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JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2112596, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265355


Importance: Additional sources of pediatric epidemiological and clinical data are needed to efficiently study COVID-19 in children and youth and inform infection prevention and clinical treatment of pediatric patients. Objective: To describe international hospitalization trends and key epidemiological and clinical features of children and youth with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included pediatric patients hospitalized between February 2 and October 10, 2020. Patient-level electronic health record (EHR) data were collected across 27 hospitals in France, Germany, Spain, Singapore, the UK, and the US. Patients younger than 21 years who tested positive for COVID-19 and were hospitalized at an institution participating in the Consortium for Clinical Characterization of COVID-19 by EHR were included in the study. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patient characteristics, clinical features, and medication use. Results: There were 347 males (52%; 95% CI, 48.5-55.3) and 324 females (48%; 95% CI, 44.4-51.3) in this study's cohort. There was a bimodal age distribution, with the greatest proportion of patients in the 0- to 2-year (199 patients [30%]) and 12- to 17-year (170 patients [25%]) age range. Trends in hospitalizations for 671 children and youth found discrete surges with variable timing across 6 countries. Data from this cohort mirrored national-level pediatric hospitalization trends for most countries with available data, with peaks in hospitalizations during the initial spring surge occurring within 23 days in the national-level and 4CE data. A total of 27 364 laboratory values for 16 laboratory tests were analyzed, with mean values indicating elevations in markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, 83 mg/L; 95% CI, 53-112 mg/L; ferritin, 417 ng/mL; 95% CI, 228-607 ng/mL; and procalcitonin, 1.45 ng/mL; 95% CI, 0.13-2.77 ng/mL). Abnormalities in coagulation were also evident (D-dimer, 0.78 ug/mL; 95% CI, 0.35-1.21 ug/mL; and fibrinogen, 477 mg/dL; 95% CI, 385-569 mg/dL). Cardiac troponin, when checked (n = 59), was elevated (0.032 ng/mL; 95% CI, 0.000-0.080 ng/mL). Common complications included cardiac arrhythmias (15.0%; 95% CI, 8.1%-21.7%), viral pneumonia (13.3%; 95% CI, 6.5%-20.1%), and respiratory failure (10.5%; 95% CI, 5.8%-15.3%). Few children were treated with COVID-19-directed medications. Conclusions and Relevance: This study of EHRs of children and youth hospitalized for COVID-19 in 6 countries demonstrated variability in hospitalization trends across countries and identified common complications and laboratory abnormalities in children and youth with COVID-19 infection. Large-scale informatics-based approaches to integrate and analyze data across health care systems complement methods of disease surveillance and advance understanding of epidemiological and clinical features associated with COVID-19 in children and youth.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Global Health , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies
J Biomed Inform ; 115: 103697, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062445


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 ranks as the single largest health incident worldwide in decades. In such a scenario, electronic health records (EHRs) should provide a timely response to healthcare needs and to data uses that go beyond direct medical care and are known as secondary uses, which include biomedical research. However, it is usual for each data analysis initiative to define its own information model in line with its requirements. These specifications share clinical concepts, but differ in format and recording criteria, something that creates data entry redundancy in multiple electronic data capture systems (EDCs) with the consequent investment of effort and time by the organization. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to design and implement a flexible methodology based on detailed clinical models (DCM), which would enable EHRs generated in a tertiary hospital to be effectively reused without loss of meaning and within a short time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The proposed methodology comprises four stages: (1) specification of an initial set of relevant variables for COVID-19; (2) modeling and formalization of clinical concepts using ISO 13606 standard and SNOMED CT and LOINC terminologies; (3) definition of transformation rules to generate secondary use models from standardized EHRs and development of them using R language; and (4) implementation and validation of the methodology through the generation of the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC-WHO) COVID-19 case report form. This process has been implemented into a 1300-bed tertiary Hospital for a cohort of 4489 patients hospitalized from 25 February 2020 to 10 September 2020. RESULTS: An initial and expandable set of relevant concepts for COVID-19 was identified, modeled and formalized using ISO-13606 standard and SNOMED CT and LOINC terminologies. Similarly, an algorithm was designed and implemented with R and then applied to process EHRs in accordance with standardized concepts, transforming them into secondary use models. Lastly, these resources were applied to obtain a data extract conforming to the ISARIC-WHO COVID-19 case report form, without requiring manual data collection. The methodology allowed obtaining the observation domain of this model with a coverage of over 85% of patients in the majority of concepts. CONCLUSION: This study has furnished a solution to the difficulty of rapidly and efficiently obtaining EHR-derived data for secondary use in COVID-19, capable of adapting to changes in data specifications and applicable to other organizations and other health conditions. The conclusion to be drawn from this initial validation is that this DCM-based methodology allows the effective reuse of EHRs generated in a tertiary Hospital during COVID-19 pandemic, with no additional effort or time for the organization and with a greater data scope than that yielded by conventional manual data collection process in ad-hoc EDCs.

COVID-19/pathology , Datasets as Topic , Electronic Health Records , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine