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1.
Children (Basel) ; 9(5)2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869484

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the lung ultrasound (LU) turned out to be a pivotal tool to study the lung involvement in the adult population, but the same was not well evaluated in children. We detected the LU patterns through an integrated approach with clinical-laboratory features in children hospitalized for COVID-19 in relation to the temporal trend of the Italian epidemic. We conducted a retrospective study which took place at a pediatric tertiary hospital from 15 March 2020 to 15 March 2021. We compared the characteristics of the initial phase of the first COVID-19 year-in the spring and summer (15 March-30 September 2020)-and those of the second phase-in the autumn and winter (1 October 2020-15 March 2021). Twenty-eight patients were studied both in the first and in the second phase of the first COVID-19 year. The disease severity score (DSS) was significantly greater in the second phase (p = 0.015). In the second phase of the first COVID-19 year, we detected a more significant occurrence of the following LU features than in the first phase: the irregular pleural line (85.71% vs. 60.71%; p = 0.035), the B-lines (89.29% vs. 60%; p = 0.003) and the several but non-coalescent B-lines (89.29% vs. 60%; p = 0.003). The LU score correlated significantly with the DSS, with a moderate relationship (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). The combined clinical, laboratory and ultrasound approaches might be essential in the evaluation of pulmonary involvement in children affected by COVID-19 during different periods of the pandemic.

2.
Children (Basel) ; 9(3)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731957

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibody therapies for COVID-19 have been frequently used in adults, whereas there are little data regarding the safety or efficacy of monoclonal antibody treatments in pediatric patients affected by COVID-19. We report our experience in the administration of mAb as a treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children aged from 24 days to 18 years old.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317622

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the lung ultrasound (LUS) patterns in combination with clinical-laboratory profiles of children hospitalized for COVID-19 infection in relation to temporal trend of the Italian epidemic. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at a pediatric tertiary referral hospital from 15th March 2020 to 15th March 2021. We compared the characteristics of two periods of the pandemic outbreak, the first one in spring and summer (15th March-30th September 2020) and the second one in autumn and winter (1st October 2020-15th March 2021). Results: 28 patients (53.85%) were in the first period, 24 patients (46.15%) were in the second period. The disease severity score was significantly higher in the second period (p=0.02). We observed that the occurrence of the irregular pleural line was seen more frequently in the second period (87.5% vs 60.71%;p=0.03). The B-lines were significantly more frequent in children in the second period (87.5% vs 60%;p=0.03). The several but not-coalescent B-lines were significantly more frequent in the second period (80% vs 41.7%;p=0.05). The LUS score correlated significantly with the disease severity score with a strong relationship (r=0.51, p=0.002). The second phase of the COVID-19 epidemic outbreak had a higher disease severity score than the first phase with a moderate correlation (r= 0.42;p=0.01). Conclusion: The LUS plays an important role in the evaluation of pulmonary involvement in children affected by COVID-19 during different periods of the pandemic in combination with clinical-laboratory findings.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite SARS-CoV-2 immunizations have started in most countries, children are not currently included in the vaccination programs, thus it remains crucial to define their anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response in order to minimize the risk for other epidemic waves. This study seeks to provide a description of the virology ad anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity in children with distinct symptomatology. METHODS: Between March and July 2020, we recruited 15 SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic (AS) and 51 symptomatic children (SY), stratified according to WHO clinical classification. We measured SARS-CoV-2 viral load using ddPCR and qPCR in longitudinally collected nasopharyngeal swabs samples. To define anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies we measured neutralization activity and total IgG load (Diasorin). We also evaluated antigen-specific B and CD8+T-cells, using a labelled S1+S2 protein and ICAM expression, respectively. Plasma protein profiling was performed with Olink. RESULTS: Virological profiling showed that AS had lower viral load at diagnosis (p=0.004) and faster virus clearance (p=0.0002) compared to SY. Anti-SARS CoV-2 humoral and cellular response did not appear to be associated with the presence of symptoms. AS and SY showed similar titers of SARS-CoV-2 IgG, levels of neutralizing activity, and frequency of Ag-specific B and CD8+T-cells. Whereas pro-inflammatory plasma protein profile was associated to symptomatology. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular response with any regards to symptomatology, suggesting the ability of both SY and AS to contribute towards herd immunity. The virological profiling of AS suggested that they have lower virus load associated with faster virus clearance.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322116

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and spread rapidly worldwide. Despite the high number of people affected, data on clinical features and prognostic factors in children and adolescents are limited. We propose a retrospective study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Italy. Methods: : A pediatric population admitted with COVID-19 to Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital of Rome (Italy) in the period from the end of February to May 2020 has been studied taking into account gender. Medical history, comorbidities, symptoms and laboratory findings were obtained from patients' electronic medical records. Results: : In 41 patients (21 males and 20 females) we found that: i) fever and cough were the dominant symptoms, while gastrointestinal symptoms were rare;and ii) all ages of childhood were susceptible to COVID-19. Moreover, we found that females with COVID-19, were significantly (p = 0.04) older than males and required more days of hospitalization (p = 0.01). Moreover, compared to females, a greater number of males had high values of C reactive protein (3 males vs 1 female) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (2 males vs 1 female). Conclusions: Compared to the adults we found that COVID-19 infection in children is a non-severe inflammatory disease in both males and females. In any case, many detailed studies should be conducted.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572481

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, affecting all age groups with a wide spectrum of clinical presentation ranging from asymptomatic to severe interstitial pneumonia, hyperinflammation, and death. Children and infants generally show a mild course of the disease, although infants have been observed to have a higher risk of hospitalization and severe outcomes. Here, we report the case of a preterm infant with a severe form of SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated by cerebral venous thrombosis successfully treated with steroids, hyperimmune plasma, and remdesivir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
7.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(8): 1833-1842, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although SARS-CoV-2 immunizations have started in most countries, children are not currently included in the vaccination programs; thus, it remains crucial to define their anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response in order to minimize the risk for other epidemic waves. This study sought to provide a description of the virology ad anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity in children with distinct symptomatology. METHODS: Between March and July 2020, we recruited 15 SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic (AS) and 51 symptomatic (SY) children, stratified according to WHO clinical classification. We measured SARS-CoV-2 viral load using ddPCR and qPCR in longitudinally collected nasopharyngeal swab samples. To define anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, we measured neutralization activity and total IgG load (DiaSorin). We also evaluated antigen-specific B and CD8+T cells, using a labeled S1+S2 protein and ICAM expression, respectively. Plasma protein profiling was performed with Olink. RESULTS: Virological profiling showed that AS patients had lower viral load at diagnosis (p = .004) and faster virus clearance (p = .0002) compared with SY patients. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular response did not appear to be associated with the presence of symptoms. AS and SY patients showed similar titers of SARS-CoV-2 IgG, levels of neutralizing activity, and frequency of Ag-specific B and CD8+ T cells, whereas pro-inflammatory plasma protein profile was found to be associated with symptomatology. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular response with any regard to symptomatology, suggesting the ability of both SY and AS patients to contribute toward herd immunity. The virological profiling of AS patients suggested that they have lower virus load associated with faster virus clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests
8.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 90, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and spread rapidly worldwide. Despite the high number of people affected, data on clinical features and prognostic factors in children and adolescents are limited. We propose a retrospective study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Italy. METHODS: A pediatric population admitted with COVID-19 to Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital of Rome (Italy) in the period from the end of February to July 2020 has been studied. Medical history, comorbidities, symptoms and laboratory findings were obtained from patients' electronic medical records. RESULTS: In 66 patients (35 males and 31 females) we found that: i) fever and cough were the dominant symptoms, while vomit and convulsions were rare symptoms; and ii) all ages of childhood were susceptible to COVID-19. Furthermore, we found that, compared to females, males with COVID-19, although not significantly, had higher values of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and ESR. Conversely, we found that COVID-19 positive females were older than males and required more days of hospitalization. Both males and females COVID-19 positives had procalcitonin values within the normal range and D-Dimer values slightly higher than the normal range. With regard to this latter marker, the value measured in females, although not significant, was higher than that measured in males. Interestingly, the presence of leukopenia was found in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the adults we found that COVID-19 infection in children is a non-severe inflammatory disease in both males and females. In any case, many detailed studies should be conducted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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