BA.1, independent of the vaccine platform and number of doses. Although mRNA vaccines induced the greatest magnitude of Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 plasma neutralizing activity, administration of a booster based on the Wuhan-Hu-1 spike sequence markedly increased neutralizing antibody titers and breadth against BA.1 and BA.2 across all vaccines evaluated. Our data suggest that although BA.1 and BA.2 evade polyclonal neutralizing antibody responses, current vaccine boosting regimens may provide sufficient protection against Omicron-induced disease.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316601

ABSTRACT

Background: Increased inflammation is a hallmark of COVID-19, with pulmonary and systemic inflammation identified in multiple cohorts of patients. Definitive cellular and molecular pathways driving severe forms of this disease remain uncertain. Neutrophils, the most numerous leukocytes in blood circulation, can contribute to immunopathology in infections, inflammatory diseases and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19. Neutrophilia, elevated neutrophil:lymphocyte ratios, and elevated neutrophil-associated cytokines are present in COVID-19, but changes in neutrophil functions have not been characterized. Here we analyzed the functional state of circulating neutrophils in COVID-19.Methods: Blood was obtained from critically ill COVID-19 patients over two weeks and healthy controls across multiple timepoints. Plasma cytokine profiles were assessed by bead array. Neutrophils were isolated and tested ex vivo for oxidative burst, neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis) and phagocytosis. Lung tissue was obtained immediately post-mortem from COVID-19 patients for immunostaining.Results: Elevations in neutrophil-associated cytokines IL-8 and IL-6 were identified in COVID-19 plasma both at the first measurement and across their hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Elevations in cytokines IP-10, GM-CSF, IL-1b, IL-10 and TNF were also present at the first measurement and across hospital stays. Functionally, circulating neutrophils from COVID-19 patients had exaggerated oxidative burst (p < 0.0001), NETosis (p < 0.0001) and phagocytosis (p < 0.0001) relative to controls. Increased NETosis was found to be correlated with both leukocytosis and neutrophilia in COVID-19 patients. Neutrophils and NETs were identified within airways and alveoli in lung parenchyma. While elevations in IL-8 and ANC correlated to COVID-19 disease severity, plasma IL-8 levels alone correlated with death.Conclusions: Circulating neutrophils in COVID-19 exhibit an activated phenotype with increased oxidative burst, NETosis and phagocytosis. Readily accessible and dynamic, plasma IL-8 and circulating neutrophil function can be explored as potential COVID-19 disease biomarkers.Funding Statement: This work was supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs (salary support and VA Merit Award, PI Crotty Alexander) and NIH NHLBI (PI Crotty Alexander).Declaration of Interests: The authors report no conflicts of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: The research protocol was approved by the UCSD, VASDHS and Rady Children’s Hospital institutional review boards (IRBs) and all participants or designated family member gave written informed consent.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 479-489, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased inflammation has been well defined in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while definitive pathways driving severe forms of this disease remain uncertain. Neutrophils are known to contribute to immunopathology in infections, inflammatory diseases, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19. Changes in neutrophil function in COVID-19 may give insight into disease pathogenesis and identify therapeutic targets. METHODS: Blood was obtained serially from critically ill COVID-19 patients for 11 days. Neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis), oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and cytokine levels were assessed. Lung tissue was obtained immediately postmortem for immunostaining. PubMed searches for neutrophils, lung, and COVID-19 yielded 10 peer-reviewed research articles in English. RESULTS: Elevations in neutrophil-associated cytokines interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6, and general inflammatory cytokines IFN-inducible protien-19, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 1ß, interleukin 10, and tumor necrosis factor, were identified both at first measurement and across hospitalization (P < .0001). COVID-19 neutrophils had exaggerated oxidative burst (P < .0001), NETosis (P < .0001), and phagocytosis (P < .0001) relative to controls. Increased NETosis correlated with leukocytosis and neutrophilia, and neutrophils and NETs were identified within airways and alveoli in lung parenchyma of 40% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected lungs available for examination (2 of 5). While elevations in IL-8 and absolute neutrophil count correlated with disease severity, plasma IL-8 levels alone correlated with death. CONCLUSIONS: Literature to date demonstrates compelling evidence of increased neutrophils in the circulation and lungs of COVID-19 patients. Importantly, neutrophil quantity and activation correlates with severity of disease. Similarly, our data show that circulating neutrophils in COVID-19 exhibit an activated phenotype with enhanced NETosis and oxidative burst.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Critical Illness , Humans , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(3): 388-399.e3, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670319

ABSTRACT

Both SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 vaccines elicit memory T cell responses. Here, we report the development of 2 pools of experimentally defined SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes that, in combination with spike, were used to discriminate 4 groups of subjects with different SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccine status. The overall T cell-based classification accuracy was 89.2% and 88.5% in the experimental and validation cohorts. This scheme was applicable to different mRNA vaccines and different lengths of time post infection/post vaccination and yielded increased accuracy when compared to serological readouts. T cell responses from breakthrough infections were also studied and effectively segregated from vaccine responses, with a combined performance of 86.6% across all 239 subjects from the 5 groups. We anticipate that a T cell-based immunodiagnostic scheme to classify subjects based on their vaccination and natural infection history will be an important tool for longitudinal monitoring of vaccinations and for establishing SARS-CoV-2 correlates of protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
8.
Cell ; 185(5): 847-859.e11, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650711

ABSTRACT

We address whether T cell responses induced by different vaccine platforms (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, Ad26.COV2.S, and NVX-CoV2373) cross-recognize early SARS-CoV-2 variants. T cell responses to early variants were preserved across vaccine platforms. By contrast, significant overall decreases were observed for memory B cells and neutralizing antibodies. In subjects ∼6 months post-vaccination, 90% (CD4+) and 87% (CD8+) of memory T cell responses were preserved against variants on average by AIM assay, and 84% (CD4+) and 85% (CD8+) preserved against Omicron. Omicron RBD memory B cell recognition was substantially reduced to 42% compared with other variants. T cell epitope repertoire analysis revealed a median of 11 and 10 spike epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, with average preservation > 80% for Omicron. Functional preservation of the majority of T cell responses may play an important role as a second-level defense against diverse variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , /immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /administration & dosage , /administration & dosage , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Epitopes/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , /metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
9.
Sci Immunol ; 6(66): eabf1152, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583226

ABSTRACT

Saponins are potent and safe vaccine adjuvants, but their mechanisms of action remain incompletely understood. Here, we explored the properties of several saponin formulations, including immune-stimulatory complexes (ISCOMs) formed by the self-assembly of saponin and phospholipids in the absence or presence of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA). We found that MPLA self-assembles with saponins to form particles physically resembling ISCOMs, which we termed saponin/MPLA nanoparticles (SMNP). Saponin-containing adjuvants exhibited distinctive mechanisms of action, altering lymph flow in a mast cell­dependent manner and promoting antigen entry into draining lymph nodes. SMNP was particularly effective, exhibiting even greater potency than the compositionally related adjuvant AS01B in mice, and primed robust germinal center B cell, TFH, and HIV tier 2 neutralizing antibodies in nonhuman primates. Together, these findings shed new light on mechanisms by which saponin adjuvants act to promote the immune response and suggest that SMNP may be a promising adjuvant in the setting of HIV, SARS-CoV-2, and other pathogens.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Lymph/drug effects , Saponins/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Lymph/physiology , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nanoparticles , Rats , Rats, Wistar
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296959

ABSTRACT

With much of the world infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, understanding the immune responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein in different situations is crucial to controlling the pandemic. We studied the clinical, systemic, mucosal, and cellular responses to two doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in 62 individuals with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure that were divided into three groups based on serostatus and/or degree of symptoms: Antibody negative, Asymptomatic, and Symptomatic. In the previously SARS-CoV-2-infected (SARS2-infected) Asymptomatic and Symptomatic groups, symptoms related to a recall response were elicited after the first vaccination. Anti-S trimer IgA and IgG levels peaked after 1st vaccination in the SARS2-infected groups, and were higher that the in the SARS2-naive group in the plasma and nasal samples at all time points. Neutralizing antibodies titers were also higher against the WA-1 and B.1.617.2 (Delta) variants of SARS-CoV-2 in the SARS2-infected compared to SARS2-naive vaccinees. After the first vaccination, differences in cellular immunity were not evident between groups, but the AIM+ CD4+ cell response correlated with durability of humoral immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. In those SARS2-infected, the number of vaccinations needed for protection, the durability, and need for boosters are unknown. However, the lingering differences between the SARS2-infected and SARS2-naive up to 10 months post-vaccination could explain the decreased reinfection rates in the SARS2-infected vaccinees recently reported and suggests that additional strategies (such as boosting of the SARS2-naive vaccinees) are needed to narrow the differences observed between these groups.

11.
Sci Adv ; 7(50): eabj6538, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559847

ABSTRACT

There is a need for additional rapidly scalable, low-cost vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to achieve global vaccination. Aluminum hydroxide (alum) adjuvant is the most widely available vaccine adjuvant but elicits modest humoral responses. We hypothesized that phosphate-mediated coanchoring of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 together with molecular adjuvants on alum particles could potentiate humoral immunity by promoting extended vaccine kinetics and codelivery of vaccine components to lymph nodes. Modification of RBD immunogens with phosphoserine (pSer) peptides enabled efficient alum binding and slowed antigen clearance, leading to notable increases in germinal center responses and neutralizing antibody titers in mice. Adding phosphate-containing CpG or saponin adjuvants to pSer-RBD:alum immunizations synergistically enhanced vaccine immunogenicity in mice and rhesus macaques, inducing neutralizing responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Thus, phosphate-mediated coanchoring of RBD and molecular adjuvants to alum is an effective strategy to enhance the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines.

12.
Sci Immunol ; 6(65): eabl9105, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455670

ABSTRACT

Adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection have been extensively characterized in blood; however, most functions of protective immunity must be accomplished in tissues. Here, we report from examination of SARS-CoV-2 seropositive organ donors (ages 10 to 74) that CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and B cell memory generated in response to infection is present in the bone marrow, spleen, lung, and multiple lymph nodes (LNs) for up to 6 months after infection. Lungs and lung-associated LNs were the most prevalent sites for SARS-CoV-2­specific memory T and B cells with significant correlations between circulating and tissue-resident memory T and B cells in all sites. We further identified SARS-CoV-2­specific germinal centers in the lung-associated LNs up to 6 months after infection. SARS-CoV-2­specific follicular helper T cells were also abundant in lung-associated LNs and lungs. Together, the results indicate local tissue coordination of cellular and humoral immune memory against SARS-CoV-2 for site-specific protection against future infectious challenges.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Organ Specificity/immunology
13.
Science ; 374(6566): eabj9853, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406591

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-specific CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, binding antibody, and neutralizing antibody responses to the 25-µg Moderna messenger RNA (mRNA)­1273 vaccine were examined over the course of 7 months after immunization, including in multiple age groups, with a particular interest in assessing whether preexisting cross-reactive T cell memory affects vaccine-generated immunity. Vaccine-generated spike-specific memory CD4+ T cells 6 months after the second dose of the vaccine were comparable in quantity and quality to COVID-19 cases, including the presence of T follicular helper cells and interferon-γ­expressing cells. Spike-specific CD8+ T cells were generated in 88% of subjects, with equivalent memory at 6 months post-boost compared with COVID-19 cases. Lastly, subjects with preexisting cross-reactive CD4+ T cell memory exhibited stronger CD4+ T cell and antibody responses to the vaccine, demonstrating the biological relevance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2­cross-reactive CD4+ T cells.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Memory , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Cross Reactions , Humans , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Young Adult
14.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 644, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387395

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

15.
Science ; 371(6529)2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309798

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune memory to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical for improving diagnostics and vaccines and for assessing the likely future course of the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed multiple compartments of circulating immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 in 254 samples from 188 COVID-19 cases, including 43 samples at ≥6 months after infection. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the spike protein was relatively stable over 6+ months. Spike-specific memory B cells were more abundant at 6 months than at 1 month after symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells declined with a half-life of 3 to 5 months. By studying antibody, memory B cell, CD4+ T cell, and CD8+ T cell memory to SARS-CoV-2 in an integrated manner, we observed that each component of SARS-CoV-2 immune memory exhibited distinct kinetics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States , Young Adult
16.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(7): 100355, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294298

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with evidence of antibody escape highlight the importance of addressing whether the total CD4+ and CD8+ T cell recognition is also affected. Here, we compare SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells against the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and CAL.20C lineages in COVID-19 convalescents and in recipients of the Moderna (mRNA-1273) or Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT162b2) COVID-19 vaccines. The total reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 variants is similar in terms of magnitude and frequency of response, with decreases in the 10%-22% range observed in some assay/VOC combinations. A total of 7% and 3% of previously identified CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes, respectively, are affected by mutations in the various VOCs. Thus, the SARS-CoV-2 variants analyzed here do not significantly disrupt the total SARS-CoV-2 T cell reactivity; however, the decreases observed highlight the importance for active monitoring of T cell reactivity in the context of SARS-CoV-2 evolution.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
17.
Science ; 372(6549):1392-1393, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1282052

ABSTRACT

Immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a vital issue for global society. Determining the quality and duration of that immunity is therefore key. But the adaptive immune system is complex, and these factors may differ between natural immunity (obtained by infection) and vaccine-generated immunity (1). Additionally, there is the question of the combination: What kind of immunity develops in people with natural immunity who are subsequently vaccinated? Such “hybrid immunity” is particularly interesting because of the notable finding that people with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection mount unusually potent immune responses to COVID-19 vaccines (2). This is exemplified in two studies in this issue on pages 1413 and 1418 by Stamatatos et al. (3) and Reynolds et al. (4), respectively, which also highlight natural and vaccine-induced immune responses to variants.

18.
Front Physiol ; 12: 649604, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268279

ABSTRACT

Conventional smoking is known to both increase susceptibility to infection and drive inflammation within the lungs. Recently, smokers have been found to be at higher risk of developing severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). E-cigarette aerosol inhalation (vaping) has been associated with several inflammatory lung disorders, including the recent e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) epidemic, and recent studies have suggested that vaping alters host susceptibility to pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To assess the impact of vaping on lung inflammatory pathways, including the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor known to be involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection, mice were exposed to e-cigarette aerosols for 60 min daily for 1-6 months and underwent gene expression analysis. Hierarchical clustering revealed extensive gene expression changes occurred in the lungs of both inbred C57BL/6 mice and outbred CD1 mice, with 2,933 gene expression changes in C57BL/6 mice, and 2,818 gene expression changes in CD1 mice (>abs 1.25-fold change). Particularly, large reductions in IgA and CD4 were identified, indicating impairment of host responses to pathogens via reductions in immunoglobulins and CD4 T cells. CD177, facmr, tlr9, fcgr1, and ccr2 were also reduced, consistent with diminished host defenses via decreased neutrophils and/or monocytes in the lungs. Gene set enrichment (GSE) plots demonstrated upregulation of gene expression related to cell activation specifically in neutrophils. As neutrophils are a potential driver of acute lung injury in COVID-19, increased neutrophil activation in the lungs suggests that vapers are at higher risk of developing more severe forms of COVID-19. The receptor through which SARS-CoV-2 infects host cells, ACE2, was found to have moderate upregulation in mice exposed to unflavored vape pens, and further upregulation (six-fold) with JUUL mint aerosol exposure. No changes were found in mice exposed to unflavored Mod device-generated aerosols. These findings suggest that specific vaping devices and components of e-liquids have an effect on ACE2 expression, thus potentially increasing susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. In addition, exposure to e-cigarette aerosols both with and without nicotine led to alterations in eicosanoid lipid profiles within the BAL. These data demonstrate that chronic, daily inhalation of e-cigarette aerosols fundamentally alters the inflammatory and immune state of the lungs. Thus, e-cigarette vapers may be at higher risk of developing infections and inflammatory disorders of the lungs.

19.
EBioMedicine ; 68: 103390, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) continues to challenge the limits of our knowledge and our healthcare system. Here we sought to define the host immune response, a.k.a, the "cytokine storm" that has been implicated in fatal COVID-19 using an AI-based approach. METHOD: Over 45,000 transcriptomic datasets of viral pandemics were analyzed to extract a 166-gene signature using ACE2 as a 'seed' gene; ACE2 was rationalized because it encodes the receptor that facilitates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) into host cells. An AI-based approach was used to explore the utility of the signature in navigating the uncharted territory of Covid-19, setting therapeutic goals, and finding therapeutic solutions. FINDINGS: The 166-gene signature was surprisingly conserved across all viral pandemics, including COVID-19, and a subset of 20-genes classified disease severity, inspiring the nomenclatures ViP and severe-ViP signatures, respectively. The ViP signatures pinpointed a paradoxical phenomenon wherein lung epithelial and myeloid cells mount an IL15 cytokine storm, and epithelial and NK cell senescence and apoptosis determine severity/fatality. Precise therapeutic goals could be formulated; these goals were met in high-dose SARS-CoV-2-challenged hamsters using either neutralizing antibodies that abrogate SARS-CoV-2•ACE2 engagement or a directly acting antiviral agent, EIDD-2801. IL15/IL15RA were elevated in the lungs of patients with fatal disease, and plasma levels of the cytokine prognosticated disease severity. INTERPRETATION: The ViP signatures provide a quantitative and qualitative framework for titrating the immune response in viral pandemics and may serve as a powerful unbiased tool to rapidly assess disease severity and vet candidate drugs. FUNDING: This work was supported by the National Institutes for Health (NIH) [grants CA151673 and GM138385 (to DS) and AI141630 (to P.G), DK107585-05S1 (SD) and AI155696 (to P.G, D.S and S.D), U19-AI142742 (to S. C, CCHI: Cooperative Centers for Human Immunology)]; Research Grants Program Office (RGPO) from the University of California Office of the President (UCOP) (R00RG2628 & R00RG2642 to P.G, D.S and S.D); the UC San Diego Sanford Stem Cell Clinical Center (to P.G, D.S and S.D); LJI Institutional Funds (to S.C); the VA San Diego Healthcare System Institutional funds (to L.C.A). GDK was supported through The American Association of Immunologists Intersect Fellowship Program for Computational Scientists and Immunologists. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: The host immune response in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Interleukin-15/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-15/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artificial Intelligence , Autopsy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cricetinae , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/pharmacology , Databases, Genetic , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Regulatory Networks/drug effects , Genetic Markers/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxylamines/administration & dosage , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Interleukin-15/blood , Lung/immunology , Mesocricetus , Pandemics , Receptors, Interleukin-15/blood , Virus Diseases/immunology
20.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(7): 1076-1092, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240230

ABSTRACT

Over the past year, numerous studies in the peer reviewed and preprint literature have reported on the virological, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. To date, 25 studies have investigated and identified SARS-CoV-2-derived T cell epitopes in humans. Here, we review these recent studies, how they were performed, and their findings. We review how epitopes identified throughout the SARS-CoV2 proteome reveal significant correlation between number of epitopes defined and size of the antigen provenance. We also report additional analysis of SARS-CoV-2 human CD4 and CD8 T cell epitope data compiled from these studies, identifying 1,400 different reported SARS-CoV-2 epitopes and revealing discrete immunodominant regions of the virus and epitopes that are more prevalently recognized. This remarkable breadth of epitope repertoire has implications for vaccine design, cross-reactivity, and immune escape by SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigens, Viral , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cross Reactions , Epitopes , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes
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