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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874028

ABSTRACT

There are limited data to guide treatment recommendations for children with acute, symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This review outlines a proposed management approach for children based on the published evidence to date and the approval of medications through drug regulatory agencies, as well as the known safety profile of the recommended drugs in this age group.

2.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 11(4): e1387, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820890

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Because of its beneficial off-target effects against non-mycobacterial infectious diseases, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination might be an accessible early intervention to boost protection against novel pathogens. Multiple epidemiological studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are investigating the protective effect of BCG against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Using samples from participants in a placebo-controlled RCT aiming to determine whether BCG vaccination reduces the incidence and severity of COVID-19, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of BCG on in vitro immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. Methods: This study used peripheral blood taken from participants in the multicentre RCT and BCG vaccination to reduce the impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers (BRACE trial). The whole blood taken from BRACE trial participants was stimulated with γ-irradiated SARS-CoV-2-infected or mock-infected Vero cell supernatant. Cytokine responses were measured by multiplex cytokine analysis, and single-cell immunophenotyping was made by flow cytometry. Results: BCG vaccination, but not placebo vaccination, reduced SARS-CoV-2-induced secretion of cytokines known to be associated with severe COVID-19, including IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. In addition, BCG vaccination promoted an effector memory phenotype in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and an activation of eosinophils in response to SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: The immunomodulatory signature of BCG's off-target effects on SARS-CoV-2 is consistent with a protective immune response against severe COVID-19.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334412

ABSTRACT

Background: Household studies are crucial for understanding the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may be underestimated from PCR testing of respiratory samples alone. We aim to combine assessment of household mitigation measures;nasopharyngeal, saliva and stool PCR testing;along with mucosal and systemic SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, to comprehensively characterise SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in households. Methods: Between March and September 2020, we obtained samples from 92 participants in 26 households in Melbourne, Australia, in a 4-week period following onset of infection with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 variants. Results: The secondary attack rate was 36% (24/66) when using nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) PCR positivity alone. However, when respiratory and non-respiratory samples were combined with antibody responses in blood and saliva, the secondary attack rate was 76% (50/66). SARS-CoV-2 viral load of the index case and household isolation measures were key factors that determine secondary transmission. In 27% (7/26) of households, all family members tested positive by NPS for SARS-CoV-2 and were characterised by lower respiratory Ct-values than low transmission families (Median 22.62 vs 32.91;IQR 17.06 to 28.67 vs 30.37 to 34.24). High transmission families were associated with enhanced plasma antibody responses to multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the presence of neutralising antibodies. Three distinguishing saliva SARS-CoV-2 antibody features were identified according to age (IgA1 to Spike 1, IgA1 to nucleocapsid protein (NP), suggesting that adults and children generate distinct mucosal antibody responses during the acute phase of infection. Conclusion: Utilising respiratory and non-respiratory PCR testing, along with measurement of SARS-CoV-2 specific local and systemic antibodies, provides a more accurate assessment of infection within households and highlights some of the immunological differences in response between children and adults.

4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(5): 424-426, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788550

ABSTRACT

Accurately determining the risk of long COVID is challenging. Existing studies in children and adolescents have considerable limitations and distinguishing long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection-associated symptoms from pandemic-related symptoms is difficult. Over half of individuals in this age group, irrespective of COVID-19, report physical and psychologic symptoms, highlighting the impact of the pandemic. More robust data is needed to inform policy decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e221313, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733812

ABSTRACT

Importance: The immune response in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection is not well understood. Objective: To compare seroconversion in nonhospitalized children and adults with mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and identify factors that are associated with seroconversion. Design, Setting, and Participants: This household cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 infection collected weekly nasopharyngeal and throat swabs and blood samples during the acute (median, 7 days for children and 12 days for adults [IQR, 4-13] days) and convalescent (median, 41 [IQR, 31-49] days) periods after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis for analysis. Participants were recruited at The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, from May 10 to October 28, 2020. Participants included patients who had a SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab specimen using PCR analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and cellular (T cell and B cell) responses in children and adults. Seroconversion was defined by seropositivity in all 3 (an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and 2 commercial assays: a SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay and a SARS-CoV-2 antibody ELISA) serological assays. Results: Among 108 participants with SARS-CoV-2-positive PCR findings, 57 were children (35 boys [61.4%]; median age, 4 [IQR, 2-10] years) and 51 were adults (28 women [54.9%]; median age, 37 [IQR, 34-45] years). Using the 3 established serological assays, a lower proportion of children had seroconversion to IgG compared with adults (20 of 54 [37.0%] vs 32 of 42 [76.2%]; P < .001). This result was not associated with viral load, which was similar in children and adults (mean [SD] cycle threshold [Ct] value, 28.58 [6.83] vs 24.14 [8.47]; P = .09). In addition, age and sex were not associated with seroconversion within children (median age, 4 [IQR, 2-14] years for both seropositive and seronegative groups; seroconversion by sex, 10 of 21 girls [47.6%] vs 10 of 33 boys [30.3%]) or adults (median ages, 37 years for seropositive and 40 years for seronegative adults [IQR, 34-39 years]; seroconversion by sex, 18 of 24 women [75.0%] vs 14 of 18 men [77.8%]) (P > .05 for all comparisons between seronegative and seropositive groups). Symptomatic adults had 3-fold higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels than asymptomatic adults (median, 227.5 [IQR, 133.7-521.6] vs 75.3 [IQR, 36.9-113.6] IU/mL), whereas no differences were observed in children regardless of symptoms. Moreover, differences in cellular immune responses were observed in adults compared with children with seroconversion. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that among patients with mild COVID-19, children may be less likely to have seroconversion than adults despite similar viral loads. This finding has implications for future protection after SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and for interpretation of serosurveys that involve children. Further research to understand why seroconversion and development of symptoms are potentially less likely in children after SARS-CoV-2 infection and to compare vaccine responses may be of clinical and scientific importance.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Victoria/epidemiology , Viral Load
6.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(2): e36-e45, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722659

ABSTRACT

Although there are many hypotheses for the age-related difference in the severity of COVID-19, differences in innate, adaptive and heterologous immunity, together with differences in endothelial and clotting function, are the most likely mechanisms underlying the marked age gradient. Children have a faster and stronger innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2, especially in the nasal mucosa, which rapidly controls the virus. In contrast, adults can have an overactive, dysregulated and less effective innate response that leads to uncontrolled pro-inflammatory cytokine production and tissue injury. More recent exposure to other viruses and routine vaccines in children might be associated with protective cross-reactive antibodies and T cells against SARS-CoV-2. There is less evidence to support other mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the age-related difference in outcome following SARS-CoV-2 infection, including pre-existing immunity from exposure to common circulating coronaviruses, differences in the distribution and expression of the entry receptors ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and difference in viral load.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood Coagulation/immunology , Child , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Endothelium/immunology , Humans , Patient Acuity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Viral Load/immunology
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322872

ABSTRACT

Compared to adults, children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have mild or asymptomatic infection, but the underlying immunological differences remain unclear. We describe clinical features, virology, longitudinal cellular and cytokine immune profile, SARS-CoV-2-specific serology and salivary antibody responses in a family of two parents with PCR-confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and their three children, who were repeatedly SARS-CoV-2 PCR negative. Cellular immune profiles and cytokine responses of all children were similar to their parents at all timepoints. All family members had salivary anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detected, predominantly IgA, that coincided with symptom resolution in 3 of 4 symptomatic members. Plasma from both parents and one child had IgG antibody detected against the S1 protein and virus neutralising activity ranging from just detectable to robust titers. Using a systems serology approach, we show that all family members demonstrated higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody features than healthy controls. These data indicate that children can mount an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 without virological evidence of infection. This raises the possibility that despite chronic exposure, immunity in children prevents establishment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Relying on routine virological and serological testing may therefore not identify exposed children, with implications for epidemiological and clinical studies across the life-span.

8.
BMJ ; 376: o143, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642845
9.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(12): e482-e487, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522379

ABSTRACT

In children, the risk of coronavirus disease (COVID) being severe is low. However, the risk of persistent symptoms following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is uncertain in this age group, and the features of "long COVID" are poorly characterized. We reviewed the 14 studies to date that have reported persistent symptoms following COVID in children and adolescents. Almost all the studies have major limitations, including the lack of a clear case definition, variable follow-up times, inclusion of children without confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, reliance on self- or parent-reported symptoms without clinical assessment, nonresponse and other biases, and the absence of a control group. Of the 5 studies which included children and adolescents without SARS-CoV-2 infection as controls, 2 did not find persistent symptoms to be more prevalent in children and adolescents with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This highlights that long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection-associated symptoms are difficult to distinguish from pandemic-associated symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Child , Humans
10.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(3): e1, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501687

ABSTRACT

Whether all children under 12 years of age should be vaccinated against COVID-19 remains an ongoing debate. The relatively low risk posed by acute COVID-19 in children, and uncertainty about the relative harms from vaccination and disease mean that the balance of risk and benefit of vaccination in this age group is more complex. One of the key arguments for vaccinating healthy children is to protect them from long-term consequences. Other considerations include population-level factors, such as reducing community transmission, vaccine supply, cost, and the avoidance of quarantine, school closures and other lockdown measures. The emergence of new variants of concern necessitates continual re-evaluation of the risks and benefits. In this review, we do not argue for or against vaccinating children against COVID-19 but rather outline the points to consider and highlight the complexity of policy decisions on COVID-19 vaccination in this age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Child , Drug Costs , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741639, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497078

ABSTRACT

Children have reduced severity of COVID-19 compared to adults and typically have mild or asymptomatic disease. The immunological mechanisms underlying these age-related differences in clinical outcomes remain unexplained. Here, we quantify 23 immune cell populations in 141 samples from children and adults with mild COVID-19 and their PCR-negative close household contacts at acute and convalescent time points. Children with COVID-19 displayed marked reductions in myeloid cells during infection, most prominent in children under the age of five. Recovery from infection in both children and adults was characterised by the generation of CD8 TCM and CD4 TCM up to 9 weeks post infection. SARS-CoV-2-exposed close contacts also had immunological changes over time despite no evidence of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection on PCR testing. This included an increase in low-density neutrophils during convalescence in both exposed children and adults, as well as increases in CD8 TCM and CD4 TCM in exposed adults. In comparison to children with other common respiratory viral infections, those with COVID-19 had a greater change in innate and T cell-mediated immune responses over time. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the immune response during and after recovery from COVID-19 in both children and adults.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Convalescence , Environmental Exposure , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunologic Memory , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e052101, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495466

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: BCG vaccination modulates immune responses to unrelated pathogens. This off-target effect could reduce the impact of emerging pathogens. As a readily available, inexpensive intervention that has a well-established safety profile, BCG is a good candidate for protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) and other vulnerable groups against COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This international multicentre phase III randomised controlled trial aims to determine if BCG vaccination reduces the incidence of symptomatic and severe COVID-19 at 6 months (co-primary outcomes) compared with no BCG vaccination. We plan to randomise 10 078 HCWs from Australia, The Netherlands, Spain, the UK and Brazil in a 1:1 ratio to BCG vaccination or no BCG (control group). The participants will be followed for 1 year with questionnaires and collection of blood samples. For any episode of illness, clinical details will be collected daily, and the participant will be tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The secondary objectives are to determine if BCG vaccination reduces the rate, incidence, and severity of any febrile or respiratory illness (including SARS-CoV-2), as well as work absenteeism. The safety of BCG vaccination in HCWs will also be evaluated. Immunological analyses will assess changes in the immune system following vaccination, and identify factors associated with susceptibility to or protection against SARS-CoV-2 and other infections. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical and governance approval will be obtained from participating sites. Results will be published in peer-reviewed open-access journals. The final cleaned and locked database will be deposited in a data sharing repository archiving system. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04327206.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination
13.
Cell ; 181(5): 969-977, 2020 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385208

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is mild in the majority of individuals but progresses into severe pneumonia in a small proportion of patients. The increased susceptibility to severe disease in the elderly and individuals with co-morbidities argues for an initial defect in anti-viral host defense mechanisms. Long-term boosting of innate immune responses, also termed "trained immunity," by certain live vaccines (BCG, oral polio vaccine, measles) induces heterologous protection against infections through epigenetic, transcriptional, and functional reprogramming of innate immune cells. We propose that induction of trained immunity by whole-microorganism vaccines may represent an important tool for reducing susceptibility to and severity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Immunomodulation , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS Virus/physiology , Animals , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Virus Replication
14.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(9): 1199-1201, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379069

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Saliva
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1084, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087446

ABSTRACT

Children have mild severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) confirmed disease (COVID-19) compared to adults and the immunological mechanisms underlying this difference remain unclear. Here, we report acute and convalescent innate immune responses in 48 children and 70 adults infected with, or exposed to, SARS-CoV-2. We find clinically mild SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is characterised by reduced circulating subsets of monocytes (classical, intermediate, non-classical), dendritic cells and natural killer cells during the acute phase. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2-infected adults show reduced proportions of non-classical monocytes only. We also observe increased proportions of CD63+ activated neutrophils during the acute phase to SARS-CoV-2 in infected children. Children and adults exposed to SARS-CoV-2 but negative on PCR testing display increased proportions of low-density neutrophils that we observe up to 7 weeks post exposure. This study characterises the innate immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection and household exposure in children.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Humans , Infant , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
16.
Arch Dis Child ; 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952912

ABSTRACT

In contrast to other respiratory viruses, children have less severe symptoms when infected with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this review, we discuss proposed hypotheses for the age-related difference in severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Factors proposed to explain the difference in severity of COVID-19 in children and adults include those that put adults at higher risk and those that protect children. The former include: (1) age-related increase in endothelial damage and changes in clotting function; (2) higher density, increased affinity and different distribution of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptors and transmembrane serine protease 2; (3) pre-existing coronavirus antibodies (including antibody-dependent enhancement) and T cells; (4) immunosenescence and inflammaging, including the effects of chronic cytomegalovirus infection; (5) a higher prevalence of comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 and (6) lower levels of vitamin D. Factors that might protect children include: (1) differences in innate and adaptive immunity; (2) more frequent recurrent and concurrent infections; (3) pre-existing immunity to coronaviruses; (4) differences in microbiota; (5) higher levels of melatonin; (6) protective off-target effects of live vaccines and (7) lower intensity of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.

17.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 36: 57-64, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935867

ABSTRACT

The Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed over a century ago and has become one of the most used vaccines without undergoing a modern vaccine development life cycle. Despite this, the vaccine has protected many millions from severe and disseminated forms of tuberculosis (TB). In addition, BCG has cross-mycobacterial effects against non-tuberculous mycobacteria and off-target (also called non-specific or heterologous) effects against other infections and diseases. More recently, BCG's effects on innate immunity suggest it might improve the immune response against viral respiratory infections including SARS-CoV-2. New TB vaccines, developed over the last 30 years, show promise, particularly in prevention of progression to disease from TB infection in young adults. The role of BCG in the context of new TB vaccines remains uncertain as most participants included in trials have been previously BCG immunised. BCG replacement vaccines are in efficacy trials and these may also have off-target effects.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Cross Protection/immunology , Immunity, Heterologous/immunology , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/prevention & control , Tuberculosis Vaccines/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , BCG Vaccine/immunology , Buruli Ulcer/microbiology , Buruli Ulcer/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Infant , Infant Mortality , Leprosy/microbiology , Leprosy/prevention & control , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/microbiology , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Tuberculosis Vaccines/immunology
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5703, 2020 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920614

ABSTRACT

Compared to adults, children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have predominantly mild or asymptomatic infections, but the underlying immunological differences remain unclear. Here, we describe clinical features, virology, longitudinal cellular, and cytokine immune profile, SARS-CoV-2-specific serology and salivary antibody responses in a family of two parents with PCR-confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and their three children, who tested repeatedly SARS-CoV-2 PCR negative. Cellular immune profiles and cytokine responses of all children are similar to their parents at all timepoints. All family members have salivary anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detected, predominantly IgA, that coincide with symptom resolution in 3 of 4 symptomatic members. Plasma from both parents and one child have IgG antibody against the S1 protein and virus-neutralizing activity detected. Using a systems serology approach, we demonstrate higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody features of these family members compared to healthy controls. These data indicate that children can mount an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 without virological confirmation of infection, raising the possibility that immunity in children can prevent the establishment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Relying on routine virological and serological testing may not identify exposed children, with implications for epidemiological and clinical studies across the life-span.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cytokines/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Saliva/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Australia , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Pandemics , Parents , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
19.
Australian Journal of General Practice ; 49(10):651-655, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-847652

ABSTRACT

[...]many practitioners have limited experience with the use and administration of this vaccine. [...]of these shortages, it is important to prioritise vaccine access to those who will be benefit most from vaccination. BCG vaccination protects against Hansen's disease, caused by M. leprae, with an overall protective effect of approximately 25%.15 There are also observational data from European studies suggesting that BCG vaccination provides some protection against nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children.16 Of interest to those living in south-eastern Australia, the BCG vaccine is not thought to provide significant protection against M. ulcerans infection, although it may protect against M. ulcerans osteomyelitis.15'17'18 BCG vaccination also has 'off-target' effects beyond preventing TB.19 In the Australian context, the BCG vaccine is most recognised for its use in treating bladder cancer. While clinical trials for novel indications are critical, the efficacy of BCG vaccination for these conditions remains uncertain. Because of the potential side effects and limited access to the vaccine, BCG vaccination should not be used for these indications outside of clinical trials.23 Adverse effects and contraindications The BCG vaccine is generally safe and well tolerated.

20.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 56(9): 1343-1345, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695384

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an important cause of childhood vasculitis and a common cause of acquired heart disease in children world-wide. The emergence of Paediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome-Temporally Associated with SARS-CoV-2, a KD-like hyperinflammatory syndrome and the recent death of Dr Tomisaku Kawasaki make this a timely review. Although KD was described by Dr Kawasaki over 50 years ago, there is still no specific diagnostic test and the aetiology remains elusive. This article summarises the latest evidence, highlights important myths and misconceptions and discusses some of the mysteries that surround this disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Infant , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/microbiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
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