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1.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(8): e13901, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346766

ABSTRACT

HIV-1 infects lymphoid and myeloid cells, which can harbor a latent proviral reservoir responsible for maintaining lifelong infection. Glycolytic metabolism has been identified as a determinant of susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, but its role in the development and maintenance of HIV-1 latency has not been elucidated. By combining transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses, we here show that transition to latent HIV-1 infection downregulates glycolysis, while viral reactivation by conventional stimuli reverts this effect. Decreased glycolytic output in latently infected cells is associated with downregulation of NAD+ /NADH. Consequently, infected cells rely on the parallel pentose phosphate pathway and its main product, NADPH, fueling antioxidant pathways maintaining HIV-1 latency. Of note, blocking NADPH downstream effectors, thioredoxin and glutathione, favors HIV-1 reactivation from latency in lymphoid and myeloid cellular models. This provides a "shock and kill effect" decreasing proviral DNA in cells from people living with HIV/AIDS. Overall, our data show that downmodulation of glycolysis is a metabolic signature of HIV-1 latency that can be exploited to target latently infected cells with eradication strategies.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV-1 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Down-Regulation , Glycolysis , Humans , Oxidative Stress , Proteomics , Virus Activation , Virus Latency
2.
Cell Biol Int ; 45(6): 1124-1147, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251913

ABSTRACT

With each infectious pandemic or outbreak, the medical community feels the need to revisit basic concepts of immunology to understand and overcome the difficult times brought about by these infections. Regarding viruses, they have historically been responsible for many deaths, and such a peculiarity occurs because they are known to be obligate intracellular parasites that depend upon the host's cell machinery for their replication. Successful infection with the production of essential viral components requires constant viral evolution as a strategy to manipulate the cellular environment, including host internal factors, the host's nonspecific and adaptive immune responses to viruses, the metabolic and energetic state of the infected cell, and changes in the intracellular redox environment during the viral infection cycle. Based on this knowledge, it is fundamental to develop new therapeutic strategies for controlling viral dissemination, by means of antiviral therapies, vaccines, or antioxidants, or by targeting the inhibition or activation of cell signaling pathways or metabolic pathways that are altered during infection. The rapid recovery of altered cellular homeostasis during viral infection is still a major challenge. Here, we review the strategies by which viruses evade the host's immune response and potential tools used to develop more specific antiviral therapies to cure, control, or prevent viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Immune Evasion , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Animals , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Virus Replication
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