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1.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760500

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Despite guidelines, a large percentage of cancer patients continue to suffer from ineffectively treated pain. The authors undertook this survey to assess the strengths and weaknesses of cancer pain management in Italy. DESIGN: This was a prospectively administered survey. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were anesthesiologists of the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI). INTERVENTION: A 58-item questionnaire covered the demographics and features of cancer pain management in the Italian context. RESULTS: The authors received responses from 611 pain therapists of 279 centers. Only 22% of physicians are exclusively pain therapists. Seventy-five percent are specialists in anesthesiology, intensive care, and pain medicine. Most pain centers are hospital or university facilities (78%). The strengths of cancer pain management in Italy are the careful opioid prescriptions, the use of strategies for the treatment of neuropathic pain, patient/healthcare provider partnerships, and breakthrough cancer pain management. Weaknesses to be addressed include poor adherence to guidelines, inadequate attention toward the patient's quality of life, insufficient use of minimally invasive techniques, lack of teamwork approaches, inappropriate timing of pain specialist engagement, and poor telemedicine use. CONCLUSIONS: Despite several strengths, further efforts are needed to improve the care of patients suffering from cancer pain in Italy.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307473

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic following the outbreak in China and Western Europe, where it finally lost the momentum, is now devastating North and South America. It has not been identified the reason and the molecular mechanisms of the two different patterns of the pulmonary host responses to virus from a minimal disease in young subjects to a severe distress syndrome (ARDS) in older subjects, particularly those with previous chronic diseases (including diabetes) and Cancer. The Management of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori - IRCCS “Fondazione Pascale” in Naples [INT-Pascale], along with all Health professionals decided not to interrupt the treatment of those hospitalized and to continue, even if after a careful triage in order not to allow SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects to access, to take care of cancer patients with serious conditions. Although very few (n=3) patients developed a symptomatic COVID-19 and required the transfer to a COVID-19 area of the Institute, no patients died during the Hospitalization and completed their oncology treatment. Besides monitoring of the patients, all employees of the Institute (physicians, nurses, researchers, lawyers, accountants, gatekeepers, guardians, janitors) have been tested for a possible exposure. Personnel identified as positive, has been promptly subjected to home quarantine and subdued to health surveillance. One severe case of respiratory distress has been reported in a positive employees and one death of a family member. Further steps to home monitoring of COVID-19 clinical course have been taken with the development of remote Wi-Fi connected digital devices for the detection of early signs of respiratory distress, including heart rate and oxygen saturation.In conclusion cancer care has been performed and continued safely also during COVID-19 pandemic and further remote home strategies are in progress to ensure the appropriate monitoring of cancer patients.

3.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 16(1): 62, 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631379

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can impact the physical, cognitive, mental health of patients, especially in those recovered in intensive care units. Moreover, it was proved that the effects of the virus may persist for weeks or months. The term long-COVID or post-COVID syndrome is commonly used for indicating a variety of physical and psychological symptoms that continue after the resolution of the acute phase. This narrative review is aimed at providing an updated overview of the impact of physical, cognitive, and psychological health disorders in COVID-19 survivors, by summarizing the data already published in literature in the last year. Studies cited were found through PubMed searches. We also presented an overview of the post-COVID-19 health consequences on three important aspects: nutritional status, neurological disorders, and physical health. Moreover, to activate a correct health planning policy, a multidisciplinary approach for addressing the post- COVID-19 issue, has been proposed. Finally, the involvement of health professionals is necessary even after the pandemic, to reduce expected post-pandemic psychosocial responses and mental health disorders.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580720

ABSTRACT

Due to a lack of published evidence on the topic, a modified Delphi approach was used to develop recommendations useful for chronic pain management during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Focusing on the available literature and personal clinical expertise, an Italian board of nine professionals from different disciplines identified four main topics: prevention of chronic pain, treatment of chronic pain, consequences of inadequate treatment, and perspectives. They elaborated a semi-structured questionnaire. A multidisciplinary panel of experts in the field of pain management was requested to comment on the statements. Based on the answers provided, a structured questionnaire was prepared (Round 1). It included 21 statements divided into three categories (organizational issues; diagnosis and therapies; telemedicine and future perspectives). A five-point Likert scale was adopted. The threshold for consensus was set at a minimum of 70% of the number of respondents (level of agreement ≥ 4, Agree or Strongly Agree). A final questionnaire with rephrasing of the statements that did not reach the consensus threshold was elaborated (Round 2). A total of 29 clinicians were included in the panel. Twenty clinicians (69%) responded in both the first and second round. After two rounds, consensus (≥70%) was achieved in 20 out of 21 statements. The lack of consensus was recorded for the statement regarding the management of post-COVID pain (55%; Median 4; IQR 2.3). Another statement on telemedicine reached the threshold in the first round (70%), but the value was not confirmed in Round 2 (65%; Median 4; IQR 2). Most of the proposed items reached consensus, suggesting the need to make organizational changes, the structuring of careful diagnostic and therapeutic pathways, and the application of new technologies in pain medicine. Long-COVID-19 care is an issue that needs further research. Remote assistance for chronic pain must be regulated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Pain , Pain Management , COVID-19/complications , Chronic Pain/diagnosis , Chronic Pain/therapy , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Humans , Pandemics
5.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 4447-4454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502185

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently ongoing worldwide and causes a lot of deaths in many countries. Although different vaccines for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been developed and are now available, there are no effective antiviral drugs to treat the disease, except for Remdesivir authorized by the US FDA to counteract the emergency. Thus, it can be useful to find alternative therapies based on the employment of natural compounds, with antiviral features, to circumvent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pre-clinical studies highlighted the antiviral activities of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a catechin primarily found in green tea, against various viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we summarize this experimental evidence and highlight the potential use of EGCG as an alternative therapeutic choice for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/virology , Catechin/administration & dosage , Catechin/pharmacology , Humans , Tea/chemistry
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among the several therapeutic options assessed for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), tocilizumab (TCZ), an antagonist of the interleukine-6 receptor, has emerged as a promising therapeutic choice, especially for the severe form of the disease. Proper synthesis of the available randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is needed to inform clinical practice. METHODS: A systematic review with a meta-analysis of RCTs investigating the efficacy of TCZ in COVID-19 patients was conducted. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register were searched up until 30 April 2021. RESULTS: The database search yielded 2885 records; 11 studies were considered eligible for full-text review, and nine met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 3358 patients composed the TCZ arm, and 3131 the comparator group. The main outcome was all-cause mortality at 28-30 days. Subgroup analyses according to trials' and patients' features were performed. A trial sequential analysis (TSA) was also carried out to minimize type I and type II errors. According to the fixed-effect model approach, TCZ was associated with a better survival odds ratio (OR) (0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.94; I2: 24% (low heterogeneity)). The result was consistent in the subgroup of severe disease (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74-0.93; I2: 53% (moderate heterogeneity)). However, the TSA illustrated that the required information size was not met unless the study that was the major source of heterogeneity was omitted. CONCLUSIONS: TCZ may represent an important weapon against severe COVID-19. Further studies are needed to consolidate this finding.

7.
J Pain Res ; 14: 2403-2412, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362170

ABSTRACT

Although the respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 are predominant, signs and symptoms of an extra-pulmonary involvement are usually encompassed among the clinical picture of the disease. Several painful manifestations can occur during the acute phase but also as short- or long-term complications. Myalgia, joint pain, sore throat, abdominal pain, chest pain, and headache usually accompany respiratory symptoms, but they can also occur as isolated clinical findings or can be expressed regardless of the severity of COVID-19. On these premises, given the vast spectrum of clinical manifestations and the complexity of their pathogenesis, it would be more appropriate to refer to "COVID-pain", an umbrella term useful for encompassing all these clinical manifestations in a separate chapter of the disease. In this scenario, we addressed the topic from a molecular perspective, trying to provide explanations for the underlying pathophysiological processes. Consequently, this narrative review is aimed at dissecting the mechanisms of acute and chronic painful manifestations, summarizing fundamental concepts on the matter, controversies, current research gaps, and potential developments in this field.

8.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 15(1): 69, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965787

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic following the outbreak in China and Western Europe, where it finally lost the momentum, is now devastating North and South America. It has not been identified the reason and the molecular mechanisms of the two different patterns of the pulmonary host responses to the virus from a minimal disease in young subjects to a severe distress syndrome (ARDS) in older subjects, particularly those with previous chronic diseases (including diabetes) and cancer. The Management of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori - IRCCS "Fondazione Pascale" in Naples (INT-Pascale), along with all Health professionals decided not to interrupt the treatment of those hospitalized and to continue, even if after a careful triage in order not to allow SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects to access, to take care of cancer patients with serious conditions. Although very few (n = 3) patients developed a symptomatic COVID-19 and required the transfer to a COVID-19 area of the Institute, no patients died during the hospitalization and completed their oncology treatment. Besides monitoring of the patients, all employees of the Institute (physicians, nurses, researchers, lawyers, accountants, gatekeepers, guardians, janitors) have been tested for a possible exposure. Personnel identified as positive, has been promptly subjected to home quarantine and subdued to health surveillance. One severe case of respiratory distress has been reported in a positive employees and one death of a family member. Further steps to home monitoring of COVID-19 clinical course have been taken with the development of remote Wi-Fi connected digital devices for the detection of early signs of respiratory distress, including heart rate and oxygen saturation.In conclusion cancer care has been performed and continued safely also during COVID-19 pandemic and further remote home strategies are in progress to ensure the appropriate monitoring of cancer patients.

9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(8)2020 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680490

ABSTRACT

Treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19 pneumonia (CARDS) represents a clinical challenge, requiring often invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Since the pathogenesis of CARDS it probably involves a direct viral attack to pulmonary and endothelium cells, and immune-mediated inflammation with dysfunctional coagulation, it was suggested to interfere with interleukin-6 (IL-6) activity by using the IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab (TCZ). We reported the case of a 54-year-old 100 kg male COVID-19 patient (BMI 29) with severe respiratory insufficiency featuring dyspnea and hypoxia (SpO2 89% on room; PaO2 53 mmHg). Despite treatment with antiviral and non-invasive ventilation (NIV), after 24 h there was a progressive worsening of clinical conditions with higher fever (40 °C), increased dyspnea, and hypoxia (PaO2/FiO2 or P/F ratio of 150). The patient was at the limit to be sedated and intubated for IMV. He was treated with tocilizumab (8 mg/Kg i.v., single shot 800 mg) and NIV in the prone positioning. After only 96 h, the clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings showed incredible improvement. There was an important gain in oxygenation (P/F 300), a decrease of C-reactive protein values, and a decrease of the fever. Both the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the derived NLR ratio dropped down to 44%. Chest imaging confirmed the favorable response. This case suggested that for CARDS management efforts are needed for reducing its underlying inflammatory processes. Through a multiprofessional approach, the combination of IL-6-targeting therapies with calibrated ventilatory strategies may represent a winning strategy for improving outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Administration, Intravenous , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
10.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1597-1602, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-531971

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), initially termed 2019-new CoV (2019-nCoV), is a novel coronavirus responsible for the severe respiratory illness currently ongoing worldwide from the beginning of December 2019. This beta gene virus, very close to bat coronaviruses (bat-CoV-RaTG13) and bat-SL-CoVZC45, causes a severe disease, similar to those caused by Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV and SARS-CoV viruses, featured by low to moderate mortality rate. Unfortunately, the antiviral drugs commonly used in clinical practice to treat viral infections, are not applicable to SARS-Cov-2 and no vaccine is available. Thus, it is extremely necessary to identify new drugs suitable for the treatment of the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Different preclinical studies conducted on other coronaviruses suggested that promising clinical outcomes for 2019-nCoV should be obtained by using alpha-interferon, chloroquine phosphate, arabinol, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Moreover, clinical trials with these suitable drugs should be performed on patients affected by SARS-Cov-2 to prove their efficacy and safety. Finally, a very promising therapeutic drug, tocilizumab, is discussed; it is currently used to treat patients presenting COVID-19 pneumonia. Herein, we recapitulate these experimental studies to highlight the use of antiviral drugs for the treatment of SARS-Cov-2 disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Drug Combinations , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Investigational/therapeutic use , Humans , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Neuraminidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Primates , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
StatPearls ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-5599

ABSTRACT

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), viral diseases continue to emerge and represent a serious issue to public health. In the last twenty years, several viral epidemics such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 to 2003, and H1N1 influenza in 2009, have been recorded. Most recently, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. In a timeline that reaches the present day, an epidemic of cases with unexplained low respiratory infections detected in Wuhan, the largest metropolitan area in China's Hubei province, was first reported to the WHO Country Office in China, on December 31, 2019. Published literature can trace the beginning of symptomatic individuals back to the beginning of December 2019. As they were unable to identify the causative agent, these first cases were classified as "pneumonia of unknown etiology." The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and local CDCs organized an intensive outbreak investigation program. The etiology of this illness is now attributed to a novel virus belonging to the coronavirus (CoV) family, COVID-19. On February 11, 2020, the WHO Director-General, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, announced that the disease caused by this new CoV was a "COVID-19," which is the acronym of "coronavirus disease 2019". In the past twenty years, two additional coronavirus epidemics have occurred. SARS-CoV provoked a large-scale epidemic beginning in China and involving two dozen countries with approximately 8000 cases and 800 deaths, and the MERS-CoV that began in Saudi Arabia and has approximately 2,500 cases and 800 deaths and still causes as sporadic cases. This new virus seems to be very contagious and has quickly spread globally. In a meeting on January 30, 2020, per the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005), the outbreak was declared by the WHO a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) as it had spread to 18 countries with four countries reporting human-to-human transmission. An additional landmark occurred on February 26, 2020, as the first case of the disease, not imported from China, was recorded in the United States.  Initially, the new virus was called 2019-nCoV. Subsequently, the task of experts of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) termed it the SARS-CoV-2 virus as it is very similar to the one that caused the SARS outbreak (SARS-CoVs). The CoVs have become the major pathogens of emerging respiratory disease outbreaks. They are a large family of single-stranded RNA viruses (+ssRNA) that can be isolated in different animal species. For reasons yet to be explained, these viruses can cross species barriers and can cause, in humans, illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as MERS and SARS. Interestingly, these latter viruses have probably originated from bats and then moving into other mammalian hosts — the Himalayan palm civet for SARS-CoV, and the dromedary camel for MERS-CoV — before jumping to humans. The dynamics of SARS-Cov-2 are currently unknown, but there is speculation that it also has an animal origin. The potential for these viruses to grow to become a pandemic worldwide seems to be a serious public health risk. Concerning COVID-19, the WHO raised the threat to the CoV epidemic to the "very high" level, on February 28, 2020. Probably, the effects of the epidemic caused by the new CoV has yet to emerge as the situation is quickly evolving. World governments are at work to establish countermeasures to stem possible devastating effects. Health organizations coordinate information flows and issues directives and guidelines to best mitigate the impact of the threat. At the same time, scientists around the world work tirelessly, and information about the transmission mechanisms, the clinical spectrum of disease, new diagnostics, and prevention and therapeutic strategies are rapidly developing. Many uncertainties remain with regard to both the virus-host interac ion and the evolution of the epidemic, with specific reference to the times when the epidemic will reach its peak. At the moment, the therapeutic strategies to deal with the infection are only supportive, and prevention aimed at reducing transmission in the community is our best weapon. Aggressive isolation measures in China have led to a progressive reduction of cases in the last few days. In Italy, in geographic regions of the north of the peninsula, political and health authorities are making incredible efforts to contain a shock wave that is severely testing the health system.  In the midst of the crisis, the authors have chosen to use the "Statpearls" platform because, within the PubMed scenario, it represents a unique tool that may allow them to make updates in real-time. The aim, therefore, is to collect information and scientific evidence and to provide an overview of the topic that will be continuously updated.

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