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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264179, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736506

ABSTRACT

As of March 2021, three COVID-19 vaccines had been authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States. Each has substantial efficacy in preventing COVID-19. However, as efficacy from trials was <100% for all three vaccines, disease in vaccinated people is expected to occur. We created a spreadsheet-based tool to estimate the number of symptomatic COVID-19 cases among vaccinated people (vaccine breakthrough infections) based on published vaccine efficacy (VE) data, percent of the population that has been fully vaccinated, and average number of COVID-19 cases reported per day. We estimate that approximately 199,000 symptomatic vaccine breakthrough infections (95% CI: ~183,000-214,000 cases) occurred in the United States during January-July 2021 among >156 million fully vaccinated people. With high SARS-CoV-2 transmission and increasing numbers of people vaccinated in the United States, vaccine breakthrough infections will continue to accumulate. Understanding expectations regarding number of vaccine breakthrough infections enables accurate public health messaging to help ensure that the occurrence of such cases does not negatively affect vaccine perceptions, confidence, and uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2116420, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263038

ABSTRACT

Importance: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is associated with recent or current SARS-CoV-2 infection. Information on MIS-C incidence is limited. Objective: To estimate population-based MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 person-months and to estimate MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections in persons younger than 21 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used enhanced surveillance data to identify persons with MIS-C during April to June 2020, in 7 jurisdictions reporting to both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national surveillance and to Overcoming COVID-19, a multicenter MIS-C study. Denominators for population-based estimates were derived from census estimates; denominators for incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections were estimated by applying published age- and month-specific multipliers accounting for underdetection of reported COVID-19 case counts. Jurisdictions included Connecticut, Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York (excluding New York City), and Pennsylvania. Data analyses were conducted from August to December 2020. Exposures: Race/ethnicity, sex, and age group (ie, ≤5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-20 years). Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall and stratum-specific adjusted estimated MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 person-months and per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections. Results: In the 7 jurisdictions examined, 248 persons with MIS-C were reported (median [interquartile range] age, 8 [4-13] years; 133 [53.6%] male; 96 persons [38.7%] were Hispanic or Latino; 75 persons [30.2%] were Black). The incidence of MIS-C per 1 000 000 person-months was 5.1 (95% CI, 4.5-5.8) persons. Compared with White persons, incidence per 1 000 000 person-months was higher among Black persons (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR], 9.26 [95% CI, 6.15-13.93]), Hispanic or Latino persons (aIRR, 8.92 [95% CI, 6.00-13.26]), and Asian or Pacific Islander (aIRR, 2.94 [95% CI, 1.49-5.82]) persons. MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections was 316 (95% CI, 278-357) persons and was higher among Black (aIRR, 5.62 [95% CI, 3.68-8.60]), Hispanic or Latino (aIRR, 4.26 [95% CI, 2.85-6.38]), and Asian or Pacific Islander persons (aIRR, 2.88 [95% CI, 1.42-5.83]) compared with White persons. For both analyses, incidence was highest among children aged 5 years or younger (4.9 [95% CI, 3.7-6.6] children per 1 000 000 person-months) and children aged 6 to 10 years (6.3 [95% CI, 4.8-8.3] children per 1 000 000 person-months). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, MIS-C was a rare complication associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Estimates for population-based incidence and incidence among persons with infection were higher among Black, Hispanic or Latino, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons. Further study is needed to understand variability by race/ethnicity and age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Pediatrics ; 148(2)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Nonpharmaceutical interventions against coronavirus disease 2019 likely have a role in decreasing viral acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). We aimed to assess the frequency of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza ARIs before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: This study was a prospective, multicenter, population-based ARI surveillance, including children seen in the emergency departments and inpatient settings in 7 US cities for ARI. Respiratory samples were collected and evaluated by molecular testing. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the association between community mitigation and number of eligible and proportion of RSV and influenza cases. RESULTS: Overall, 45 759 children were eligible; 25 415 were enrolled and tested; 25% and 14% were RSV-positive and influenza-positive, respectively. In 2020, we noted a decrease in eligible and enrolled ARI subjects after community mitigation measures were introduced, with no RSV or influenza detection from April 5, 2020, to April 30, 2020. Compared with 2016-2019, there was an average of 10.6 fewer eligible ARI cases per week per site and 63.9% and 45.8% lower odds of patients testing positive for RSV and influenza, respectively, during the 2020 community mitigation period. In all sites except Seattle, the proportions of positive tests for RSV and influenza in the 2020 community mitigation period were lower than predicted. CONCLUSIONS: Between March and April 2020, rapid declines in ARI cases and the proportions of RSV and influenza in children were consistently noted across 7 US cities, which could be attributable to community mitigation measures against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249901, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), evolved rapidly in the United States. This report describes the demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic characteristics of 544 U.S. persons under investigation (PUI) for COVID-19 with complete SARS-CoV-2 testing in the beginning stages of the pandemic from January 17 through February 29, 2020. METHODS: In this surveillance cohort, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provided consultation to public health and healthcare professionals to identify PUI for SARS-CoV-2 testing by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic characteristics of PUI were reported by public health and healthcare professionals during consultation with on-call CDC clinicians and subsequent submission of a CDC PUI Report Form. Characteristics of laboratory-negative and laboratory-positive persons were summarized as proportions for the period of January 17-February 29, and characteristics of all PUI were compared before and after February 12 using prevalence ratios. RESULTS: A total of 36 PUI tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were classified as confirmed cases. Confirmed cases and PUI testing negative for SARS-CoV-2 had similar demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic characteristics. Consistent with changes in PUI evaluation criteria, 88% (13/15) of confirmed cases detected before February 12, 2020, reported travel from China. After February 12, 57% (12/21) of confirmed cases reported no known travel- or contact-related exposures. CONCLUSIONS: These findings can inform preparedness for future pandemics, including capacity for rapid expansion of novel diagnostic tests to accommodate broad surveillance strategies to assess community transmission, including potential contributions from asymptomatic and presymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel , Travel-Related Illness , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(5): 609-612, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919288

ABSTRACT

Previous reports of coronavirus disease 2019 among children in the United States have been based on health jurisdiction reporting. We performed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing on children enrolled in active, prospective, multicenter surveillance during January-March 2020. Among 3187 children, only 4 (0.1%) SARS-CoV-2-positive cases were identified March 20-31 despite evidence of rising community circulation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Adolescent , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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