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1.
World Allergy Organ J ; 15(5): 100649, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860142

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic cough management necessitates a clear integrated care pathway approach. Primary care physicians initially encounter the majority of chronic cough patients, yet their role in proper management can prove challenging due to limited access to advanced diagnostic testing. A multidisciplinary approach involving otolaryngologists and chest physicians, allergists, and gastroenterologists, among others, is central to the optimal diagnosis and treatment of conditions which underly or worsen cough. These include infectious and inflammatory, upper and lower airway pathologies, or gastro-esophageal reflux. Despite the wide armamentarium of ancillary testing conducted in cough multidisciplinary care, such management can improve cough but seldom resolves it completely. This can be due partly to the limited data on the role of tests (eg, spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide), as well as classical pharmacotherapy conducted in multidisciplinary specialties for chronic cough. Other important factors include presence of multiple concomitant cough trigger mechanisms and the central neuronal complexity of chronic cough. Subsequent management conducted by cough specialists aims at control of cough refractory to prior interventions and includes cough-specific behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy with neuromodulators, among others. Preliminary data on the role of neuromodulators in a proof-of-concept manner are encouraging but lack strong evidence on efficacy and safety. Objectives: The World Allergy Organization (WAO)/Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) Joint Committee on Chronic Cough reviewed the recent literature on management of chronic cough in primary, multidisciplinary, and cough-specialty care. Knowledge gaps in diagnostic testing, classical and neuromodulator pharmacotherapy, in addition to behavioral therapy of chronic cough were also analyzed. Outcomes: This third part of the WAO/ARIA consensus on chronic cough suggests a management algorithm of chronic cough in an integrated care pathway approach. Insights into the inherent limitations of multidisciplinary cough diagnostic testing, efficacy and safety of currently available antitussive pharmacotherapy, or the recently recognized behavioral therapy, can significantly improve the standards of care in patients with chronic cough.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 77: 103891, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota-derived short-chain fatty-acid (SFCA) acetate protects mice against RSV A2 strain infection by increasing interferon-ß production and expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). However, the role of SFCA in RSV infection using strains isolated from patients is unknown. METHODS: We first used RSV clinical strains isolated from infants hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis to investigate the effects of in vitro SCFA-acetate treatment of human pulmonary epithelial cells. We next examined whether SCFA-acetate treatment is beneficial in a mouse model of RSV infection using clinical isolates. We sought to investigate the relationship of gut microbiota and fecal acetate with disease severity among infants hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis, and whether treating their respiratory epithelial cells with SCFA-acetate ex-vivo impacts viral load and ISG expression. We further treated epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with SCFA-acetate. FINDINGS: In vitro pre-treatment of A549 cells with SCFA-acetate reduced RSV infection with clinical isolates and increased the expression of RIG-I and ISG15. Animals treated with SCFA-acetate intranasally recovered significantly faster, with reduction in the RSV clinical isolates viral load, and increased lung expression of IFNB1 and the RIG-I. Experiments in RIG-I knockout A549 cells demonstrated that the protection relies on RIG-I presence. Gut microbial profile was associated with bronchiolitis severity and with acetate in stool. Increased SCFA-acetate levels were associated with increasing oxygen saturation at admission, and shorter duration of fever. Ex-vivo treatment of patients' respiratory cells with SCFA-acetate reduced RSV load and increased expression of ISGs OAS1 and ISG15, and virus recognition receptors MAVS and RIG-I, but not IFNB1. These SCFA-acetate effects were not found on cells from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. INTERPRETATION: SCFA-acetate reduces the severity of RSV infection and RSV viral load through modulation of RIG-I expression. FUNDING: FAPERGS (FAPERGS/MS/CNPq/SESRS no. 03/2017 - PPSUS 17/2551-0001380-8 and COVID-19 20/2551-0000258-6); CNPq 312504/2017-9; CAPES) - Finance Code 001.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis , COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Acetates/metabolism , Acetates/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchiolitis/drug therapy , Bronchiolitis/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Humans , Infant , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305658

ABSTRACT

Background: Gut microbiota-derived short-chain fatty-acid (SFCA) acetate protects mice againstRSV A2 strain infection by increasing interferon-β production and expression of interferonstimulated genes (ISGs). However, the role of SFCAs in RSV infection using strains isolated from patients is unknown.Methods: We first used RSV clinical strains isolated from infants hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis to investigate the effects of in vitro acetate treatment in human pulmonary epithelial cells. We next examined whether acetate treatment is beneficial in a mouse model of RSV infection using clinical isolates. We sought to investigate the relationship of gut microbiota and fecal acetate with disease severity among infants hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis, and whether treating their respiratory epithelial cells with acetate ex-vivo impacts upon viral load and ISG expression. We further treated epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with acetate.Findings: In vitro pre-treatment of A549 cells with acetate reduced RSV load after infection with clinical isolates and increased the expression of RIG-I and ISG15. Animals treated with acetate intranasally recovered significantly faster, with reduction in the RSV clinical isolates viral load, and increased lung expression of IFNB1 and the RIG-I receptor. Experiments in RIG-I knockout A549 cells demonstrated that the protection relies on RIG-I presence. Gut microbial profile was associated with bronchiolitis severity and with acetate in stool. Increased acetate levels were associated with increasing oxygen saturation at admission, and shorter duration of fever. Ex-vivo treatment of patients’ respiratory cells with acetate reduced RSV load and increased expression of ISGs OAS1 and ISG15, and virus recognition receptors MAVS and RIG-I, but not IFNB1. These acetate effects were not found on cells from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.Interpretation: Acetate reduces the severity of RSV infection and RSV viral load through modulation of RIG-I expression.Funding: This study was supported by Rio Grande do Sul Research Foundation FAPERGS (FAPERGS/MS/CNPq/SESRS no. 03/2017 - PPSUS 17/2551-0001380-8 and COVID-19 20/2551-0000258-6), CNPq 312504/2017-9 and by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001. P.B., C.V.B. and L.A.B. would like to acknowledge financial support given by CNPq/FAPERGS/CAPES/BNDES to the National Institute of Science and Technology on Tuberculosis (INCT-TB), Brazil [grant numbers: 421703- 2017-2/17-1265-8/14.2.0914.1).Declaration of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: All animal procedures were performed in accordance with protocols approved by CEUA/UNICAMP (protocols 4022-1 and 4599-1).

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23741, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565734

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms explaining excess morbidity and mortality in respiratory infections among males are poorly understood. Innate immune responses are critical in protection against respiratory virus infections. We hypothesised that innate immune responses to respiratory viruses may be deficient in males. We stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 345 participants at age 16 years in a population-based birth cohort with three live respiratory viruses (rhinoviruses A16 and A1, and respiratory syncytial virus) and two viral mimics (R848 and CpG-A, to mimic responses to SARS-CoV-2) and investigated sex differences in interferon (IFN) responses. IFN-α responses to all viruses and stimuli were 1.34-2.06-fold lower in males than females (P = 0.018 - < 0.001). IFN-ß, IFN-γ and IFN-induced chemokines were also deficient in males across all stimuli/viruses. Healthcare records revealed 12.1% of males and 6.6% of females were hospitalized with respiratory infections in infancy (P = 0.017). In conclusion, impaired innate anti-viral immunity in males likely results in high male morbidity and mortality from respiratory virus infections.


Subject(s)
Imidazoles/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Rhinovirus/immunology , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Picornaviridae Infections/mortality , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/mortality , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
5.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(12): 100618, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic cough can be triggered by respiratory and non-respiratory tract illnesses originating mainly from the upper and lower airways, and the GI tract (ie, reflux). Recent findings suggest it can also be a prominent feature in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), laryngeal hyperresponsiveness, and COVID-19. The classification of chronic cough is constantly updated but lacks clear definition. Epidemiological data on the prevalence of chronic cough are informative but highly variable. The underlying mechanism of chronic cough is a neurogenic inflammation of the cough reflex which becomes hypersensitive, thus the term hypersensitive cough reflex (HCR). A current challenge is to decipher how various infectious and inflammatory airway diseases and esophageal reflux, among others, modulate HCR. OBJECTIVES: The World Allergy Organization/Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (WAO/ARIA) Joint Committee on Chronic Cough reviewed the current literature on classification, epidemiology, presenting features, and mechanistic pathways of chronic cough in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes, OSA, and COVID-19. The interplay of cough reflex sensitivity with other pathogenic mechanisms inherent to airway and reflux-related inflammatory conditions was also analyzed. OUTCOMES: Currently, it is difficult to clearly ascertain true prevalence rates in epidemiological studies of chronic cough phenotypes. This is likely due to lack of standardized objective measures needed for cough classification and frequent coexistence of multi-organ cough origins. Notwithstanding, we emphasize the important role of HCR as a mechanistic trigger in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes. Other concomitant mechanisms can also modulate HCR, including type2/Th1/Th2 inflammation, presence or absence of deep inspiration-bronchoprotective reflex (lower airways), tissue remodeling, and likely cough plasticity, among others.

6.
Allergy ; 76(6): 1765-1775, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The interplay between COVID-19 pandemic and asthma in children is still unclear. We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on childhood asthma outcomes. METHODS: The PeARL multinational cohort included 1,054 children with asthma and 505 non-asthmatic children aged between 4 and 18 years from 25 pediatric departments, from 15 countries globally. We compared the frequency of acute respiratory and febrile presentations during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic between groups and with data available from the previous year. In children with asthma, we also compared current and historical disease control. RESULTS: During the pandemic, children with asthma experienced fewer upper respiratory tract infections, episodes of pyrexia, emergency visits, hospital admissions, asthma attacks, and hospitalizations due to asthma, in comparison with the preceding year. Sixty-six percent of asthmatic children had improved asthma control while in 33% the improvement exceeded the minimal clinically important difference. Pre-bronchodilatation FEV1 and peak expiratory flow rate were improved during the pandemic. When compared to non-asthmatic controls, children with asthma were not at increased risk of LRTIs, episodes of pyrexia, emergency visits, or hospitalizations during the pandemic. However, an increased risk of URTIs emerged. CONCLUSION: Childhood asthma outcomes, including control, were improved during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, probably because of reduced exposure to asthma triggers and increased treatment adherence. The decreased frequency of acute episodes does not support the notion that childhood asthma may be a risk factor for COVID-19. Furthermore, the potential for improving childhood asthma outcomes through environmental control becomes apparent.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(1): 1-9, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033448

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 death rate increases exponentially with age, and the main risk factors are having underlying conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, severe chronic respiratory disease and cancer. These characteristics are consistent with the multi-step model of disease. We applied this model to Covid-19 case fatality rates (CFRs) from China, South Korea, Italy, Spain and Japan. In all countries we found that a plot of log(CFR) against log(age) was approximately linear with a slope of about 5. We also conducted similar analyses for selected other respiratory diseases. SARS showed a similar log-log age-pattern to that of Covid-19, albeit with a lower slope, whereas seasonal and pandemic influenza showed quite different age-patterns. Thus, death from Covid-19 and SARS appears to follow a distinct age-pattern, consistent with a multi-step model of disease that in the case of Covid-19 is probably defined by comorbidities and age producing immune-related susceptibility.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/mortality , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(8): 2592-2599.e3, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether asthma may affect susceptibility or severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and how pediatric asthma services worldwide have responded to the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric asthma services and on disease burden in their patients. METHODS: An online survey was sent to members of the Pediatric Asthma in Real Life think tank and the World Allergy Organization Pediatric Asthma Committee. It included questions on service provision, disease burden, and the clinical course of confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection among children with asthma. RESULTS: Ninety-one respondents, caring for an estimated population of more than 133,000 children with asthma, completed the survey. COVID-19 significantly impacted pediatric asthma services: 39% ceased physical appointments, 47% stopped accepting new patients, and 75% limited patients' visits. Consultations were almost halved to a median of 20 (interquartile range, 10-25) patients per week. Virtual clinics and helplines were launched in most centers. Better than expected disease control was reported in 20% (10%-40%) of patients, whereas control was negatively affected in only 10% (7.5%-12.5%). Adherence also appeared to increase. Only 15 confirmed cases of COVID-19 were reported among the population; the estimated incidence is not apparently different from the reports of general pediatric cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Children with asthma do not appear to be disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Outcomes may even have improved, possibly through increased adherence and/or reduced exposures. Clinical services have rapidly responded to the pandemic by limiting and replacing physical appointments with virtual encounters.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Appointments and Schedules , Asthma/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Global Health , Humans , Medication Adherence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors
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