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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309841

ABSTRACT

Understanding factors that foster resilience and buffer against the negative psychological impact of COVID-19 is critical to inform efforts to promote adjustment, reduce risk, and improve care, particularly for adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders. This prospective longitudinal study addresses this gap by investigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents’ mental health and substance use, and by assessing specific positive coping strategies among adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using multi-group autoregressive cross-lagged path models, the present study explored the reciprocal influence of positive coping behaviors on multiple adjustment outcomes including mental health symptoms, substance use, stress, and worry. Participants included 238 adolescents (132 males;ages 15–17;118 with ADHD). Parents provided ratings of adolescent routines, and adolescents provided ratings of coping behaviors and psychological adjustment in spring (May/June), summer (July/August), and fall (October/November) 2020. All models included the effects of adjustment at the prior timepoint as well as relevant covariates including adolescent race, ethnicity, sex, medication status, and family income. Adolescents with ADHD were at greater risk for experiencing increases in mental health symptoms and substance use throughout the pandemic, relative to adolescents without ADHD. The use of positive coping strategies and adolescent routines buffered against increases in substance use and mental health problems for adolescents with ADHD. These findings have important clinical and public policy relevance for parents, schools, and employers who may aim to prioritize keeping schedules as consistent as possible to promote healthy adjustment.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306555

ABSTRACT

Study Objectives: To prospectively examine changes in adolescent sleep before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents with and without ADHD. Methods: Participants were 122 adolescents (ages 15-17;61% male;48% with ADHD). Parents reported on adolescents’ sleep duration and difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS);adolescents reported on sleep patterns, sleep duration, delayed sleep/wake behaviors, and daytime sleepiness before (September 2019-February 2020) and during (May-June 2020) COVID-19. Adolescents also reported on their health behaviors, COVID-19-related negative affect, and difficulties concentrating due to COVID-19. Results: Parents reported adolescents had more DIMS during COVID-19 than before COVID-19, with clinically-elevated rates increasing from 24% to 36%. Both bedtimes and waketimes shifted later during COVID-19, and adolescents reported more delayed sleep/wake behaviors. Adolescents also reported less daytime sleepiness and longer school night sleep duration during COVID-19. In considering differences between adolescents with and without ADHD, adolescents with ADHD did not experience an increase in school night sleep duration and were less likely to obtain recommended sleep duration during COVID-19. In the full sample, controlling for ADHD status, COVID-19-related sadness/loneliness was associated with increases in DIMS, and spending less time outside and more COVID-19-related worries/fears were associated with increases in delayed sleep/wake behaviors during COVID-19. Conclusions: COVID-19 had negative and positive impacts on adolescent sleep. Adolescents with ADHD did not experience the benefit of increased school night sleep duration during COVID-19 like adolescents without ADHD. Negative affect and health behaviors may be useful intervention targets for reducing negative impacts of COVID-19 for adolescent sleep.

3.
J Atten Disord ; 26(7): 1011-1017, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484253

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Researchers have speculated that the COVID-19 pandemic may expand the academic performance gap experienced by at-risk students. We examined learning experiences during the 2020 to 2021 school year and the impact the pandemic has had on high school student grade point average (GPA), including predictors of change in GPA from 2019-2020 to 2020-2021. METHOD: Participants were 238 adolescents (55.5% male), 49.6% with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in the United States. Adolescents reported on their GPAs via online surveys. RESULTS: GPA significantly decreased on average from 2019-2020 to 2020-2021 school year. ADHD status and biological sex significantly moderated change-students with ADHD and male students reported decreased GPA, whereas students without ADHD and female students' GPA did not change. Low income and Black/Latinx students had lower GPAs in both school years. CONCLUSION: It is imperative that additional supports be provided for at-risk students to help them catch up on missed learning during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Schools , Students
4.
Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol ; 50(5): 605-619, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453803

ABSTRACT

Understanding factors that foster resilience and buffer against the negative psychological impact of COVID-19 is critical to inform efforts to promote adjustment, reduce risk, and improve care, particularly for adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders. This prospective longitudinal study addresses this gap by investigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents' mental health and substance use, and by assessing specific positive coping strategies among adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using multi-group autoregressive cross-lagged path models, the present study explored the reciprocal influence of positive coping behaviors on multiple adjustment outcomes including mental health symptoms, substance use, stress, and worry. Participants included 238 adolescents (132 male participants; ages 15-17; 118 with ADHD). Parents provided ratings of adolescent routines, and adolescents provided ratings of coping behaviors and psychological adjustment in spring (May/June), summer (July/August), and fall (October/November) 2020. All models included the effects of adjustment at the prior timepoint as well as relevant covariates including adolescent race, ethnicity, sex, medication status, and family income. Adolescents with ADHD were at greater risk for experiencing increases in mental health symptoms and substance use throughout the pandemic, relative to adolescents without ADHD. The use of positive coping strategies and adolescent routines buffered against increases in substance use and mental health problems for adolescents with ADHD. These findings have important clinical and public policy relevance for parents, schools, and employers who may aim to prioritize keeping schedules as consistent as possible to promote healthy adjustment.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
5.
Science ; 371(6529)2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388436

ABSTRACT

Analysis of 772 complete severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomes from early in the Boston-area epidemic revealed numerous introductions of the virus, a small number of which led to most cases. The data revealed two superspreading events. One, in a skilled nursing facility, led to rapid transmission and significant mortality in this vulnerable population but little broader spread, whereas other introductions into the facility had little effect. The second, at an international business conference, produced sustained community transmission and was exported, resulting in extensive regional, national, and international spread. The two events also differed substantially in the genetic variation they generated, suggesting varying transmission dynamics in superspreading events. Our results show how genomic epidemiology can help to understand the link between individual clusters and wider community spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans
6.
Sleep ; 44(8)2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101871

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To prospectively examine changes in adolescent sleep before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents with and without ADHD. METHODS: Participants were 122 adolescents (ages 15-17; 61% male; 48% with ADHD). Parents reported on adolescents' sleep duration and difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS); adolescents reported on sleep patterns, sleep duration, delayed sleep/wake behaviors, and daytime sleepiness before (September 2019 to February 2020) and during (May-June 2020) COVID-19. Adolescents also reported on their health behaviors, COVID-19-related negative affect, and difficulties concentrating due to COVID-19. RESULTS: Parents reported adolescents had more DIMS during COVID-19 than before COVID-19, with clinically elevated rates increasing from 24% to 36%. Both bedtimes and waketimes shifted later during COVID-19, and adolescents reported more delayed sleep/wake behaviors. Adolescents also reported less daytime sleepiness and longer school night sleep duration during COVID-19. In considering differences between adolescents with and without ADHD, adolescents with ADHD did not experience an increase in school night sleep duration and were less likely to obtain recommended sleep duration during COVID-19. In the full sample, controlling for ADHD status, COVID-19-related sadness/loneliness was associated with increases in DIMS, and spending less time outside and more COVID-19-related worries/fears were associated with increases in delayed sleep/wake behaviors during COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 had negative and positive impacts on adolescent sleep. Adolescents with ADHD did not experience the benefit of increased school night sleep duration during COVID-19 like adolescents without ADHD. Negative affect and health behaviors may be useful intervention targets for reducing negative impacts of COVID-19 for adolescent sleep.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
7.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(6): 769-777, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856802

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined remote learning practices and difficulties during initial stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Participants were 238 adolescents (132 males; 118 with ADHD) aged 15.64-17.99 years and their parents. Adolescents and parents completed questionnaires in May/June 2020 when in-person schools were closed in the U.S. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of families incurred financial costs to support remote learning, and only 59% of school-based services received before COVID-19 continued during COVID-19 remote learning. Adolescents with ADHD had fewer routines and more remote learning difficulties than adolescents without ADHD. Parents of adolescents with ADHD had less confidence in managing remote learning and more difficulties in supporting home learning and home-school communication. Thirty-one percent of parents of adolescents with ADHD with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) or receiving academic accommodations (504 Plan) reported remote learning to be very challenging, compared with 18% of parents of adolescents with ADHD without an IEP/504 Plan, and only 4% of parents of adolescents with neither ADHD nor an IEP/504 Plan. Fewer adolescent routines, higher negative affect, and more difficulty concentrating because of COVID-19 were each associated with greater adolescent remote learning difficulties only in adolescents with ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial findings of the nature and impact of remote learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is imperative for schools and communities to provide the necessary supports to adolescents, particularly those with mental health and/or learning difficulties, and to their parents.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Learning , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Education, Distance/economics , Female , Humans , Male , Parents/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires
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