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1.
Vox Sang ; 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Blood donors are increasingly being recognized as an informative resource for surveillance. We aimed to review severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 seroprevalence studies conducted among blood donors to investigate methodological biases and provide guidance for future research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of peer-reviewed and preprint publications between January 2020 and January 2021. Two reviewers used standardized forms to extract seroprevalence estimates and data on methodology pertaining to population sampling, periodicity, assay characteristics, and antibody kinetics. National data on cumulative incidence and social distancing policies were extracted from publicly available sources and summarized. RESULTS: Thirty-three studies representing 1,323,307 blood donations from 20 countries worldwide were included (sample sizes ranged from 22 to 953,926 donations). The majority of the studies (79%) reported seroprevalence rates <10% (ranging from 0% to 76% [after adjusting for waning antibodies]). Overall, less than 1 in 5 studies reported standardized seroprevalence rates to reflect the demographics of the general population. Stratification by age and sex were most common (64% of studies), followed by region (48%). A total of 52% of studies reported seroprevalence at a single time point. Overall, 27 unique assay combinations were identified, 55% of studies used a single assay and only 39% adjusted seroprevalence rates for imperfect test characteristics. Among the nationally representative studies, case detection was most underrepresented in Kenya (1:1264). CONCLUSION: By the end of 2020, seroprevalence rates were far from reaching herd immunity. In addition to differences in community transmission and diverse public health policies, study designs and methodology were likely contributing factors to seroprevalence heterogeneity.

2.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1400-1409, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490612

ABSTRACT

Importance: People who have been infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 have reduced risk of subsequent infection, but the proportion of people in the US with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from infection or vaccination is uncertain. Objective: To estimate trends in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence related to infection and vaccination in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a repeated cross-sectional study conducted each month during July 2020 through May 2021, 17 blood collection organizations with blood donations from all 50 US states; Washington, DC; and Puerto Rico were organized into 66 study-specific regions, representing a catchment of 74% of the US population. For each study region, specimens from a median of approximately 2000 blood donors were selected and tested each month; a total of 1 594 363 specimens were initially selected and tested. The final date of blood donation collection was May 31, 2021. Exposure: Calendar time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of persons with detectable SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Seroprevalence was weighted for demographic differences between the blood donor sample and general population. Infection-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with both spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with spike antibodies. The seroprevalence estimates were compared with cumulative COVID-19 case report incidence rates. Results: Among 1 443 519 specimens included, 733 052 (50.8%) were from women, 174 842 (12.1%) were from persons aged 16 to 29 years, 292 258 (20.2%) were from persons aged 65 years and older, 36 654 (2.5%) were from non-Hispanic Black persons, and 88 773 (6.1%) were from Hispanic persons. The overall infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimate increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2%-3.8%) in July 2020 to 20.2% (95% CI, 19.9%-20.6%) in May 2021; the combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence estimate in May 2021 was 83.3% (95% CI, 82.9%-83.7%). By May 2021, 2.1 SARS-CoV-2 infections (95% CI, 2.0-2.1) per reported COVID-19 case were estimated to have occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on a sample of blood donations in the US from July 2020 through May 2021, vaccine- and infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased over time and varied by age, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. Despite weighting to adjust for demographic differences, these findings from a national sample of blood donors may not be representative of the entire US population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Vox Sang ; 116(9): 946-954, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Access to large pools of healthy adult donors advantageously positions blood component providers to undertake anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence studies. While numerous seroprevalence reports have been published by blood operators during the COVID-19 pandemic, details on the assay used has not been well documented. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the diversity of assays being used by blood operators and assess how this may affect seroprevalence estimates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We surveyed 49 blood component providers from 39 countries. Questionnaire included information on the number and identity of assays used, the detected immunoglobulin(s) and target antigen, and performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity). RESULTS: Thirty-eight of the 49 contacted blood suppliers provided at least partial responses. The results indicate that 19 commercial and five in-house serology assays have been used by surveyed blood operators. The Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay was the most commonly used kit and utilized by 15 blood suppliers. Two assays did not detect IgG, but detected either IgM/IgA or IgM. 68·2% of assays targeted the spike protein and 50% the nucleocapsid protein, while 18·2% targeted both viral proteins. The sensitivity and specificity of IgG-specific assays ranged from 71·9% to 100% and from 96·2% to 100%, respectively. As of 18 October 2020, the seroprevalence was below 5% in 10 of 14 countries reporting. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the diversity of assays being used. Analyses comparing blood donor seroprevalence across countries should consider assay characteristics with optimization of signal/cut-off ratios and consistent methodology to adjust for waning antibody.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1400-1409, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391515

ABSTRACT

Importance: People who have been infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 have reduced risk of subsequent infection, but the proportion of people in the US with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from infection or vaccination is uncertain. Objective: To estimate trends in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence related to infection and vaccination in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a repeated cross-sectional study conducted each month during July 2020 through May 2021, 17 blood collection organizations with blood donations from all 50 US states; Washington, DC; and Puerto Rico were organized into 66 study-specific regions, representing a catchment of 74% of the US population. For each study region, specimens from a median of approximately 2000 blood donors were selected and tested each month; a total of 1 594 363 specimens were initially selected and tested. The final date of blood donation collection was May 31, 2021. Exposure: Calendar time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of persons with detectable SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Seroprevalence was weighted for demographic differences between the blood donor sample and general population. Infection-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with both spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with spike antibodies. The seroprevalence estimates were compared with cumulative COVID-19 case report incidence rates. Results: Among 1 443 519 specimens included, 733 052 (50.8%) were from women, 174 842 (12.1%) were from persons aged 16 to 29 years, 292 258 (20.2%) were from persons aged 65 years and older, 36 654 (2.5%) were from non-Hispanic Black persons, and 88 773 (6.1%) were from Hispanic persons. The overall infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimate increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2%-3.8%) in July 2020 to 20.2% (95% CI, 19.9%-20.6%) in May 2021; the combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence estimate in May 2021 was 83.3% (95% CI, 82.9%-83.7%). By May 2021, 2.1 SARS-CoV-2 infections (95% CI, 2.0-2.1) per reported COVID-19 case were estimated to have occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on a sample of blood donations in the US from July 2020 through May 2021, vaccine- and infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased over time and varied by age, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. Despite weighting to adjust for demographic differences, these findings from a national sample of blood donors may not be representative of the entire US population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Vox Sang ; 116(3): 296-304, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While coronavirus (COVID-19) is not transfusion-transmitted, the impact of the global pandemic on blood services worldwide is complex. Convalescent plasma may offer treatment, but efficacy and safety are not established. Measuring seroprevalence in donors would inform public health policy. Here, we survey blood services around the world to assess the different research programmes related to COVID-19 planned or in progress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood collection services were surveyed in June 2020 to determine whether they were participating in serosurveys or convalescent plasma collection and clinical trials. RESULTS: A total of 48 countries (77% of those contacted) responded. Seroprevalence studies are planned or in progress in 73% of countries surveyed and in all continents, including low- and middle-income countries. Most aimed to inform public health policy. Convalescent plasma programmes have been initiated around the globe (79% of surveyed), about three quarters as clinical trials in high-, middle- and low-income countries. CONCLUSION: Blood services around the world have drawn upon their operational capacity to provide much-needed seroprevalence data to inform public health. They have rapidly implemented preparation of potential treatment when few treatments are available and mostly as clinical trials. At the same time, they must continue to provide blood products for recipients despite challenges of working in a state of emergency. It is important to track and coordinate research efforts across jurisdictions to gain a composite evidence-based view that will influence future practice and preparative strategies.


Subject(s)
Blood Banks/organization & administration , Blood Safety , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Blood Donors , COVID-19/prevention & control , Geography , Health Policy , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Pandemics , Phlebotomy , Public Health , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Transfusion ; 61(5): 1370-1376, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma (CCP) is a promising treatment for COVID-19. Blood collectors have rapidly scaled up collection and distribution programs. METHODS: We developed a detailed simulation model of CCP donor recruitment, collection, production, and distribution processes. We ran our model using varying epidemic trajectories from 11 U.S. states and with key input parameters drawn from wide ranges of plausible values to identify key drivers of ability to scale collections capacity and meet demand for CCP. RESULTS: Utilization of available CCP collections capacity followed increases in COVID-19 hospital discharges with a lag. Utilization never exceeded 75% of available capacity in most simulations. Demand was met for most of the simulation period in most simulations, but a substantial portion of demand went unmet during early, sharp increases in hospitalizations. For epidemic trajectories that included multiple epidemic peaks, second wave demand could generally be met due to stockpiles established during the decline from an earlier peak. Apheresis machine capacity (number of machines) and probability that COVID-19 recovered individuals are willing to donate were the most important supply-side drivers of ability to meet demand. Recruitment capacity was important in states with early peaks. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemic trajectory was the most important determinant of ability to meet demand for CCP, although our simulations revealed several contributing operational drivers of CCP program success.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive
7.
Science ; 371(6526): 288-292, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965798

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread rapidly in Manaus, the capital of Amazonas state in northern Brazil. The attack rate there is an estimate of the final size of the largely unmitigated epidemic that occurred in Manaus. We use a convenience sample of blood donors to show that by June 2020, 1 month after the epidemic peak in Manaus, 44% of the population had detectable immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Correcting for cases without a detectable antibody response and for antibody waning, we estimate a 66% attack rate in June, rising to 76% in October. This is higher than in São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil, where the estimated attack rate in October was 29%. These results confirm that when poorly controlled, COVID-19 can infect a large proportion of the population, causing high mortality.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemics , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Donors , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
8.
Vox Sang ; 116(3): 296-304, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While coronavirus (COVID-19) is not transfusion-transmitted, the impact of the global pandemic on blood services worldwide is complex. Convalescent plasma may offer treatment, but efficacy and safety are not established. Measuring seroprevalence in donors would inform public health policy. Here, we survey blood services around the world to assess the different research programmes related to COVID-19 planned or in progress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood collection services were surveyed in June 2020 to determine whether they were participating in serosurveys or convalescent plasma collection and clinical trials. RESULTS: A total of 48 countries (77% of those contacted) responded. Seroprevalence studies are planned or in progress in 73% of countries surveyed and in all continents, including low- and middle-income countries. Most aimed to inform public health policy. Convalescent plasma programmes have been initiated around the globe (79% of surveyed), about three quarters as clinical trials in high-, middle- and low-income countries. CONCLUSION: Blood services around the world have drawn upon their operational capacity to provide much-needed seroprevalence data to inform public health. They have rapidly implemented preparation of potential treatment when few treatments are available and mostly as clinical trials. At the same time, they must continue to provide blood products for recipients despite challenges of working in a state of emergency. It is important to track and coordinate research efforts across jurisdictions to gain a composite evidence-based view that will influence future practice and preparative strategies.


Subject(s)
Blood Banks/organization & administration , Blood Safety , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Blood Donors , COVID-19/prevention & control , Geography , Health Policy , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Pandemics , Phlebotomy , Public Health , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Transfusion ; 60:21A-21A, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-838390
10.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 1987-1997, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796294

ABSTRACT

Risk assessments of transfusion-transmitted emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are complicated by the fact that blood donors' demographics and behaviors can be different from the general population. Therefore, when assessing potential blood donor exposure to EIDs, the use of general population characteristics, such as U.S. travel statistics, may invoke uncertainties that result in inaccurate estimates of blood donor exposure. This may, in turn, lead to the creation of donor deferral policies that do not match actual risk. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This article reports on the development of a system to rapidly assess EID risks for a nationally representative portion of the U.S. blood donor population. To assess the effectiveness of this system, a test survey was developed and deployed to a statistically representative sample frame of blood donors from five blood collecting organizations. Donors were directed to an online survey to ascertain their recent travel and potential exposure to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). RESULTS: A total of 7128 responses were received from 54 256 invitations. The age-adjusted estimated total number of blood donors potentially exposed to MERS-CoV was approximately 15 640 blood donors compared to a lower U.S. general population-based estimate of 9610 blood donors. CONCLUSION: The structured donor demographic sample-based data provided an assessment of blood donors' potential exposure to an emerging pathogen that was 63% larger than the U.S. population-based estimate. This illustrates the need for tailored blood donor-based EID risk assessments that provide more specific demographic risk intelligence and can inform appropriate regulatory decision making.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Blood Transfusion , Blood-Borne Infections/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure , Risk Assessment/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Travel-Related Illness , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Banks , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Blood-Borne Infections/blood , Blood-Borne Infections/prevention & control , Blood-Borne Infections/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/blood , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/blood , Communicable Diseases, Imported/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Imported/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Decision Making , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Sample Size , Sampling Studies , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4698, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780000

ABSTRACT

Given the limited availability of serological testing to date, the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in different populations has remained unclear. Here, we report very low SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in two San Francisco Bay Area populations. Seroreactivity was 0.26% in 387 hospitalized patients admitted for non-respiratory indications and 0.1% in 1,000 blood donors in early April 2020. We additionally describe the longitudinal dynamics of immunoglobulin-G (IgG), immunoglobulin-M (IgM), and in vitro neutralizing antibody titers in COVID-19 patients. The median time to seroconversion ranged from 10.3-11.0 days for these 3 assays. Neutralizing antibodies rose in tandem with immunoglobulin titers following symptom onset, and positive percent agreement between detection of IgG and neutralizing titers was >93%. These findings emphasize the importance of using highly accurate tests for surveillance studies in low-prevalence populations, and provide evidence that seroreactivity using SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid protein IgG and anti-spike IgM assays are generally predictive of in vitro neutralizing capacity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests/methods
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