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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308912

ABSTRACT

Understanding attention dynamics on social media during pandemics could help governments minimize the effects. We focus on how COVID-19 has influenced the attention dynamics on the biggest Chinese microblogging website Sina Weibo during the first four months of the pandemic. We study the real-time Hot Search List (HSL), which provides the ranking of the most popular 50 hashtags based on the amount of Sina Weibo searches. We show how the specific events, measures and developments during the epidemic affected the emergence of different kinds of hashtags and the ranking on the HSL. A significant increase of COVID-19 related hashtags started to occur on HSL around January 20, 2020, when the transmission of the disease between humans was announced. Then very rapidly a situation was reached where COVID-related hashtags occupied 30-70% of the HSL, however, with changing content. We give an analysis of how the hashtag topics changed during the investigated time span and conclude that there are three periods separated by February 12 and March 12. In period 1, we see strong topical correlations and clustering of hashtags;in period 2, the correlations are weakened, without clustering pattern;in period 3, we see a potential of clustering while not as strong as in period 1. We further explore the dynamics of HSL by measuring the ranking dynamics and the lifetimes of hashtags on the list. This way we can obtain information about the decay of attention, which is important for decisions about the temporal placement of governmental measures to achieve permanent awareness. Furthermore, our observations indicate abnormally higher rank diversity in the top 15 ranks on HSL due to the COVID-19 related hashtags, revealing the possibility of algorithmic intervention from the platform provider.

2.
J Nat Prod ; 84(8): 2385-2389, 2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634670

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 inspires the development of effective inhibitors to block the SARS-CoV-2 spike-ACE2 interaction. A chemical investigation on the fruiting bodies of Phellinus pini led to the isolation of five aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids including four new ones, named piniterpenoids A-D (1-4), as well as three known lignans. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis including HRMS and 1D and 2D NMR. All of the aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 spike-ACE2 interaction, with IC50 values ranging from 64.5 to 99.1 µM. A molecular docking study showed the disruption of the interaction of compound 1 via hydrogen interactions with Arg403, Asp405, and Arg408 of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Arg393 and His34 residues of ACE2. These results suggested that aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids might be useful in developing agents for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Fruiting Bodies, Fungal/chemistry , Phellinus/chemistry , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/chemistry , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding/drug effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation
3.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1627307

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we investigate the impact of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on the conditional dependence between China and U.S. stock markets by employing the Copula-mixed-data sampling (Copula-MIDAS) framework. In the case of EPU, we consider the global EPU (GEPU), the American EPU (AEPU), and the China EPU (CEPU). The empirical analysis based on the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite (SSEC) index in China and the S&P 500 index in the U.S. shows that the tail dependence between China and U.S. stock markets is symmetrical, and the t Copula outperforms alternative Copulas in terms of in-sample goodness of fit. In particular, we find that the t Copula-MIDAS model with EPU dominates the traditional time-varying t Copula in terms of in-sample fitting. Moreover, we observe that both the GEPU and AEPU have a significantly positive impact on the conditional dependence between China and U.S. stock markets, whereas CEPU has no significant impact. The tail dependence between China and U.S. stock markets exhibits an increasing trend, particularly in the recent years.

4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e168, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537262

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify clinical features for prognosing mortality risk using machine-learning methods in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A retrospective study of the inpatients with COVID-19 admitted from 15 January to 15 March 2020 in Wuhan is reported. The data of symptoms, comorbidity, demographic, vital sign, CT scans results and laboratory test results on admission were collected. Machine-learning methods (Random Forest and XGboost) were used to rank clinical features for mortality risk. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to identify clinical features with statistical significance. The predictors of mortality were lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and age based on 500 bootstrapped samples. A multivariate logistic regression model was formed to predict mortality 292 in-sample patients with area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) of 0.9521, which was better than CURB-65 (AUROC of 0.8501) and the machine-learning-based model (AUROC of 0.4530). An out-sample data set of 13 patients was further tested to show our model (AUROC of 0.6061) was also better than CURB-65 (AUROC of 0.4608) and the machine-learning-based model (AUROC of 0.2292). LDH, CRP and age can be used to identify severe patients with COVID-19 on hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Logistic Models , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Young Adult
5.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2021: 4303380, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In view of the global efforts to develop effective treatments for the current worldwide coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Qingfei Paidu decoction (QPD), a novel traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, was formulated as an optimized combination of constituents of classic prescriptions used to treat numerous febrile and respiratory-related diseases. This prescription has been used to treat patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Hypothesis/Purpose. We hypothesized that QPD would have beneficial effects on patients with COVID-19. We aimed to prove this hypothesis by evaluating the efficacy of QPD in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective, observational study, we identified eligible participants who received a laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19 between January 15 and March 15, 2020, in the west campus of Union Hospital in Wuhan, China. QPD was supplied as an oral liquid packaged in 200-mL containers, and patients were orally administered one package twice daily 40 minutes after a meal. The primary outcome was death, which was compared between patients who did and did not receive QPD (QPD and NoQPD groups, respectively). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to identify cohorts. RESULTS: In total, 239 and 522 participants were enrolled in the QPD and NoQPD groups, respectively. After PSM at a 1 : 1 ratio, 446 patients meeting the criteria were included in the analysis with 223 in each arm. In the QPD and NoQPD groups, 7 (3.2%) and 29 (13.0%) patients died, and those in the QPD group had a significantly lower risk of death (hazard ratio (HR) 0.29, 95% CI: 0.13-0.67) than those in the NoQPD group (p = 0.004). Furthermore, the survival time was significantly longer in the QPD group than in the NoQPD group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The use of QPD may reduce the risk of death in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

6.
EPJ Data Sci ; 10(1): 8, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063080

ABSTRACT

Understanding attention dynamics on social media during pandemics could help governments minimize the effects. We focus on how COVID-19 has influenced the attention dynamics on the biggest Chinese microblogging website Sina Weibo during the first four months of the pandemic. We study the real-time Hot Search List (HSL), which provides the ranking of the most popular 50 hashtags based on the amount of Sina Weibo searches. We show how the specific events, measures and developments during the epidemic affected the emergence of different kinds of hashtags and the ranking on the HSL. A significant increase of COVID-19 related hashtags started to occur on HSL around January 20, 2020, when the transmission of the disease between humans was announced. Then very rapidly a situation was reached where COVID-related hashtags occupied 30-70% of the HSL, however, with changing content. We give an analysis of how the hashtag topics changed during the investigated time span and conclude that there are three periods separated by February 12 and March 12. In period 1, we see strong topical correlations and clustering of hashtags; in period 2, the correlations are weakened, without clustering pattern; in period 3, we see a potential of clustering while not as strong as in period 1. We further explore the dynamics of HSL by measuring the ranking dynamics and the lifetimes of hashtags on the list. This way we can obtain information about the decay of attention, which is important for decisions about the temporal placement of governmental measures to achieve permanent awareness. Furthermore, our observations indicate abnormally higher rank diversity in the top 15 ranks on HSL due to the COVID-19 related hashtags, revealing the possibility of algorithmic intervention from the platform provider. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1140/epjds/s13688-021-00263-0.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(7): ofaa283, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical manifestation and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were unclear in Wuhan, China. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics of pregnant and nonpregnant women with COVID-19 aged from 20 to 40, admitted between January 15 and March 15, 2020 at Union Hospital, Wuhan, and symptoms of pregnant women with COVID-19 and compared the clinical characteristics and symptoms to historic data previously reported for H1N1. RESULTS: Among 64 patients, 34 (53.13%) were pregnant, with higher proportion of exposure history (29.41% vs 6.67%) and more pulmonary infiltration on computed tomography test (50% vs 10%) compared to nonpregnant women. Of pregnant patients, 27 (79.41%) completed pregnancy, 5 (14.71%) had natural delivery, 18 (52.94%) had cesarean section, and 4 (11.76%) had abortion; 5 (14.71%) patients were asymptomatic. All 23 newborns had negative reverse-transcription polymerase chain results, and an average 1-minute Apgar score was 8-9 points. Pregnant and nonpregnant patients show differences in symptoms such as fever, expectoration, and fatigue and on laboratory tests such as neurophils, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Pregnant patients with COVID-19 tend to have more milder symptoms than those with H1N1. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical characteristics of pregnant patients with COVID-19 are less serious than nonpregnant. No evidence indicated that pregnant women may have fetal infection through vertical transmission of COVID-19. Pregnant patients with H1N1 had more serious condition than those with COVID-19.

8.
Resuscitation ; 151: 18-23, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) in Wuhan, China. METHODS: The outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia after IHCA over a 40-day period were retrospectively evaluated. Between January 15 and February 25, 2020, data for all cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attempts for IHCA that occurred in a tertiary teaching hospital in Wuhan, China were collected according to the Utstein style. The primary outcome was restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and the secondary outcomes were 30-day survival, and neurological outcome. RESULTS: Data from 136 patients showed 119 (87.5%) patients had a respiratory cause for their cardiac arrest, and 113 (83.1%) were resuscitated in a general ward. The initial rhythm was asystole in 89.7%, pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in 4.4%, and shockable in 5.9%. Most patients with IHCA were monitored (93.4%) and in most resuscitation (89%) was initiated <1 min. The average length of hospital stay was 7 days and the time from illness onset to hospital admission was 10 days. The most frequent comorbidity was hypertension (30.2%), and the most frequent symptom was shortness of breath (75%). Of the patients receiving CPR, ROSC was achieved in 18 (13.2%) patients, 4 (2.9%) patients survived for at least 30 days, and one patient achieved a favourable neurological outcome at 30 days. Cardiac arrest location and initial rhythm were associated with better outcomes. CONCLUSION: Survival of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who had an in-hospital cardiac arrest was poor in Wuhan.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Heart Arrest/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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