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Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 710946, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399130

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on the inflammatory response and viral clearance in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: We included 229 patients with confirmed COVID-19 in a multicenter, retrospective cohort study. Propensity score matching at a ratio of 1:3 was introduced to eliminate potential confounders. Patients were assigned to the ACEI/ARB group (n = 38) or control group (n = 114) according to whether they were current users of medication. Results: Compared to the control group, patients in the ACEI/ARB group had lower levels of plasma IL-1ß [(6.20 ± 0.38) vs. (9.30 ± 0.31) pg/ml, P = 0.020], IL-6 [(31.86 ± 4.07) vs. (48.47 ± 3.11) pg/ml, P = 0.041], IL-8 [(34.66 ± 1.90) vs. (47.93 ± 1.21) pg/ml, P = 0.027], and TNF-α [(6.11 ± 0.88) vs. (12.73 ± 0.26) pg/ml, P < 0.01]. Current users of ACEIs/ARBs seemed to have a higher rate of vasoconstrictive agents (20 vs. 6%, P < 0.01) than the control group. Decreased lymphocyte counts [(0.76 ± 0.31) vs. (1.01 ± 0.45)*109/L, P = 0.027] and elevated plasma levels of IL-10 [(9.91 ± 0.42) vs. (5.26 ± 0.21) pg/ml, P = 0.012] were also important discoveries in the ACEI/ARB group. Patients in the ACEI/ARB group had a prolonged duration of viral shedding [(24 ± 5) vs. (18 ± 5) days, P = 0.034] and increased length of hospitalization [(24 ± 11) vs. (15 ± 7) days, P < 0.01]. These trends were similar in patients with hypertension. Conclusions: Our findings did not provide evidence for a significant association between ACEI/ARB treatment and COVID-19 mortality. ACEIs/ARBs might decrease proinflammatory cytokines, but antiviral treatment should be enforced, and hemodynamics should be monitored closely. Since the limited influence on the ACEI/ARB treatment, they should not be withdrawn if there was no formal contraindication.

2.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 45(4): 612-622, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680430

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory viral infections are frequency accompanied by multiple organ dysfunction, including acute kidney injury (AKI). In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and rapidly spread worldwide. While diffuse alveolar damage and acute respiratory failure are the main features of COVID-19, other organs may be involved, and the incidence of AKI is not well described. We assessed the incidence and clinical characteristics of AKI in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and its effects on clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, observational study of patients with COVID-19 admitted to two general hospitals in Wuhan from 5 January 2020 to 21 March 2020. Demographic data and information on organ dysfunction were collected daily. AKI was defined according to the KDIGO clinical practice guidelines. Early and late AKI were defined as AKI occurring within 72 h after admission or after 72 h, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 116 patients, AKI developed in 21 (18.1%) patients. Among them, early and late AKI were found in 13 (11.2%) and 8 (6.9%) patients, respectively. Compared with patients without AKI, patients with AKI had more severe organ dysfunction, as indicated by a higher level of disease severity status, higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score on admission, an increased prevalence of shock, and a higher level of respiratory support. Patients with AKI had a higher SOFA score on admission (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 2.8 ± 1.4, OR 1.498, 95% CI 1.047-2.143 ) and greater hospital mortality (57.1% vs. 12.6%, OR 3.998, 95% CI 1.088-14.613) than patients without AKI in both the univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients with late AKI, but not those with early AKI, had a significantly prolonged length of stay (19.6 vs. 9.6 days, p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that admission SOFA score was an independent risk factor for AKI in COVID-19 patients, and patients with AKI had higher in-hospital mortality. Moreover, AKI development after 72 h of admission was related to prolonged hospitalization time.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, General , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Function Tests , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Water-Electrolyte Balance
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