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Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969296


BACKGROUND: The recent COVID-19 pandemic produced a significant increase in cases and an emergency state was induced worldwide. The current knowledge about the COVID-19 disease concerning diagnoses, patient tracking, the treatment protocol, and vaccines provides a consistent contribution for the primary prevention of the viral infection and decreasing the severity of the SARS-CoV-2 disease. The aim of the present investigation was to produce a general overview about the current findings for the COVID-19 disease, SARS-CoV-2 interaction mechanisms with the host, therapies and vaccines' immunization findings. METHODS: A literature overview was produced in order to evaluate the state-of-art in SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses, prognoses, therapies, and prevention. RESULTS: Concerning to the interaction mechanisms with the host, the virus binds to target with its Spike proteins on its surface and uses it as an anchor. The Spike protein targets the ACE2 cell receptor and enters into the cells by using a special enzyme (TMPRSS2). Once the virion is quietly accommodated, it releases its RNA. Proteins and RNA are used in the Golgi apparatus to produce more viruses that are released. Concerning the therapies, different protocols have been developed in observance of the disease severity and comorbidity with a consistent reduction in the mortality rate. Currently, different vaccines are currently in phase IV but a remarkable difference in efficiency has been detected concerning the more recent SARS-CoV-2 variants. CONCLUSIONS: Among the many questions in this pandemic state, the one that recurs most is knowing why some people become more seriously ill than others who instead contract the infection as if it was a trivial flu. More studies are necessary to investigate the efficiency of the treatment protocols and vaccines for the more recent detected SARS-CoV-2 variant.

COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
Case Rep Dent ; 2022: 8650099, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938101


Odontogenic infections represent a frequent condition that in some cases, if not treated promptly, can spread quickly to the rest of the body and turn into life-threatening infections. In this work, the case is reported of a 59-year-old woman, diabetic and overweight, who presented to the Odontostomatology and Otolaryngology Section of the Policlinic of Bari with mandibular tooth infection that had developed into a deep neck space infection leading to the involvement of cavernous sinuses and near mediastinum. The diagnosis, the surgical drainage of the phlegmon and removal of infection foci, appropriate control of the airways, and a correct antibiotic therapy made it possible to avoid a potentially fatal condition. Prompt management and early diagnosis of deep space neck infections, such as phlegmon and/or necrotizing fasciitis, with the auxilium of CT scans and tools such as LRINEC (Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis), NLR (Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio), and LRINECxNLR scores (Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio), are advised to evade delays and complications that could potentially worsen the patient's outcome.

Children (Basel) ; 9(2)2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686624


Since the beginning in December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak appeared to affect mostly the adult population, sparing the vast majority of children who only showed mild symptoms. The purpose of this investigation is to assess the status on the mechanisms that give children and infants this variation in epidemiology compared to the adult population and its impact on therapies and vaccines that are aimed towards them. A literature review, including in vitro studies, reviews, published guidelines and clinical trials was performed. Clinical trials concerned topics that allowed a descriptive synthesis to be produced. Four underlying mechanisms were found that may play a key role in providing COVID-19 protection in babies. No guidelines are available yet for therapy due to insufficient data; support therapy remains the most used. Only two vaccines are approved by the World Health Organization to be used in children from 12 years of age, and there are currently no efficacy or safety data for children below the age of 12 years. The COVID-19 clinical frame infection is milder in children and adolescents. This section of the population can act as vectors and reservoirs and play a key role in the transmission of the infection; therefore, vaccines are paramount. More evidence is required to guide safely the vaccination campaign.