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1.
Arab J Chem ; 15(7): 103916, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827943

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, this virus has been constantly mutating. The latest mutant Omicron has been identified as VOC by WHO. The main reason for its concern is the mutation of 46 amino acids in spike protein, which has brought the global epidemic prevention into another difficulty. Herbal aromatic plant Amomum tsao-ko was excavated from formula 1 and 2 for the treatment of COVID-19 in China, and its active components were extracted and identified. Molecular dynamics simulation and Fpocket were applied to find the key sites on RBDOmicron, and molecular docking was also used to reveal the interaction between A. tsao-ko essential oil (AEO) and RBDOmicron. The AEO components were analyzed and identified by GC/Q-TOF MS. There were 20 kinds of AEO with a relative area percentage of more than 1%, and they were related to the three active centres of RBDOmicron. In this study, virtual screening was used to mine the essential oil components of medicinal plants, and it was found that the components could interact with the spike protein RBD in aerosol to block the interaction of RBD and hACE2, thus cutting off the transmission route and protecting the host. This study has certain guiding significance in the modernization of Traditional Chinese medicine and the prevention of COVID-19.

2.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e058762, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784835

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the status quo and the influencing factors of fatigue and professional identity among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) workers in China during the pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design. SETTING: CDC workers employed by the Liaoning CDC system were enrolled (administrative staffs were excluded). PARTICIPANTS: 1020 CDC workers. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Fatigue scores and professional identity scores. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Postcompetency scores, respect scores, occupational stress scores, resilience scores and self-efficacy scores. RESULTS: The average scores of fatigue and professional identity were 8.23, 38.88, respectively. Factors including perceived public respect (ß=-0.129, p<0.01), resilience (ß=-0.104, p<0.05) and self-efficacy (ß=-0.22, p<0.01) were negatively associated with fatigue. Educational background (bachelor vs junior college or below) (ß=0.105, p<0.01), (master or above vs junior college or below) (ß=0.092, p<0.05), workplace (county vs district) (ß=0.067, p<0.05), (city vs district) (ß=0.085, p<0.05), fighting the COVID-19 on the front line (ß=0.059, p<0.05) and occupational stress (ß=0.166, p<0.01) were positively correlated with fatigue. Educational background (bachelor vs junior college or below) (ß=-0.097, p<0.01), (master or above vs junior college or below) (ß=-0.114, p<0.01), workplace (city vs district) (ß=-0.114, p<0.01), fighting the COVID-19 on the front line (ß=-0.047, p<0.05) and occupational stress (ß=-0.105, p<0.01) were negatively associated with professional identity. Factors including postcompetency (ß=0.362, p<0.01), perceived public respect (general vs low) (ß=0.219, p<0.01), (high vs low) (ß=0.288, p<0.01), resilience (ß=0.097, p<0.05) and self-efficacy (ß=0.113, p<0.01) were positively connected with professional identity. CONCLUSION: The fatigue among the CDC workers was at a higher level. The level of professional identity was high, and administrators should take measures to alleviate fatigue and maintain professional identity. In addition, methods aiming to attenuate occupational stress, and improve resilience and self-efficacy should be immediately put into action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651007

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic had an unequal impact on the employment and earnings of different labourers, consequently affecting households' per capita income and income inequality. Combining a multisector computable general equilibrium model of China with a micro-simulation approach, this study aims to analyse the unequal effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on China's labour market and income inequality. The results confirm the unequal impact of the pandemic on the employment and earnings of different labourer types. Labourers who are female, live in urban areas, and have relatively low education levels would suffer greater losses in employment and earnings. The pandemic would reduce household per capita income by 8.75% for rural residents and 6.13% for urban residents. While the pandemic would have a larger negative impact on the employment and earnings of urban labourers, it would have a greater negative impact on the household per capita income of rural residents. Moreover, the per capita income of low-income households is more vulnerable to the pandemic, and the number of residents living below the poverty line would increase significantly. Thus, the pandemic would aggravate income inequality in China and threaten the livelihoods of poor families. This study could inform researchers exploring the distributional effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in developing countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Income , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
iScience ; 25(1): 103684, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587460

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak poses a serious threat to global public health. Effective countermeasures and approved therapeutics are desperately needed. In this study, we screened a small molecule library containing the NCI-DTP compounds to identify molecules that can prevent SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry. By applying a luciferase assay-based screening using a pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2-mediated cell entry assay, we identified a small molecule compound Q34 that can efficiently block cellular entry of the pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 into human ACE2-expressing HEK293T cells, and inhibit the infection of the authentic SARS-CoV-2 in human ACE2-expressing HEK293T cells, human iPSC-derived neurons and astrocytes, and human lung Calu-3 cells. Importantly, the safety profile of the compound is favorable. There is no obvious toxicity observed in uninfected cells treated with the compound. Thus, this compound holds great potential as both prophylactics and therapeutics for COVID-19 and future pandemics by blocking the entry of SARS-CoV-2 and related viruses into human cells.

5.
Struct Chang Econ Dyn ; 59: 482-495, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447175

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of different countermeasures to economic crisis from the public health emergency is still inadequately understood. We establish an illustrative scenario, specifying the shocks of COVID-19 pandemic and countermeasures applying a general equilibrium model to analyze the effectiveness of countermeasures with a particular focus on trade-offs in the impacts of monetary and fiscal policies. We find that both monetary and fiscal countermeasures could effectively mitigate the economic damages to GDP and employment. However, they would also produce adverse side-effects such as an increase in consumer price by 1.05% and 0.57%, respectively, and a decline in exports by 2.61% and 1.05%, respectively. Monetary policies would exacerbate the damages to external demand by supply-side shocks of the pandemic, but they are more suitable for mitigating demand-side shocks. While fiscal policies would benefit nearly all producing sectors, monetary policies would mainly affect export-oriented manufacturing sectors negatively.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17146, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373450

ABSTRACT

The transcriptome of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells that reflects the interplay between host and virus has provided valuable insights into mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease progression. In this study, we show that SARS-CoV-2 can establish a robust infection in HEK293T cells that overexpress human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) without triggering significant host immune response. Instead, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response-related pathways are predominantly activated. By comparing our data with published transcriptome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in other cell lines, we found that the expression level of hACE2 directly correlates with the viral load in infected cells but not with the scale of immune responses. Only cells that express high level of endogenous hACE2 exhibit an extensive immune attack even with a low viral load. Therefore, the infection route may be critical for the extent of the immune response, thus the severity of COVID-19 disease status.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Immunity, Innate/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 3963-3968, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination has been accepted widely. However, there are only a few reports on patients' willingness to be vaccinated. This study investigated the willingness of Chinese outpatients to accept COVID-19 vaccination as well as influencing factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jiangsu province, China in December 2020. Self-administered questionnaires, which were distributed to 625 outpatients among secondary hospitals, addressed demographic characteristics, sociological characteristics, and subjective reasons. There were 522 (83.5%) participants who gave completely valid responses. Logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the risk factors for willingness of COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: 71.5% of participants were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. "worried about contracting COVID-19" (49.6%) and "vaccines have just been introduced and need time to consider" (38.9%) were the main reasons for being willing and unwilling to receive COVID-19 vaccine, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed that "vaccines are an effective way to prevent diseases" (OR = 5.07, 95%CI: 3.32-7.75), "the price you are willing to pay for non-free vaccines (yuan) (101-500 vs ≤100)″ (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.16-3.02), "per capital monthly income(yuan) (>6000 vs ≤3000)"(OR = 2.13, 95%CI: 1.03-4.41), and "self- assessed health status (Good vs Bad)″ (OR = 1.71, 95%CI: 1.01-2.90) were the main risk factors for outpatients to be willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The willingness of Chinese outpatients to receive COVID-19 vaccine was not high. The government should do more to increase publicity of knowledge about COVID-19 vaccine thus increasing willingness to vaccinate, and provide free vaccine to eliminate the cost impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Transl Pediatr ; 10(1): 1-16, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have exceeded 21 million (with more than 775,000 fatalities), and the number of children with COVID-19 is also increasing. This study aimed to summarize the chest imaging characteristics of pediatric COVID-19 cases and provide a reference for the diagnosis and control of pediatric COVID-19. METHODS: The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO, number CRD42020177391. Studies related to pediatric COVID-19 imaging manifestations were accessed from PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library databases, without language limitations. The publication date was limited to April 1, 2020, and it was updated on May 1 and May 27, 2020. Data normalization was determined with the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation. Summarized incidences with 95% confidence intervals of various imaging manifestations were assessed by random-effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed with meta-regression and subgroup analyses, robustness with sensitivity analyses; and publication biases with Egger's test. RESULTS: Twenty-three with 517 cases were included in this study. The summarized incidence of chest computed tomography abnormalities in pediatric COVID-19 cases was 70%, which was lower than what has been seen in adults. The incidence of halo signs in pediatric COVID-19 cases was 26%, which is rarely seen in adult COVID-19 cases. The incidences of ground-glass opacities (GGOs), GGOs and consolidations, consolidations, reverse halo signs, crazy paving signs, pleural effusion, bronchopneumonia-like signs, air bronchograms, and increased lung markings were 40%, 25%, 10%, 2%, 4%, 1%, 15%, 12%, and 31%, respectively. Pericardial effusions were found in the computed tomography images of adult COVID-19 cases but were scarcely seen in the computed tomography images of pediatric COVID-19 cases. The incidences of bilateral lesions, unilateral lesions, and peripheral lesions were 35%, 22%, and 26%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Chest computed tomography imaging of pediatric COVID-19 cases resulted in various abnormalities that were milder than those of adults. This study will hopefully provide a reference to help identify pediatric COVID-19 cases.

9.
Transp Policy (Oxf) ; 103: 103-115, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081194

ABSTRACT

As one of the most vulnerable sectors exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic, transport sectors have been severely affected. However, the shocks and impact mechanisms of infectious diseases on transport sectors are not fully understood. This paper employs a multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model of China, CHINAGEM, with highly disaggregated transport sectors to examine the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on China's transport sectors and reveal the impact mechanisms of the pandemic shocks with the decomposition analysis approach. This study suggests that, first, multiple shocks of the COVID-19 pandemic to transport sectors are specified, including the supply-side shocks that raised the protective cost and reduced the production efficiency of transport sectors, and the demand-side shocks that reduced the demand of households and production sectors for transportation. Second, the outputs of all transport sectors in China have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and passenger transport sectors have larger output decreases than freight transport sectors. While the outputs of freight transport sectors are expected to decline by 1.03-2.85%, the outputs of passenger transport sectors would decline by 3.08-11.44%. Third, with the decomposition analysis, the impacts of various exogenous shocks are quite different, while the changes in the output of different transport sectors are dominated by different exogenous shocks. Lastly, while the supply-side shocks of the pandemic would drive output decline in railway, waterway, and aviation transport sectors, the demand-side shocks would drive so in the road, pipeline, and other transport sectors. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has negative impacts on the output of most non-transport sectors and the macro-economy in China. Three policy implications are recommended to mitigate the damages caused by the COVID-19 pandemic to the transport sectors.

10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 66, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a mental health crisis around the world. The psychological health of college students also faces great challenges. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and the related factors of depressive symptoms among Chinese college students. METHODS: This online cross-sectional survey was conducted via Wenjuanxing platform from March 3-15, 2020 and received 1681 effective questionnaires. Each questionnaire contains the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, the Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Herth Hope Index, and the self-designed items. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the significantly associated factors of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among college students was 56.8%. Sleep problems (OR 2.678, 95%CI 2.094-3.424), family members' going out (OR 1.775, 95%CI 1.089-2.894), perceived more stress for online education (OR 1.642, 95%CI 1.191-2.263), fear of COVID-19 (OR 1.450, 95%CI 1.121-1.876), influence on social interaction (OR 1.354, 95%CI 1.053-1.741) and higher grade (OR 1.378, 95%CI 1.046-1.816) were considered as risk factors of depressive symptoms. Perceived social support (OR 0.354, 95%CI 0.259-0.484), hope (OR 0.052, 95%CI 0.034-0.080), female (OR:0.557, 95%CI 0.427-0.725) and higher monthly disposable income (OR 0.666, 95%CI 0.447-0.993) were identified as protective factors against depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among Chinese college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to find ways to alleviate the pressure and fear of college students, to provide them with more social support, and to help them adapt to the changes in learning style and lifestyle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Cell Stem Cell ; 28(2): 331-342.e5, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009887

ABSTRACT

ApoE4, a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease, has been associated with increased risk for severe COVID-19. However, it is unclear whether ApoE4 alters COVID-19 susceptibility or severity, and the role of direct viral infection in brain cells remains obscure. We tested the neurotropism of SARS-CoV2 in human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) models and observed low-grade infection of neurons and astrocytes that is boosted in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures and organoids. We then generated isogenic ApoE3/3 and ApoE4/4 hiPSCs and found an increased rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in ApoE4/4 neurons and astrocytes. ApoE4 astrocytes exhibited enlarged size and elevated nuclear fragmentation upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we show that remdesivir treatment inhibits SARS-CoV2 infection of hiPSC neurons and astrocytes. These findings suggest that ApoE4 may play a causal role in COVID-19 severity. Understanding how risk factors impact COVID-19 susceptibility and severity will help us understand the potential long-term effects in different patient populations.


Subject(s)
Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tropism/physiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes/drug effects , Astrocytes/pathology , Astrocytes/virology , Cell Differentiation , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Nerve Degeneration/pathology , Neurites/pathology , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/pathology , Organoids/virology , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Synapses/pathology , Vero Cells
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