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1.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725875

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with a clinical outcome ranging from mild to severe, including death. To date, it is unclear why some patients develop severe symptoms. Many authors have suggested the involvement of vitamin D in reducing the risk of infections; thus, we retrospectively investigated the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in plasma obtained from a cohort of patients from Switzerland. In this cohort, significantly lower 25(OH)D levels (p = 0.004) were found in PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2 (median value 11.1 ng/mL) patients compared with negative patients (24.6 ng/mL); this was also confirmed by stratifying patients according to age >70 years. On the basis of this preliminary observation, vitamin D supplementation might be a useful measure to reduce the risk of infection. Randomized controlled trials and large population studies should be conducted to evaluate these recommendations and to confirm our preliminary observation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/blood
2.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701458

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the combined role of vitamin D and albumin serum levels as predictors of COVID-19 disease progression. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study on adult patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (March-September 2020). Vitamin D and albumin serum levels were measured on admission. These variables were categorized in albumin < 3.5 or ≥ 3.5 g/dL and vitamin D < 30 ng/mL or ≥ 30 ng/mL. We excluded patients with known bone diseases, renal failure, hypercalcemia and/or treated with antiepileptic drugs and steroids, and patients who received previous vitamin D supplementation. A composite outcome including any ventilatory support, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and 60-day mortality was defined. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 50% received non-invasive (NIV) or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), 10% died, whereas 89% and 66% presented low albumin and low vitamin D serum levels, respectively. No correlation between vitamin D and albumin levels was found. In multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex and age-corrected comorbidities, patients having albumin < 3.5 g/dL and vitamin D < 30 ng/mL showed a significant increased risk for all study outcomes, namely NIV/IMV (OR 3.815; 95% CI 1.122-12.966; p = 0.032), NIV/IMV or death (OR 3.173; 95% CI 1.002-10.043; p = 0.049) and PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 100 (OR 3.410; 95% CI 1.138-10.219; p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: The measurement of both vitamin D and serum albumin levels on COVID-19 patients' admission, and their combined evaluation, provides a simple prognostic tool that could be employed to guide prompt clinical decisions.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320119

ABSTRACT

The experience gained over the last hundred years clearly indicates that two groups of viruses represent the main risk for the development of highly transmissible epidemics and pandemics in the human species: influenza viruses and coronaviruses (CoV). Although the search for viruses with pandemic potential in the environment may have an important predictive and monitoring role, it is still based on empirical methodologies, mostly translated from the clinic and not fully validated for environmental matrices.As far as the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, currently underway, is concerned, environmental monitoring activities aiming at checking the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater can be extremely useful to predict and control the diffusion of the disease. For this reason, the present study aims to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 diffusion by means of a wastewater-based environmental monitoring developed in Piedmont, N-W Italy, during the pandemic second and third waves. Sampling strategies, sampling points, sample pre-treatments and analytical methods have been developed and validated to give representative and reliable results. The outcomes highlighted by the present paper demonstrate a strong correlation between SARS-CoV-2 concentration in untreated wastewater and epidemic evolution in the considered areas as well as a predictive potential that could provide decision-makers with indications for establishing effective policies to mitigate the effects of the ongoing pandemic and to prepare response plans for future pandemics that could certainly arise in the decades to come.Moreover, the study highlights the potential of wastewater treatment plants to degrade the genetic material referable to SARS-CoV-2 as well.In conclusion, the preliminary data reported in the present paper, although they need to be complemented by further studies considering other geographical regions as well, are very promising.

4.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686899

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D (VD) is a calcium- and phosphate-controlling hormone used to treat bone disorders; yet, several other effects are progressively emerging. VD deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide, with suboptimal exposure to sunlight listed among the leading causes: oral supplementation with either cholecalciferol or calcitriol is used. However, there is a scarcity of clinical studies investigating how quickly VD concentrations can increase after supplementation. In this pilot study, the commercial supplement ImmuD3 (by Erboristeria Magentina®) was chosen as the source of VD and 2000 IU/day was administered for one month to 21 healthy volunteers that had not taken any other VD supplements in the previous 30 days. Plasma VD levels were measured through liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after 7, 14, and 28 days of supplementation. We found that 95% of the participants had insufficient VD levels at baseline (<30 ng/mL; median 23.72 ng/mL; IQR 18.10-26.15), but after 28 days of supplementation, this percentage dropped to 62% (median 28.35 ng/mL; IQR 25.78-35.20). The median increase in VD level was 3.09 ng/mL (IQR 1.60-5.68) after 7 days and 8.85 ng/mL (IQR 2.85-13.97F) after 28 days. This study suggests the need for continuing VD supplementation and for measuring target level attainment.


Subject(s)
Bone Density Conservation Agents/blood , Cholecalciferol/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins/blood , Adult , Aged , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Young Adult
5.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 48(2): 393-401, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE(S): This prospective observational cohort study aimed to evaluate whether women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during the first trimester of pregnancy are at higher risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes compared to negative patients. STUDY DESIGN: Seromolecular testing for SARS-CoV-2 was performed at 12, 16, 21 weeks, and at delivery; the cohort was then subdivided into a first-trimester SARS-CoV-2-positive (case) group and a SARS-CoV-2-negative (control) group. The primary outcome was a composite adverse obstetric outcome, defined as the presence of either abortion, preterm delivery, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, stillbirth; and a composite measure of adverse neonatal events, including either 1- and 5-min Apgar score ≤ 7, neonatal intensive care unit admission and congenital birth defects. Maternal symptoms and antibody titer were secondarily assessed. RESULTS: A total of 17 of 164 women tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (10.3%) in the first trimester. One SARS-CoV-2-positive patient who gave birth at another hospital was excluded. Composite adverse obstetric outcome was observed in 6.2% (1/16) SARS-CoV-2-positive and 10.5% (11/105) SARS-CoV-2-negative women; composite adverse neonatal outcome in 12.5% (2/16) and 7.6% (8/105), respectively. In the newborns of women who had developed IgG antibodies, the same antibodies were detected in arterial cord blood and the nasopharyngeal swab tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. No maternal pneumonia or hospital admission due to coronavirus disease-19 were recorded. CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic women during the first trimester of pregnancy did not experience significantly more adverse events than SARS-CoV-2-negative women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480578

ABSTRACT

Dalbavancin is a lipoglycopeptide approved for treatment of Gram-positive infections of skin and skin-associated structures (ABSSSI). Currently, off-label use at high dosages for osteoarticular infections deserves attention. This work aimed to study the long-term plasma pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin in outpatients with ABSSSI or osteoarticular infections, treated either with one or two 1500 mg doses of dalbavancin. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used to measure total dalbavancin concentrations in plasma samples. The results were analyzed through a non-compartmental analysis (NCA). Breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was used to calculate AUC/MIC and T > MIC parameters, adjusted by 93% protein binding. A total of 14 patients were enrolled, 11 with osteoarticular infection and 3 with ABSSSI. Long-term pharmacokinetics showed median T > MIC (0.125 mg/L) of 11.9 and 13.7 weeks for single and dual dose, respectively. Similarly, median AUC0-2w/MIC ratios of 20,590 and 31,366 were observed for single and dual dose regimens, respectively. No adverse events were observed, and treatment success was achieved in 12/14 patients. Failure was associated with the worst clinical conditions, bone infections, and single dose. The results of this study show that dalbavancin exposure exceeds previously suggested pharmacodynamic targets. Optimization of these targets is needed for the osteoarticular setting.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463781

ABSTRACT

To date, vitamin D seems to have a significant role in affecting the prevention and immunomodulation in COVID-19 disease. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight that this pro-hormone has other several activities, such as affecting drug concentrations, since it regulates the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetics is influenced by CYPs, but no data are available in the literature concerning the association among vitamin D levels, seasonality (which affects vitamin D concentrations) and EFV plasma levels. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels on EFV plasma concentrations in different seasons. We quantified 25(OH)D3 by using chemiluminescence immunoassay, whereas EFV plasma concentrations were quantified with the HPLC-PDA method. A total of 316 patients were enrolled in Turin and Rome. Overall, 25(OH)D3levels resulted in being inversely correlated with EFV concentrations. Some patients with EFV levels higher than 4000 ng/mL showed a deficient 25(OH)D3 concentration in Turin and Rome cohorts and together. EFV concentrations were different in patients without vitamin D supplementation, whereas, for vitamin D-administered individuals, no difference in EFV exposure was present. Concerning seasonality, EFV concentrations were associated with 25(OH)D3 deficiency only in winter and in spring, whereas a significant influence was highlighted for 25(OH)D3 stratification for deficient, insufficient and sufficient values in winter, spring and summer. A strong and inverse association between 25(OH)D3and EFV plasma concentrations was suggested. These data suggest that vitamin D is able to affect drug exposure in different seasons; thus, the achievement of the clinical outcome could be improved by also considering this pro-hormone.


Subject(s)
Alkynes/blood , Alkynes/therapeutic use , Benzoxazines/blood , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes/blood , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Seasons , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamins/blood
8.
Environ Res ; 203: 111901, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364008

ABSTRACT

The experience gained over the last hundred years clearly indicates that two groups of viruses represent the main risk for the development of highly transmissible epidemics and pandemics in the human species: influenza viruses and coronaviruses (CoV). Although the search for viruses with pandemic potential in the environment may have an important predictive and monitoring role, it is still based on empirical methodologies, mostly resulting from the clinic and not fully validated for environmental matrices. As far as the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, currently underway, is concerned, environmental monitoring activities aiming at checking the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater can be extremely useful to predict and check the diffusion of the disease. For this reason, the present study aims at evaluating the SARS-CoV-2 diffusion by means of a wastewater-based environmental monitoring developed in Piedmont, N-W Italy, during the second and third pandemic waves. Wastewater sampling strategies, sampling points sample pre-treatments and analytical methods, data processing and standardization, have been developed and discussed to give representative and reliable results. The following outcomes has been highlighted by the present study: i) a strong correlation between SARS-CoV-2 concentration in untreated wastewater and epidemic evolution in the considered areas can be observed as well as a predictive potential that could provide decision-makers with indications to implement effective policies, to mitigate the effects of the ongoing pandemic and to prepare response plans for future pandemics that could certainly arise in the decades to come; ii) moreover, the data at disposal from our monitoring campaign (almost 500 samples analysed in 11 months) confirm that SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in wastewater are strongly variable and site-specific across the region: the highest SARS-CoV-2 concentration values have been found in sewer networks serving the most populated areas of the region; iii) normalization of viral concentrations in wastewater through Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (a specific faecal marker) has been carried out and commented; iv) the study highlights the potential of wastewater treatment plants to degrade the genetic material referable to SARS-CoV-2 as well. In conclusion, the preliminary data reported in the present paper, although they need to be complemented by further studies considering also other geographical regions, are very promising.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Water , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344151

ABSTRACT

Evidence for the real impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on preterm birth is unclear, as available series report composite pregnancy outcomes and/or do not stratify patients according to disease severity. The purpose of the research was to determine the real impact of asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection on preterm birth not due to maternal respiratory failure. This case-control study involved women admitted to Sant Anna Hospital, Turin, for delivery between 20 September 2020 and 9 January 2021. The cumulative incidence of Coronavirus disease-19 was compared between preterm birth (case group, n = 102) and full-term delivery (control group, n = 127). Only women with spontaneous or medically-indicated preterm birth because of placental vascular malperfusion (pregnancy-related hypertension and its complications) were included. Current or past SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by nasopharyngeal swab testing and detection of IgM/IgG antibodies in blood samples. A significant difference in the cumulative incidence of Coronavirus disease-19 between the case (21/102, 20.5%) and the control group (32/127, 25.1%) (P= 0.50) was not observed, although the case group was burdened by a higher prevalence of three known risk factors (body mass index > 24.9, asthma, chronic hypertension) for severe Coronavirus disease-19. Logistic regression analysis showed that asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection was not an independent predictor of spontaneous and medically-indicated preterm birth due to pregnancy-related hypertension and its complications (0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-1.43). Pregnant patients without comorbidities need to be reassured that asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection does not increase the risk of preterm delivery. Preterm birth and severe Coronavirus disease-19 share common risk factors (i.e., body mass index > 24.9, asthma, chronic hypertension), which may explain the high rate of indicated preterm birth due to maternal conditions reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Carrier State/immunology , Premature Birth/immunology , Abortion, Spontaneous , Adult , Carrier State/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/physiopathology , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(12): 4861-4867, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228713

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is one of the most encouraging treatments against SARS-CoV-2 infection. After intravenous infusion, RDV is rapidly metabolized (t1/2 = 1 h) within the cells to its active adenosine triphosphate analogue form (GS-443902) and then it can be found in plasma in its nucleoside analogue form (GS-441524). In this real-life study, we describe the remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations at three time points in nine ICU patients, through a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. The observed data confirmed the very rapid conversion of RDV to its metabolite and the quite long half-life of GS-441524. The mean Cmin , Cmax and AUC0-24 , were < 0.24 ng/mL and 122.3 ng/mL, 2637.3 ng/mL and 157.8 ng/mL, and 5171.2 ng*h/mL and 3676.5 ng*h/ml, respectively, for RDV and GS-441524. Three out of nine patients achieved a Cmax  > 2610 ng/mL and 140 ng/mL and AUC0-24  > 1560 ng*h/mL and 2230 ng*h/mL for RDV and GS-441524, respectively. The mean t1/2 value for GS-441524 was 26.3 h. Despite the low number of patients, these data can represent an interesting preliminary report on the variability of RDV and GS-441524 concentrations in a real-life ICU setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
11.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227007

ABSTRACT

Recently, large-scale screening for COVID-19 has presented a major challenge, limiting timely countermeasures. Therefore, the application of suitable rapid serological tests could provide useful information, however, little evidence regarding their robustness is currently available. In this work, we evaluated and compared the analytical performance of a rapid lateral-flow test (LFA) and a fast semiquantitative fluorescent immunoassay (FIA) for anti-nucleocapsid (anti-NC) antibodies, with the reverse transcriptase real-time PCR assay as the reference. In 222 patients, LFA showed poor sensitivity (55.9%) within two weeks from PCR, while later testing was more reliable (sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 93.1%). Moreover, in a subset of 100 patients, FIA showed high sensitivity (89.1%) and specificity (94.1%) after two weeks from PCR. The coupled application for the screening of 183 patients showed satisfactory concordance (K = 0.858). In conclusion, rapid serological tests were largely not useful for early diagnosis, but they showed good performance in later stages of infection. These could be useful for back-tracing and/or to identify potentially immune subjects.

12.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 537-540, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206792

ABSTRACT

Congenitally- or perinatally-acquired viral infections can be harmful to the fetus but data are limited about prevalence and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease during the first trimester of pregnancy. We report epidemiologic data from a study investigating a cohort of women who became pregnant just before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. We recruited 138 consecutive pregnant women attending for first trimester screening (11-13 weeks of gestation) at Sant'Anna Hospital, Turin, Piedmont, Italy, during the plateau and the falling phase of the COVID-19 epidemic curve. Patients were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G antibody levels and SARS-CoV-2 detection in sera and nasopharyngeal swab samples. COVID-19 cumulative incidence during the first trimester was of 10.1% with high prevalence of asymptomatic patients (42.8%). Similar to the course of the disease in non pregnant adults, 80% to 90% of infections were not severe.The prevalence of reported symptoms was four-fold higher in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients (57%) than in those negative (13%) (P < .001), suggesting that direct self-testing should open doors to confirmatory testing for COVID-19. Our findings support the need for COVID-19 screening in early pregnancy in epidemic areas to plan materno-fetal health surveillance programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115413

ABSTRACT

This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate whether women with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy are at higher risk of noninvasive prenatal screening test alterations and/or of congenital fetal anomalies at the second-trimester fetal anatomy scan. Maternal symptoms were secondly investigated. The study was carried out on 12-week pregnant women admitted for noninvasive prenatal testing (16 April and 22 June 2020). The cohort had seromolecular tests for SARS-CoV-2, after which they were divided into a positive case group and a negative control group. Both groups had 20-week ultrasound screening. Seventeen out of the 164 women tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (10.3%). There were no significant differences in mean nuchal translucency thickness or biochemical markers (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, unconjugated estriol) between cases and controls (p = 0.77, 0.63, 0.30, 0.40, 0.28) or in the fetal incidence of structural anomalies at the second-trimester fetal anatomy scan (p = 0.21). No pneumonia or hospital admission due to COVID-19-related symptoms were observed. Asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy did not predispose affected women to more fetal anomalies than unaffected women. COVID-19 had a favorable maternal course at the beginning of pregnancy in our healthy cohort.

14.
J Reprod Immunol ; 144: 103285, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062496

ABSTRACT

We report herein the longest-lasting study of SARS-CoV-2 antibody profile in pregnancy, from first trimester-infection to delivery. Seventeen out of 164 pregnant women tested positive for COVID-19. Throughout pregnancy, the neutralizing antibody titer remained stable, whilst a significant decline in the non-neutralizing antibodies was observed after 16 weeks of gestation. All the newborns of women who developed IgG antibodies showed the presence of the same antibodies in arterial cord blood. Knowledge on the longevity and type of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response may help to guide vaccination strategies in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
15.
Minerva Med ; 112(1): 111-113, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934710

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans
16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(4): 391.e1-391.e7, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was named coronavirus disease 2019 and classified as a global public health emergency. The evidence related to the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on pregnancy is limited to the second and third trimester of pregnancy, whereas data on the first trimester are scant. Many viral infections can be harmful to the fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy, and whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is one of them is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: With this study, we evaluated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection as a risk factor for early pregnancy loss in the first trimester of pregnancy. Furthermore, coronavirus disease 2019 course in the first trimester was assessed. STUDY DESIGN: Between February 22 and May 21, 2020, we conducted a case-control study at S. Anna Hospital, Turin, among pregnant women in their first trimester, paired for last menstruation. The cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 was compared between women with spontaneous abortion (case group, n=100) and those with ongoing pregnancy (control group, n=125). Current or past infection was determined by the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from nasopharyngeal swab and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies in a blood sample. Patient demographics, coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms, and the main risk factors for abortion were collected. RESULTS: Of 225 women, 23 (10.2%) had a positive test result for coronavirus disease 2019. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 between the cases (11/100, 11%) and the controls (12/125, 9.6%) (P=.73). Logistic regression analysis confirmed that coronavirus disease 2019 was not an independent predictor of early pregnancy loss (odds ratio, 1.28; confidence interval, 0.53-3.08). Coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms in the first trimester were fever, anosmia, ageusia, cough, arthralgia, and diarrhea; no cases of pneumonia or hospital admission owing to coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms were recorded. No difference in the incidence of symptoms was noted between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy does not seem to predispose to early pregnancy loss; its cumulative incidence did not differ between women with spontaneous abortion and women with ongoing pregnancy. Coronavirus disease 2019 appears to have a favorable maternal course at the beginning of pregnancy, consistent with what has been observed during the second and third trimesters.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, First , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
17.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(7): 1772-1777, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir has received significant attention for its potential application in the treatment of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir has already been tested for Ebola virus disease treatment and found to have activity against SARS and MERS coronaviruses. The remdesivir core contains GS-441524, which interferes with RNA-dependent RNA polymerases alone. In non-human primates, following IV administration, remdesivir is rapidly distributed into PBMCs and converted within 2 h to the active nucleoside triphosphate form, while GS-441524 is detectable in plasma for up to 24 h. Nevertheless, remdesivir pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in humans are still unexplored, highlighting the need for a precise analytical method for remdesivir and GS-441524 quantification. OBJECTIVES: The validation of a reliable UHPLC-MS/MS method for remdesivir and GS-441524 quantification in human plasma. METHODS: Remdesivir and GS-441524 standards and quality controls were prepared in plasma from healthy donors. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation, followed by dilution and injection into the QSight 220 UHPLC-MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was obtained through an Acquity HSS T3 1.8 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm column, with a gradient of water and acetonitrile with 0.05% formic acid. The method was validated using EMA and FDA guidelines. RESULTS: Analyte stability has been evaluated and described in detail. The method successfully fulfilled the validation process and it was demonstrated that, when possible, sample thermal inactivation could be a good choice in order to improve biosafety. CONCLUSIONS: This method represents a useful tool for studying remdesivir and GS-441524 clinical pharmacokinetics, particularly during the current COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Adenosine Monophosphate/analysis , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Triphosphate/analysis , Adenosine Triphosphate/blood , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/analysis , Alanine/blood , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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