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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 20, 2021 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388819

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the effects of prone positioning on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation in invasively ventilated patients with SARS-CoV-2 ARDS. RESULTS: This was a prospective cohort study in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a tertiary referral centre. We included 20 consecutive, invasively ventilated patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 related ARDS who underwent prone positioning in ICU as part of their management. The main outcome was the effect of prone positioning on gas exchange and respiratory mechanics. There was a median improvement in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 132 in the prone position compared to the supine position (IQR 67-228). We observed lower PaO2/FiO2 ratios in those with low (< median) baseline respiratory system static compliance, compared to those with higher (> median) static compliance (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in respiratory system static compliance with prone positioning. Prone positioning was effective in improving oxygenation in SARS-CoV-2 ARDS. Furthermore, poor respiratory system static compliance was common and was associated with disease severity. Improvements in oxygenation were partly due to lung recruitment. Prone positioning should be considered in patients with SARS-CoV-2 ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung/metabolism , Prone Position , COVID-19/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial
2.
Trials ; 22(1): 288, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388815

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to demonstrate that, in patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 resulting in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), administration of 120mg/kg of body weight of intravenous Prolastin®(plasma-purified alpha-1 antitrypsin) reduces circulating plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Secondary objectives are to determine the effects of intravenous Prolastin® on important clinical outcomes including the incidence of adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs). TRIAL DESIGN: Phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial. PARTICIPANTS: The study will be conducted in Intensive Care Units in hospitals across Ireland. Patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2-infection, moderate to severe ARDS (meeting Berlin criteria for a diagnosis of ARDS with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio <200 mmHg), >18 years of age and requiring invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. All individuals meeting any of the following exclusion criteria at baseline or during screening will be excluded from study participation: more than 96 hours has elapsed from onset of ARDS; age < 18 years; known to be pregnant or breastfeeding; participation in a clinical trial of an investigational medicinal product (other than antibiotics or antivirals) within 30 days; major trauma in the prior 5 days; presence of any active malignancy (other than nonmelanoma skin cancer) which required treatment within the last year; WHO Class III or IV pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary embolism prior to hospital admission within past 3 months; currently receiving extracorporeal life support (ECLS); chronic kidney disease receiving dialysis; severe chronic liver disease with Child-Pugh score > 12; DNAR (Do Not Attempt Resuscitation) order in place; treatment withdrawal imminent within 24 hours; Prisoners; non-English speaking patients or those who do not adequately understand verbal or written information unless an interpreter is available; IgA deficiency. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention: Either a once weekly intravenous infusion of Prolastin® at 120mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks or a single dose of Prolastin® at 120mg/kg of body weight intravenously followed by once weekly intravenous infusion of an equal volume of 0.9% sodium chloride for a further 3 weeks. Comparator (placebo): An equal volume of 0.9% sodium chloride intravenously once per week for four weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary effectiveness outcome measure is the change in plasma concentration of IL-6 at 7 days as measured by ELISA. Secondary outcomes include: safety and tolerability of Prolastin® in the respective groups (as defined by the number of SAEs and AEs); PaO2/FiO2 ratio; respiratory compliance; sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score; mortality; time on ventilator in days; plasma concentration of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) as measured by nephelometry; plasma concentrations of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1, a surrogate marker for TNF-α) as measured by ELISA; development of shock; acute kidney injury; need for renal replacement therapy; clinical relapse, as defined by the need for readmission to the ICU or a marked decline in PaO2/FiO2 or development of shock or mortality following a period of sustained clinical improvement; secondary bacterial pneumonia as defined by the combination of radiographic findings and sputum/airway secretion microscopy and culture. RANDOMISATION: Following informed consent/assent patients will be randomised. The randomisation lists will be prepared by the study statistician and given to the unblinded trial personnel. However, the statistician will not be exposed to how the planned treatment will be allocated to the treatment codes. Randomisation will be conducted in a 1:1:1 ratio, stratified by site and age. BLINDING (MASKING): The investigator, treating physician, other members of the site research team and patients will be blinded to treatment allocation. The clinical trial pharmacy personnel and research nurses will be unblinded to facilitate intervention and placebo preparation. The unblinded individuals will keep the treatment information confidential. The infusion bag will be masked at the time of preparation and will be administered via a masked infusion set to maintain blinding. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 36 patients will be recruited and randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio to each of the trial arms. TRIAL STATUS: In March 2020, version 1.0 of the trial protocol was submitted to the local research ethics committee (REC), Health Research Consent Declaration Committee (HRCDC) and the Health Products regulatory Authority (HPRA). REC approval was granted on April 1st 2020, HPRA approval was granted on April 24th 2020 and the HRCDC provided a conditional declaration on April 17th 2020. In July 2020 a substantial amendment (version 2.0) was submitted to the REC, HRCDC and HPRA. Protocol changes in this amendment included: the addition of trial sites; extending the duration of the trial to 12 months from 3 months; removal of inclusion criteria requiring the need for vasopressors; amendment of randomisation schedule to stratify by age only and not BMI and sex; correction of grammatical error in relation to infusion duration; to allow for inclusion of subjects who may have been enrolled in a clinical trial involving either antibiotics or anti-virals in the past 30 days; to allow for inclusion of subjects who may be currently enrolled in a clinical trial involving either antibiotics or anti-virals; to remove the need for exclusion based on alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotype; removal of mandatory isoelectric focusing of plasma to confirm Pi*MM status at screening; removal of need for mandatory echocardiogram at screening; amendment on procedures around plasma analysis to reflect that this will be conducted at the central site laboratory (as trial is multi-site and no longer single site); wording amended to reflect that interim analysis of cytokine levels taken at 7 days may be conducted. HRCDC approved version 2.0 on September 14th 2020, and HPRA approved on October 22nd 2020. REC approved the substantial amendment on November 23rd. In November 2020, version 3.0 of the trial protocol was submitted to the REC and HPRA. The rationale for this amendment was to allow for patients with moderate to severe ARDS from SARS-CoV-2 with non-invasive ventilation. HPRA approved this amendment on December 1st 2020 and the REC approved the amendment on December 8th 2020. Patient recruitment commenced in April 2020 and the last patient will be recruited to the trial in April 2021. The last visit of the last patient is anticipated to occur in April 2021. At time of writing, patient recruitment is now complete, however follow-up patient visits and data collection are ongoing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2020-001391-15 (Registered 31 Mar 2020). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol (version 3.0 23.11.2020) is attached as an additional file accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Ireland , Pilot Projects , Plasma , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/administration & dosage
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256226, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374147

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19, as a result of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has been the direct cause of over 2.2 million deaths worldwide. A timely coordinated host-immune response represents the leading driver for restraining SARS-CoV-2 infection. Indeed, several studies have described dysregulated immunity as the crucial determinant for critical illness and the failure of viral control. Improved understanding and management of COVID-19 could greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity caused by SARS-CoV-2. One aspect of the immune response that has to date been understudied is whether lipid mediator production is dysregulated in critically ill patients. In the present study, plasma from COVID-19 patients with either severe disease and those that were critically ill was collected and lipid mediator profiles were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results from these studies indicated that plasma concentrations of both pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediator were reduced in critically ill patients when compared with those with severe disease. Furthermore, plasma concentrations of a select group of mediators that included the specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) Resolvin (Rv) D1 and RvE4 were diagnostic of disease severity. Interestingly, peripheral blood SPM concentrations were also linked with outcome in critically ill patients, where we observed reduced overall concentrations of these mediators in those patients that did not survive. Together the present findings establish a link between plasma lipid mediators and disease severity in patients with COVID-19 and indicate that plasma SPM concentrations may be linked with survival in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Docosahexaenoic Acids/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Critical Illness , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Up-Regulation
4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 2546-2553, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persistent symptoms including breathlessness, fatigue, and decreased exercise tolerance have been reported in patients after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. The biological mechanisms underlying this "long COVID" syndrome remain unknown. However, autopsy studies have highlighted the key roles played by pulmonary endotheliopathy and microvascular immunothrombosis in acute COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether endothelial cell activation may be sustained in convalescent COVID-19 patients and contribute to long COVID pathogenesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients were reviewed at a median of 68 days following SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition to clinical workup, acute phase markers, endothelial cell (EC) activation and NETosis parameters and thrombin generation were assessed. RESULTS: Thrombin generation assays revealed significantly shorter lag times (p < .0001, 95% CI -2.57 to -1.02 min), increased endogenous thrombin potential (p = .04, 95% CI 15-416 nM/min), and peak thrombin (p < .0001, 95% CI 39-93 nM) in convalescent COVID-19 patients. These prothrombotic changes were independent of ongoing acute phase response or active NETosis. Importantly, EC biomarkers including von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF propeptide (VWFpp), and factor VIII were significantly elevated in convalescent COVID-19 compared with controls (p = .004, 95% CI 0.09-0.57 IU/ml; p = .009, 95% CI 0.06-0.5 IU/ml; p = .04, 95% CI 0.03-0.44 IU/ml, respectively). In addition, plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels were significantly elevated in convalescent COVID-19 (p = .02, 95% CI 0.01-2.7 ng/ml). Sustained endotheliopathy was more frequent in older, comorbid patients, and those requiring hospitalization. Finally, both plasma VWF:Ag and VWFpp levels correlated inversely with 6-min walk tests. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings demonstrate that sustained endotheliopathy is common in convalescent COVID-19 and raise the intriguing possibility that this may contribute to long COVID pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , von Willebrand Factor
5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(6): 643-654, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291133

ABSTRACT

Circulating concentrations of the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) are known to be increased in pro-inflammatory critical care syndromes, such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Elevations in serum IL-6 concentrations in patients with severe COVID-19 have led to renewed interest in the cytokine as a therapeutic target. However, although the pro-inflammatory properties of IL-6 are widely known, the cytokine also has a series of important physiological and anti-inflammatory functions. An adequate understanding of the complex processes by which IL-6 signalling occurs is crucial for the correct interpretation of IL-6 concentrations in the blood or lung, the use of IL-6 as a critical care biomarker, or the design of effective anti-IL-6 strategies. Here, we outline the role of IL-6 in health and disease, explain the different types of IL-6 signalling and their contribution to the net biological effect of the cytokine, describe the approaches to IL-6 inhibition that are currently available, and discuss implications for the future use of treatments such as tocilizumab in the critical care setting.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253347, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280628

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented global COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a desperate international effort to accelerate the development of anti-viral candidates. For unknown reasons, COVID-19 infections are associated with adverse cardiovascular complications, implicating that vascular endothelial cells are essential in viral propagation. The etiological pathogen, SARS-CoV-2, has a higher reproductive number and infection rate than its predecessors, indicating it possesses novel characteristics that infers enhanced transmissibility. A unique K403R spike protein substitution encodes an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, introducing a potential role for RGD-binding host integrins. Integrin αVß3 is widely expressed across the host, particularly in the endothelium, which acts as the final barrier before microbial entry into the bloodstream. This mutagenesis creates an additional binding site, which may be sufficient to increase SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. Here, we investigate how SARS-CoV-2 passes from the epithelium to endothelium, the effects of αVß3 antagonist, Cilengitide, on viral adhesion, vasculature permeability and leakage, and also report on a simulated interaction between the viral and host protein in-silico.


Subject(s)
Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Integrin alphaVbeta3/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Snake Venoms/pharmacology , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Caco-2 Cells , Cadherins/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Endothelium, Vascular/cytology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Integrin alphaVbeta3/chemistry , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Permeability , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(8): 1914-1921, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Consistent with fulminant endothelial cell activation, elevated plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen levels have been reported in patients with COVID-19. The multimeric size and function of VWF are normally regulated through A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThrombSpondin Motif type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS-13)--mediated proteolysis. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the hypothesis that ADAMTS-13 regulation of VWF multimer distribution may be impaired in severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection contributing to the observed microvascular thrombosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 (n = 23) were recruited from the Beaumont Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in Dublin. Plasma VWF antigen, multimer distribution, ADAMTS-13 activity, and known inhibitors thereof were assessed. RESULTS: We observed markedly increased VWF collagen-binding activity in patients with severe COVID-19 compared to controls (median 509.1 versus 94.3 IU/dl). Conversely, plasma ADAMTS-13 activity was significantly reduced (median 68.2 IU/dl). In keeping with an increase in VWF:ADAMTS-13 ratio, abnormalities in VWF multimer distribution were common in patients with COVID-19, with reductions in high molecular weight VWF multimers. Terminal sialylation regulates VWF susceptibility to proteolysis by ADAMTS-13 and other proteases. We observed that both N- and O-linked sialylation were altered in severe COVID-19. Furthermore, plasma levels of the ADAMTS-13 inhibitors interleukin-6, thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4 were significantly elevated. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 is associated with profound quantitative and qualitative increases in plasma VWF levels, and a multifactorial down-regulation in ADAMTS-13 function. Further studies will be required to determine whether therapeutic interventions to correct ADAMTS-13-VWF multimer dysfunction may be useful in COVID-microvascular thrombosis and angiopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , von Willebrand Factor , ADAMTS13 Protein , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombospondin 1
8.
Anesthesiology ; 134(5): 792-808, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202432

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by hypoxemia, altered alveolar-capillary permeability, and neutrophil-dominated inflammatory pulmonary edema. Despite decades of research, an effective drug therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome remains elusive. The ideal pharmacotherapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome should demonstrate antiprotease activity and target injurious inflammatory pathways while maintaining host defense against infection. Furthermore, a drug with a reputable safety profile, low possibility of off-target effects, and well-known pharmacokinetics would be desirable. The endogenous 52-kd serine protease α1-antitrypsin has the potential to be a novel treatment option for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The main function of α1-antitrypsin is as an antiprotease, targeting neutrophil elastase in particular. However, studies have also highlighted the role of α1-antitrypsin in the modulation of inflammation and bacterial clearance. In light of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the identification of a treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome is even more pertinent, and α1-antitrypsin has been implicated in the inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Neutrophils/drug effects , Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory/administration & dosage , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/enzymology , Lung/immunology , Neutrophils/enzymology , Neutrophils/immunology , Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/enzymology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/immunology
9.
Anesthesiology ; 134(5): 792-808, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135903

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by hypoxemia, altered alveolar-capillary permeability, and neutrophil-dominated inflammatory pulmonary edema. Despite decades of research, an effective drug therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome remains elusive. The ideal pharmacotherapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome should demonstrate antiprotease activity and target injurious inflammatory pathways while maintaining host defense against infection. Furthermore, a drug with a reputable safety profile, low possibility of off-target effects, and well-known pharmacokinetics would be desirable. The endogenous 52-kd serine protease α1-antitrypsin has the potential to be a novel treatment option for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The main function of α1-antitrypsin is as an antiprotease, targeting neutrophil elastase in particular. However, studies have also highlighted the role of α1-antitrypsin in the modulation of inflammation and bacterial clearance. In light of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the identification of a treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome is even more pertinent, and α1-antitrypsin has been implicated in the inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Neutrophils/drug effects , Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory/administration & dosage , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/enzymology , Lung/immunology , Neutrophils/enzymology , Neutrophils/immunology , Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/enzymology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/immunology
10.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20(1): 31-35, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical course of severe COVID-19 in cystic fibrosis (CF) is incompletely understood. We describe the use of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) as a salvage therapy in a critically unwell patient with CF (PWCF) who developed COVID-19 while awaiting lung transplantation. METHODS: IV AAT was administered at 120 mg/kg/week for 4 consecutive weeks. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1) were assessed at regular intervals in plasma, with IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8 and neutrophil elastase (NE) activity measured in airway secretions. Levels were compared to baseline and historic severe exacerbation measurements. RESULTS: Systemic and airway inflammatory markers were increased compared to both prior exacerbation and baseline levels, in particular IL-6, IL-1ß and NE activity. Following each AAT dose, rapid decreases in each inflammatory parameter were observed. These were matched by marked clinical and radiographic improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The results support further investigation of AAT as a COVID-19 therapeutic, and re-exploration of its use in CF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/therapeutic use , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Ireland , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(1): 141-142, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066989

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Surgeon ; 19(5): e265-e269, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic has placed enormous strain on healthcare systems worldwide. Understanding of COVID-19 is rapidly evolving. Pneumonia associated with COVID-19 may lead to respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. The rise in patients requiring mechanical ventilation may lead to an increase in tracheostomies being performed in patients with COVID-19. Performing tracheostomy in patients with active SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a number of challenges. METHODS: These guidelines were written following multidisciplinary agreement between Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Respiratory Medicine and the Department of Anaesthetics and Critical Care Medicine in the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. A literature review was performed and a guideline for elective tracheostomy insertion in patients with COVID-19 proposed. CONCLUSION: The decision to perform tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 should be undertaken by senior members of the multidisciplinary team. Steps should be taken to minimise risks to healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheostomy , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Protocols , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Ireland , Patient Selection , Personal Protective Equipment
14.
Br J Haematol ; 192(4): 714-719, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978695

ABSTRACT

Endothelial cell (EC) activation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary microvascular occlusion, which is a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Consistent with EC activation, increased plasma von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) levels have been reported in COVID-19. Importantly however, studies in other microangiopathies have shown that plasma VWF propeptide (VWFpp) is a more sensitive and specific measure of acute EC activation. In the present study, we further investigated the nature of EC activation in severe COVID-19. Markedly increased plasma VWF:Ag [median (interquatile range, IQR) 608·8 (531-830)iu/dl] and pro-coagulant factor VIII (FVIII) levels [median (IQR) 261·9 (170-315) iu/dl] were seen in patients with severe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Sequential testing showed that these elevated VWF-FVIII complex levels remained high for up to 3 weeks. Similarly, plasma VWFpp levels were also markedly elevated [median (IQR) 324·6 (267-524) iu/dl]. Interestingly however, the VWFpp/VWF:Ag ratio was reduced, demonstrating that decreased VWF clearance contributes to the elevated plasma VWF:Ag levels in severe COVID-19. Importantly, plasma VWFpp levels also correlated with clinical severity indices including the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Sepsis-Induced Coagulopathy (SIC) score and the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (P/F ratio). Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that sustained fulminant EC activation is occurring in severe COVID-19, and further suggest that VWFpp may have a role as a biomarker in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Protein Precursors/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
15.
EBioMedicine ; 61: 103026, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-838033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prognostic tools are required to guide clinical decision-making in COVID-19. METHODS: We studied the relationship between the ratio of interleukin (IL)-6 to IL-10 and clinical outcome in 80 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, and created a simple 5-point linear score predictor of clinical outcome, the Dublin-Boston score. Clinical outcome was analysed as a three-level ordinal variable ("Improved", "Unchanged", or "Declined"). For both IL-6:IL-10 ratio and IL-6 alone, we associated clinical outcome with a) baseline biomarker levels, b) change in biomarker level from day 0 to day 2, c) change in biomarker from day 0 to day 4, and d) slope of biomarker change throughout the study. The associations between ordinal clinical outcome and each of the different predictors were performed with proportional odds logistic regression. Associations were run both "unadjusted" and adjusted for age and sex. Nested cross-validation was used to identify the model for incorporation into the Dublin-Boston score. FINDINGS: The 4-day change in IL-6:IL-10 ratio was chosen to derive the Dublin-Boston score. Each 1 point increase in the score was associated with a 5.6 times increased odds for a more severe outcome (OR 5.62, 95% CI -3.22-9.81, P = 1.2 × 10-9). Both the Dublin-Boston score and the 4-day change in IL-6:IL-10 significantly outperformed IL-6 alone in predicting clinical outcome at day 7. INTERPRETATION: The Dublin-Boston score is easily calculated and can be applied to a spectrum of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. More informed prognosis could help determine when to escalate care, institute or remove mechanical ventilation, or drive considerations for therapies. FUNDING: Funding was received from the Elaine Galwey Research Fellowship, American Thoracic Society, National Institutes of Health and the Parker B Francis Research Opportunity Award.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
16.
Ir J Med Sci ; 190(2): 461-468, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In January 2020, the WHO declared the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak a public health emergency; by March 11, a pandemic was declared. To date in Ireland, over 3300 patients have been admitted to acute hospitals as a result of infection with COVID-19. AIMS: This article aims to describe the establishment of a COVID Recovery Service, a multidisciplinary service for comprehensive follow-up of patients with a hospital diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: A hybrid model of virtual and in-person clinics was established, supported by a multidisciplinary team consisting of respiratory, critical care, infectious diseases, psychiatry, and psychology services. This model identifies patients who need enhanced follow-up following COVID-19 pneumonia and aims to support patients with complications of COVID-19 and those who require integrated community care. RESULTS: We describe a post-COVID-19 service structure together with detailed protocols for multidisciplinary follow-up. One hundred seventy-four patients were discharged from Beaumont Hospital after COVID-19 pneumonia. Sixty-seven percent were male with a median age (IQR) of 66.5 (51-97). Twenty-two percent were admitted to the ICU for mechanical ventilation, 11% had non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen, and 67% did not have specialist respiratory support. Early data suggests that 48% of these patients will require medium to long-term specialist follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the implementation of an integrated multidisciplinary approach to patients with COVID-19, identifying those with increased physical and mental healthcare needs. Our initial experience suggests that significant physical, psychological, and cognitive impairments may persist despite clinical resolution of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(6): 812-821, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614625

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global threat to health. Its inflammatory characteristics are incompletely understood.Objectives: To define the cytokine profile of COVID-19 and to identify evidence of immunometabolic alterations in those with severe illness.Methods: Levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and sTNFR1 (soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1) were assessed in plasma from healthy volunteers, hospitalized but stable patients with COVID-19 (COVIDstable patients), patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission (COVIDICU patients), and patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia requiring ICU support (CAPICU patients). Immunometabolic markers were measured in circulating neutrophils from patients with severe COVID-19. The acute phase response of AAT (alpha-1 antitrypsin) to COVID-19 was also evaluated.Measurements and Main Results: IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and sTNFR1 were all increased in patients with COVID-19. COVIDICU patients could be clearly differentiated from COVIDstable patients, and demonstrated higher levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and sTNFR1 but lower IL-10 than CAPICU patients. COVID-19 neutrophils displayed altered immunometabolism, with increased cytosolic PKM2 (pyruvate kinase M2), phosphorylated PKM2, HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α), and lactate. The production and sialylation of AAT increased in COVID-19, but this antiinflammatory response was overwhelmed in severe illness, with the IL-6:AAT ratio markedly higher in patients requiring ICU admission (P < 0.0001). In critically unwell patients with COVID-19, increases in IL-6:AAT predicted prolonged ICU stay and mortality, whereas improvement in IL-6:AAT was associated with clinical resolution (P < 0.0001).Conclusions: The COVID-19 cytokinemia is distinct from that of other types of pneumonia, leading to organ failure and ICU need. Neutrophils undergo immunometabolic reprogramming in severe COVID-19 illness. Cytokine ratios may predict outcomes in this population.


Subject(s)
Acute-Phase Reaction/immunology , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Blotting, Western , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/immunology , Community-Acquired Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-8/immunology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphorylation , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/metabolism
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