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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 929689, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987474

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection currently remains one of the biggest global challenges that can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) in severe cases. In line with this, prior pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for long-term respiratory impairment. Post-TB lung dysfunction often goes unrecognized, despite its relatively high prevalence and its association with reduced quality of life. In this study, we used a metabolomics analysis to identify potential biomarkers that aid in the prognosis of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in post-TB infected patients. This analysis involved blood samples from 155 SARS-CoV-2 infected adults, of which 23 had a previous diagnosis of TB (post-TB), while 132 did not have a prior or current TB infection. Our analysis indicated that the vast majority (~92%) of post-TB individuals showed severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, required intensive oxygen support with a significantly high mortality rate (52.2%). Amongst individuals with severe COVID-19 symptoms, we report a significant decline in the levels of amino acids, notably the branched chains amino acids (BCAAs), more so in the post-TB cohort (FDR <= 0.05) in comparison to mild and asymptomatic cases. Indeed, we identified betaine and BCAAs as potential prognostic metabolic biomarkers of severity and mortality, respectively, in COVID-19 patients who have been exposed to TB. Moreover, we identified serum alanine as an important metabolite at the interface of severity and mortality. Hence, our data associated COVID-19 mortality and morbidity with a long-term metabolically driven consequence of TB infection. In summary, our study provides evidence for a higher mortality rate among COVID-19 infection patients who have history of prior TB infection diagnosis, which mandates validation in larger population cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Adult , Alanine , Humans , Morbidity , Prognosis , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911730

ABSTRACT

Waning immunity following administration of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines remains a concern for many health systems. We undertook a study to determine if recent reports of waning for severe disease could have been attributed to design-related bias by conducting a study only among those detected with a first SARS-CoV-2 infection. We used a matched case-control study design with the study base being all individuals with first infection with SARS-CoV-2 reported in the State of Qatar between 1 January 2021 and 20 February 2022. Cases were those detected with first SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring intensive care (hard outcome), while controls were those detected with first SARS-CoV-2 infection who recovered without the need for intensive care. Cases and controls were matched in a 1:30 ratio for the calendar month of infection and the comorbidity category. Duration and magnitude of conditional vaccine effectiveness against requiring intensive care and the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent one more case of COVID-19 requiring intensive care was estimated for the mRNA (BNT162b2/mRNA-1273) vaccines. Conditional vaccine effectiveness against requiring intensive care was 59% (95% confidence interval (CI), 50 to 76) between the first and second dose, and strengthened to 89% (95% CI, 85 to 92) between the second dose and 4 months post the second dose in persons who received a primary course of the vaccine. There was no waning of vaccine effectiveness in the period from 4 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 months after the second dose. This study demonstrates that, contrary to mainstream reports using hierarchical measures of effectiveness, conditional vaccine effectiveness against requiring intensive care remains robust till at least 12 months after the second dose of mRNA-based vaccines.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 707159, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581347

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) was declared as a pandemic by WHO in March 2020. SARS-CoV-2 causes a wide range of illness from asymptomatic to life-threatening. There is an essential need to identify biomarkers to predict disease severity and mortality during the earlier stages of the disease, aiding treatment and allocation of resources to improve survival. The aim of this study was to identify at the time of SARS-COV-2 infection patients at high risk of developing severe disease associated with low survival using blood parameters, including inflammation and coagulation mediators, vital signs, and pre-existing comorbidities. This cohort included 89 multi-ethnic COVID-19 patients recruited between July 14th and October 20th 2020 in Doha, Qatar. According to clinical severity, patients were grouped into severe (n=33), mild (n=33) and asymptomatic (n=23). Common routine tests such as complete blood count (CBC), glucose, electrolytes, liver and kidney function parameters and markers of inflammation, thrombosis and endothelial dysfunction including complement component split product C5a, Interleukin-6, ferritin and C-reactive protein were measured at the time COVID-19 infection was confirmed. Correlation tests suggest that C5a is a predictive marker of disease severity and mortality, in addition to 40 biological and physiological parameters that were found statistically significant between survivors and non-survivors. Survival analysis showed that high C5a levels, hypoalbuminemia, lymphopenia, elevated procalcitonin, neutrophilic leukocytosis, acute anemia along with increased acute kidney and hepatocellular injury markers were associated with a higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients. Altogether, we created a prognostic classification model, the CAL model (C5a, Albumin, and Lymphocyte count) to predict severity with significant accuracy. Stratification of patients using the CAL model could help in the identification of patients likely to develop severe symptoms in advance so that treatments can be targeted accordingly.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Complement C5a/analysis , Patient Acuity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/mortality , Hypoalbuminemia/virology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Qatar , SARS-CoV-2
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