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1.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; 37(6):1292-1301, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2081015

ABSTRACT

Kashgar is a prefecture in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. China. Kashgar Prefecture (KP) is a land-cargo port connecting China with central Asian countries and Europe. Frequent transportation of cargo has increased the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) introduction into China, which has increased the pressure on coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) prevention and control. In November 2020, an imported virus-induced COVID-19 outbreak occurred in KP. To investigate the genetic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 that contaminated the trucks and containers, and the potential of border rapid logistics system to serve as carriers for SARS-CoV-2 transmission, thirty-five SARS-CoV-2-positive nucleic-acid samples collected from KP cross-border trucks and containers from 6-10 November 2020 were subjected into SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing and comparative analyses. The results showed that the median (minimum to maximum) Ct value of ORF1ab was 37.64 (28.91-39.81) . and that of the N gene was 36.50 (26.35-39.30), and the median (minimum to maximum) of the reads mapping ratio to SARS-CoV-2 was 51.95% (0.86%-99.31%), which indicated low viral loads in these environmental samples. Eighteen of 35 samples had genomic coverage >70%. According to the Pango nomenclature, 18 SARS-CoV-2 sequences belonged to six lineages (B.1, B.I.1, B.1.9. B.1.1.220, B.1.153 and B.1.465), three of which (B.I. B.1.1 and 8.1.153) were found in case samples from the same period of four China-neighboring countries. Analyses of nucleotide mutations and phylogenetic trees showed that the genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 collected from the same location were similar. Four of 18 sequences were in a sub-lineage with the representative strain of COVID-19 outbreak in KP, one of which had 1 or 2 differences in nucleotide mutation sites with the strain that caused the COVID-19 outbreak in KP, which indicated high homology in the viral genome. We showed that cross-border trucks and containers were contaminated by various genotypes of SARS-CoV-2 from other countries during the outbreak in KP. and in which contained the parental virus of the KP cases. These trucks and containers served as carriers for SARS-CoV-2 introduction from other countries to cause local transmission. Our results provide important references for COVID-19 prevention-and-control strategies in border ports and tracing of outbreak sources in China.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 822796, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009873

ABSTRACT

Background: The changing pattern of pathogen spectrum causing herpangina in the time of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes on the molecular epidemiology of herpangina children during 2019-2020 in Tongzhou district, Beijing, China. Method: From January 2019 to December 2020, children diagnosed with herpangina were recruited by the staff from Tongzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Beijing. Viral RNA extraction from pharyngeal swabs was used for enterovirus (EV) detection and the complete VP1 gene was sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis was performed based on all VP1 sequences for EV genotypes. Result: A total of 1,331 herpangina children were identified during 2019-2020 with 1,121 in 2019 and 210 in 2020, respectively. The predominant epidemic peak of herpangina children was in summer and autumn of 2019, but not observed in 2020. Compared to the number of herpangina children reported in 2019, it decreased sharply in 2020. Among 129 samples tested in 2019, 61 (47.3%) children were detected with EV, while 22.5% (20/89) were positive in 2020. The positive rate for EV increased since June 2019, peaked at August 2019, and decreased continuously until February 2020. No cases were observed from February to July in 2020, and the positive rate of EV rebounded to previous level since August 2020. Four genotypes, including coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6, 9.3%), CV-A4 (7.8%), CV-A10 (2.3%) and CV-A16 (10.1%), were identified in 2019, and only three genotypes, including CV-A6 (9.0%), CV-A10 (6.7%) and CV-A16 (1.1%), were identified in 2020. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all CV-A6 strains from Tongzhou located in Group C, and the predominant strains mainly located in C2-C4 subgroups during 2016-2018 and changed into C1 subgroup during 2018-2020. CV-A16 strains mainly located in Group B, which consisting of strains widely distributed around the world. Conclusions: The predominant genotypes gradually shifted from CV-A16, CV-A4 and CV-A6 in 2019 to CV-A6 in 2020 under COVID-19 pandemic. Genotype-based surveillance will provide robust evidence and facilitate the development of public health measures.

3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 152: 113254, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889242

ABSTRACT

Sang Xing decoction (SXD) is a typical prescription for treating "warm dryness" in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is equivalent to respiratory diseases such as acute bronchitis in modern medicine. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, the representative components of SXD were characterized using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The key targets, signaling pathways, and metabolic pathways associated with SXD in the treatment of acute bronchitis were identified via network prediction and metabolomics. A rat model of acute bronchitis was also established using mixed smoke, systematic in vivo experiments such as histopathological analyses, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and western blotting were conducted to evaluate the network prediction results. An in-depth analysis of the targeted quantitative results was performed using the SIMCA software and MetaboAnalyst website. The results revealed that 50 active compounds and 45 key targets were screened and clustered with 20 approved drugs. The NF-κB signaling pathway, oxidative stress, and glutamine metabolism were associated with the therapeutic mechanism of SXD in acute bronchitis. In vivo experiments showed that SXD may maintain the production of inflammatory factors by regulating the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway, improving the metabolism of glutamine and glutamate to reduce oxidative stress, and inhibiting apoptosis. Simultaneously, the possibility of using SXD as an adjuvant drug for COVID-19 treatment was also revealed. This research will lay the foundation for the modern clinical application of SXD and promote the promotion and innovation of TCM.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis , COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Animals , Bronchitis/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Glutamine , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Rats , Smoke
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3801-3810, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888745

ABSTRACT

Influenza-like illness (ILI) varies in intensity year by year, generally keeping a stable pattern except for great changes of its epidemic pattern. Of the most impacting factors, urbanization has been suggested as shaping the intensity of influenza epidemics. Besides, growing evidence indicates the nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 offer great advantages in controlling infectious diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of urbanization and NPIs on the dynamic of ILI in Tongzhou, Beijing, during January 2013 to March 2021. ILI epidemiological surveillance data in Tongzhou district were obtained from Beijing Influenza Surveillance Network and separated into three periods of urbanization and four intervals of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Standardized average incidence rates of ILI in each separate stages were calculated and compared by using Wilson method and time series model of seasonal ARIMA. Influenza seasonal outbreaks showed similar epidemic size and intensity before urbanization during 2013-2016. Increased ILI activity was found during the process of Tongzhou's urbanization during 2017-2019, with the rate difference of 2.48 (95% confidence interva [CI]: 2.44, 2.52) and the rate ratio of 1.75 (95% CI: 1.74, 1.76) of ILI incidence between preurbanization and urbanization periods. ILI activity abruptly decreased from the beginning of 2020 and kept at the bottom level almost in every epidemic interval. The top decrease in ILI activity by NPIs was shown in 5-14 years group in 2020-2021 influenza season, as 92.2% (95% CI: 78.3%, 95.2%). The results indicated that both urbanization and NPIs interrupted the epidemic pattern of ILI. We should pay more attention to public health when facing increasing population density, human contact, population mobility, and migration in the process of urbanization. NPIs and influenza vaccination should be implemented as necessary measures to protect people from common infectious diseases like ILI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Virus Diseases , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Seasons , Urbanization , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
5.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(2):224-227, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1855878

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of the associated epidemics in Tongzhou district of Beijing from 2015 to 2020, identify the risk factors and provide scientific basis for the early warning, prevention and control of infectious disease epidemics.

6.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824548

ABSTRACT

Background The changing pattern of pathogen spectrum causing herpangina in the time of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes on the molecular epidemiology of herpangina children during 2019-2020 in Tongzhou district, Beijing, China. Method From January 2019 to December 2020, children diagnosed with herpangina were recruited by the staff from Tongzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Beijing. Viral RNA extraction from pharyngeal swabs was used for enterovirus (EV) detection and the complete VP1 gene was sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis was performed based on all VP1 sequences for EV genotypes. Result A total of 1,331 herpangina children were identified during 2019-2020 with 1,121 in 2019 and 210 in 2020, respectively. The predominant epidemic peak of herpangina children was in summer and autumn of 2019, but not observed in 2020. Compared to the number of herpangina children reported in 2019, it decreased sharply in 2020. Among 129 samples tested in 2019, 61 (47.3%) children were detected with EV, while 22.5% (20/89) were positive in 2020. The positive rate for EV increased since June 2019, peaked at August 2019, and decreased continuously until February 2020. No cases were observed from February to July in 2020, and the positive rate of EV rebounded to previous level since August 2020. Four genotypes, including coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6, 9.3%), CV-A4 (7.8%), CV-A10 (2.3%) and CV-A16 (10.1%), were identified in 2019, and only three genotypes, including CV-A6 (9.0%), CV-A10 (6.7%) and CV-A16 (1.1%), were identified in 2020. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all CV-A6 strains from Tongzhou located in Group C, and the predominant strains mainly located in C2-C4 subgroups during 2016-2018 and changed into C1 subgroup during 2018-2020. CV-A16 strains mainly located in Group B, which consisting of strains widely distributed around the world. Conclusions The predominant genotypes gradually shifted from CV-A16, CV-A4 and CV-A6 in 2019 to CV-A6 in 2020 under COVID-19 pandemic. Genotype-based surveillance will provide robust evidence and facilitate the development of public health measures.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312747

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study investigated the influence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on lung function in early convalescence phase. Methods: A prospective retrospective study of COVID-19 patients at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were conducted, with serial assessments including lung volumes (TLC), spirometry (FVC, FEV1), lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO),respiratory muscle strength, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) and high resolution CT being collected at 30 days after discharged. Results: 57 patients completed the serial assessments. There were 40 non-severe cases and 17 severe cases. Thirty-one patients (54.3%) had abnormal CT findings. Abnormalities were detected in the pulmonary function tests in 43 (75.4%) of the patients. Six (10.5%), 5(8.7%), 25(43.8%) 7(12.3%), and 30 (52.6%) patients had FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, TLC, and DLCO values less than 80% of predicted values, respectively. 28 (49.1%) and 13 (22.8%) patients had PImax and PEmax values less than 80% of the corresponding predicted values. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients showed higher incidence of DLCO impairment (75.6%vs42.5%, p=0.019), higher lung total severity score(TSS)and R20, and significantly lower percentage of predicted TLC and 6MWD. No significant correlation between TSS and pulmonary function parameters was found during follow-up visit. Conclusion: Impaired diffusing-capacityDeclining DLCO, lower respiratory muscle strength, and lung imaging abnormalities were detected in more than half of the COVID-19 patients in early convalescence phase. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients had a higher incidence of DLCO impairment and encountered more TLC decrease and 6MWD decline.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308928

ABSTRACT

Background: To date, coronaviruses have caused three pandemics. Fewer studies concentrated on the prognosis of lung function. Objective: To summarize the lung function of the discharged after coronavirus infection. Methods: : We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Two authors independently screened articles and extracted data. On average, predicted values and damage rates of seven lung function indices were pooled by single-arm meta-analysis. And, in severe/critical vs. non-severe/critical and one-year follow-up, they were pooled by two-arm meta-analysis. The source of high heterogeneity was explored by meta-regression or subgroup analysis. Results: : Of the 7798 articles identified, 34 studies were included. On average, the pooled predicted values of the seven indices were within normal except for DLCO (79.2, 95% CI (76.2-82.2 )). Damage of lung function indices accounted for 6.2-35.2% of the discharged with DLCO most, and 83-100% of the damage was mild. Meta-regression showed that different viruses, countries, disease settings, and measurement times were not the source of high heterogeneities. In severe/critical illness vs. non-severe/critical, predicted values of seven indices were significantly lower (largest gap in DLCO (WMD -11.60, 95% CI -14.23--8.98)). However, damage rates got rises only in DLCO (RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.46-2.07) and TLC, having no differences in the other indices. In one-year follow-up, predicted values were significantly improved in the severe/critical subgroup, while having no change in the non-severe/critical subgroup. Damage rates got no improvement in all indices. Interpretation: A single predicted value or damage rate can't give a clear description of lung function after coronavirus infection, and the trends of the two are sometimes inconsistent. We suggest more prospective cohort or follow-up studies in the future to lessen the influence of differences in lung function measurements across studies. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42020192843)

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308927

ABSTRACT

Change point detection in time series has attracted substantial interest, but most of the existing results have been focused on detecting change points in the time domain. This paper considers the situation where nonlinear time series have potential change points in the state domain. We apply a density-weighted anti-symmetric kernel function to the state domain and therefore propose a nonparametric procedure to test the existence of change points. When the existence of change points is affirmative, we further introduce an algorithm to estimate their number together with locations and show the convergence result on the estimation procedure. A real dataset of German daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 is used to illustrate our results.

10.
J Adolesc Health ; 70(4): 567-570, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631626

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of adolescents' desire for COVID-19 vaccination on their parents' vaccination decision for their adolescent. METHODS: We surveyed an internet-based panel of 1,051 parents of 1,519 adolescents aged 11-18 years from February to March 2021 about their adolescent's desire for COVID-19 vaccination and whether they consider this desire in their vaccination decision for the adolescent. We used multivariable Poisson regression to assess associations with parent-stated likelihood of adolescent vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 58.3% of parents reported that they and their adolescents had the same vaccination desire; similarly, 58.3% considered their adolescent's desire in their vaccination decision. These latter parents were more likely to vaccinate their adolescent than parents who did not consider their adolescent's desire (adjusted risk ratio = 1.25 [95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.50]). DISCUSSION: Most parents considered their adolescent's desire for COVID-19 vaccination. These parents were more likely to state that they will have their adolescent receive a COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Parents , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
11.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 147, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health emergency of international concern. Quantitative testing of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) virus is demanded in evaluating the efficacy of antiviral drugs and vaccines and RT-PCR can be widely deployed in the clinical assay of viral loads. Here, we developed a quantitative RT-PCR method for SARS-CoV-2 virus detection in this study. METHODS: RT-PCR kits targeting E (envelope) gene, N (nucleocapsid) gene and RdRP (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) gene of SARS-CoV-2 from Roche Diagnostics were evaluated and E gene kit was employed for quantitative detection of COVID-19 virus using Cobas Z480. Viral load was calculated according to the standard curve established by series dilution of an E-gene RNA standard provided by Tib-Molbiol (a division of Roche Diagnostics). Assay performance was evaluated. RESULTS: The performance of the assay is acceptable with limit of detection (LOD) below 10E1 copies/µL and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) as 10E2 copies/µL. CONCLUSION: A quantitative detection of the COVID-19 virus based on RT-PCR was established.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Phosphoproteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load/methods
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113: 116-118, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious and pathogenic respiratory disease. To date, there is no effective treatment, and there is an urgent need to develop vaccines against the virus. Five coronavirus COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for inoculation in China, with good safety and few adverse reactions. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old woman complained of bilateral blurred vision and visual distortion 5 days after vaccination with the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. Physical and auxiliary examination showed that she developed bilateral posterior uveitis. The patient was administered local and systemic steroids, and the symptoms were appreciably improved 5 weeks later. CONCLUSIONS: A case of bilateral uveitis after COVID-19 vaccination was reported and indicated that uveitis after vaccination appears transient and responds well to steroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uveitis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Uveitis/diagnosis , Uveitis/drug therapy , Uveitis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 607314, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389171

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after viral infections, including influenza A virus H1N1, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. The angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key host membrane-bound protein that modulates ALI induced by viral infection, pulmonary acid aspiration, and sepsis. However, the contributions of ACE2 sequence variants to individual differences in disease risk and severity after viral infection are not understood. In this study, we quantified H1N1 influenza-infected lung transcriptomes across a family of 41 BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice and both parents-C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. In response to infection Ace2 mRNA levels decreased significantly for both parental strains and the expression levels was associated with disease severity (body weight loss) and viral load (expression levels of viral NA segment) across the BXD family members. Pulmonary RNA-seq for 43 lines was analyzed using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and Bayesian network approaches. Ace2 not only participated in virus-induced ALI by interacting with TNF, MAPK, and NOTCH signaling pathways, but was also linked with high confidence to gene products that have important functions in the pulmonary epithelium, including Rnf128, Muc5b, and Tmprss2. Comparable sets of transcripts were also highlighted in parallel studies of human SARS-CoV-infected primary human airway epithelial cells. Using conventional mapping methods, we determined that weight loss at two and three days after viral infection maps to chromosome X-the location of Ace2. This finding motivated the hierarchical Bayesian network analysis, which defined molecular endophenotypes of lung infection linked to Ace2 expression and to a key disease outcome. Core members of this Bayesian network include Ace2, Atf4, Csf2, Cxcl2, Lif, Maml3, Muc5b, Reg3g, Ripk3, and Traf3. Collectively, these findings define a causally-rooted Ace2 modulatory network relevant to host response to viral infection and identify potential therapeutic targets for virus-induced respiratory diseases, including those caused by influenza and coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Lung/virology , Virus Diseases/genetics , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred DBA , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Signal Transduction/genetics
15.
Particuology ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1377427

ABSTRACT

Cleaning a surface using a solution containing a large number of micro to nano scale bubbles has significant advantage regarding environmental protection. This review first briefly introduces the cleaning mechanism of micro-nano bubbles (MNBs), including physical and chemical effects. Then the applications of MNBs in cleaning of metal parts, precision parts, cultural relics or food are introduced. After that, coupled cleaning method of ultrasound and bubbles is introduced. Finally, the characterization methods for the cleaning effect are introduced, which mainly focuses on the changes of physico-chemical properties (mass or cleaning area, infiltration, colony number and light scattering intensity) of the cleaned parts or that (like conductivity) of the solvent. It is believed that MNBs technology will be applied in a broader range of surface cleaning applications.

17.
Pediatrics ; 148(4)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341536

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Assess the degree to which US parents are likely to have their children get coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and identify parental concerns about the vaccines. METHODS: In February 2021 to March 2021, we surveyed parent members of a nationally representative probability-based Internet panel of ∼9000 adults regarding their intent to have their children receive a COVID-19 vaccination, perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines for children, and trust in sources of information about COVID-19 vaccines for children. We used descriptive and multivariate analyses to evaluate parent-stated likelihood of having their children get a COVID-19 vaccine and to assess the association between likelihood of child COVID-19 vaccination and child age, parent demographics, and parental perceptions about COVID-19 vaccines. RESULTS: Altogether, 1745 parents responded (87% of eligible parents, 3759 children). Likelihood of child COVID-19 vaccination was as follows: very likely (28%), somewhat likely (18%), somewhat unlikely (9%), very unlikely (33%), and unsure (12%). The stated likelihood of child vaccination was greater among parents of older children (P < .001) as well as among parents who had a bachelor's degree or higher education (P < .001), had already received or were likely to receive a COVID-19 vaccine (P < .001), or had Democratic affiliation (P < .001); variations existed by race and ethnicity (P = .04). Parental concerns centered around vaccine safety and side effects. A key trusted source of information about COVID-19 vaccines for children was the child's doctor. CONCLUSIONS: Less than one-half of US participants report that they are likely to have their child receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Pediatric health care providers have a major role in promoting and giving COVID-19 vaccination for children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Intention , Parents/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology
19.
Prev Med ; 153: 106727, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313497

ABSTRACT

High acceptance of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines is instrumental to ending the pandemic. Vaccine acceptance by subgroups of the population depends on their trust in COVID-19 vaccines. We surveyed a probability-based internet panel of 7832 adults from December 23, 2020-January 19, 2021 about their likelihood of getting a COVID-19 vaccine and the following domains of trust: an individual's generalized trust, trust in COVID-19 vaccine's efficacy and safety, trust in the governmental approval process and general vaccine development process for COVID-19 vaccines, trust in their physician about COVID-19, and trust in other sources about COVID-19. We included identified at-risk subgroups: healthcare workers, older adults (65-74-year-olds and ≥ 75-year-olds), frontline essential workers, other essential workers, and individuals with high-risk chronic conditions. Of 5979 respondents, only 57.4% said they were very likely or somewhat likely to get a COVID-19 vaccine. More hesitant respondents (p < 0.05) included: women, young adults (18-49 years), Blacks, individuals with lower education, those with lower income, and individuals without high-risk chronic conditions. Lack of trust in the vaccine approval and development processes explained most of the demographic variation in stated vaccination likelihood, while other domains of trust explained less variation. We conclude that hesitancy for COVID-19 vaccines is high overall and among at-risk subgroups, and hesitancy is strongly tied to trust in the vaccine approval and development processes. Building trust is critical to ending the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Probability , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust , Vaccination , Young Adult
20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(10): 3262-3267, 2021 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281830

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionately impacted older individuals, those with lower educational attainment, and Black and Hispanic populations, yet vaccine hesitancy remains prevalent. Because widespread uptake of COVID-19 vaccines is critical to end the pandemic, addressing vaccine hesitancy is an important public health priority. Between April 1, 2020 and March 16, 2021, we have repeatedly surveyed a nationally representative online panel of adults and have tracked their stated likelihood of getting COVID-19 vaccinations. We present new evidence that in recent months disparities in self-reported likelihood of COVID-19 vaccination have narrowed by race/ethnicity, with an increasing proportion of Black individuals and Hispanic individuals indicating that they are likely to get a vaccine. At the same time, younger adults have progressively become less likely than older adults to state they will get a COVID-19 vaccine. Most vaccine-hesitant individuals are concerned about both vaccine efficacy and safety and do not trust the vaccine development or vaccine approval process. We conclude that outreach efforts to minority populations may be achieving their objectives in raising confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, but special outreach efforts are needed to address both vaccine hesitancy among younger adults and mistrust in the vaccine development and approval process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , African Americans , Aged , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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