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1.
Metabolites ; 12(11)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090281

ABSTRACT

Exercise intolerance is a major manifestation of post-acute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection (PASC, or "long-COVID"). Exercise intolerance in PASC is associated with higher arterial blood lactate accumulation and lower fatty acid oxidation rates during graded exercise tests to volitional exertion, suggesting altered metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction. It remains unclear whether the profound disturbances in metabolism that have been identified in plasma from patients suffering from acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are also present in PASC. To bridge this gap, individuals with a history of previous acute COVID-19 infection that did not require hospitalization were enrolled at National Jewish Health (Denver, CO, USA) and were grouped into those that developed PASC (n = 29) and those that fully recovered (n = 16). Plasma samples from the two groups were analyzed via mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics and compared against plasma metabolic profiles of healthy control individuals (n = 30). Observational demographic and clinical data were retrospectively abstracted from the medical record. Compared to plasma of healthy controls or individuals who recovered from COVID-19, PASC plasma exhibited significantly higher free- and carnitine-conjugated mono-, poly-, and highly unsaturated fatty acids, accompanied by markedly lower levels of mono-, di- and tricarboxylates (pyruvate, lactate, citrate, succinate, and malate), polyamines (spermine) and taurine. Plasma from individuals who fully recovered from COVID-19 exhibited an intermediary metabolic phenotype, with milder disturbances in fatty acid metabolism and higher levels of spermine and taurine. Of note, depletion of tryptophan-a hallmark of disease severity in COVID-19-is not normalized in PASC patients, despite normalization of kynurenine levels-a tryptophan metabolite that predicts mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, PASC plasma metabolites are indicative of altered fatty acid metabolism and dysfunctional mitochondria-dependent lipid catabolism. These metabolic profiles obtained at rest are consistent with previously reported mitochondrial dysfunction during exercise, and may pave the way for therapeutic intervention focused on restoring mitochondrial fat-burning capacity.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(11)2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713294

ABSTRACT

The impacts of interferon (IFN) signaling on COVID-19 pathology are multiple, with both protective and harmful effects being documented. We report here a multiomics investigation of systemic IFN signaling in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, defining the multiomics biosignatures associated with varying levels of 12 different type I, II, and III IFNs. The antiviral transcriptional response in circulating immune cells is strongly associated with a specific subset of IFNs, most prominently IFNA2 and IFNG. In contrast, proteomics signatures indicative of endothelial damage and platelet activation associate with high levels of IFNB1 and IFNA6. Seroconversion and time since hospitalization associate with a significant decrease in a specific subset of IFNs. Additionally, differential IFN subtype production is linked to distinct constellations of circulating myeloid and lymphoid immune cell types. Each IFN has a unique metabolic signature, with IFNG being the most associated with activation of the kynurenine pathway. IFNs also show differential relationships with clinical markers of poor prognosis and disease severity. For example, whereas IFNG has the strongest association with C-reactive protein and other immune markers of poor prognosis, IFNB1 associates with increased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, a marker of late severe disease. Altogether, these results reveal specialized IFN action in COVID-19, with potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
Blood/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Interferons/blood , Proteome , Transcriptome , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Datasets as Topic , Humans , Inpatients
3.
Frontiers in medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652341

ABSTRACT

Aging and obesity independently contribute toward an endothelial dysfunction that results in an imbalanced VWF to ADAMTS13 ratio. In addition, plasma thrombin and plasmin generation are elevated and reduced, respectively, with increasing age and also with increasing body mass index (BMI). The severity risk of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases in adults older than 65 and in individuals with certain pre-existing health conditions, including obesity (>30 kg/m2). The present cross-sectional study focused on an analysis of the VWF/ADAMTS13 axis, including measurements of von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen (VWF:AG), VWF collagen binding activity (VWF:CBA), Factor VIII antigen, ADAMTS13 antigen, and ADAMTS13 activity, in addition to thrombin and plasmin generation potential, in a demographically diverse population of COVID-19 negative (−) (n = 288) and COVID-19 positive (+) (n = 543) patient plasmas collected at the time of hospital presentation. Data were analyzed as a whole, and then after dividing patients by age (<65 and ≥65) and independently by BMI [<18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25–29.9, >30 (kg/m2)]. These analyses suggest that VWF parameters (i.e., the VWF/ADAMTS13 activity ratio) and thrombin and plasmin generation differed in COVID-19 (+), as compared to COVID-19 (−) patient plasma. Further, age (≥65) more than BMI contributed to aberrant plasma indicators of endothelial coagulopathy. Based on these findings, evaluating both the VWF/ADAMTS13 axis, along with thrombin and plasmin generation, could provide insight into the extent of endothelial dysfunction as well as the plasmatic imbalance in coagulation and fibrinolysis potential, particularly for at-risk patient populations.

4.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: grc-750469

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly-diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, especially short and medium chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be incapable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and, as such, may have a compromised capacity to transport and deliver oxygen.

5.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390543

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents an ongoing worldwide challenge. The present large study sought to understand independent and overlapping metabolic features of samples from acutely ill patients (n = 831) that tested positive (n = 543) or negative (n = 288) for COVID-19. High-throughput metabolomics analyses were complemented with antigen and enzymatic activity assays on plasma from acutely ill patients collected while in the emergency department, at admission, or during hospitalization. Lipidomics analyses were also performed on COVID-19-positive or -negative subjects with the lowest and highest body mass index (n = 60/group). Significant changes in amino acid and fatty acid/acylcarnitine metabolism emerged as highly relevant markers of disease severity, progression, and prognosis as a function of biological and clinical variables in these patients. Further, machine learning models were trained by entering all metabolomics and clinical data from half of the COVID-19 patient cohort and then tested on the other half, yielding ~78% prediction accuracy. Finally, the extensive amount of information accumulated in this large, prospective, observational study provides a foundation for mechanistic follow-up studies and data sharing opportunities, which will advance our understanding of the characteristics of the plasma metabolism in COVID-19 and other acute critical illnesses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Prognosis , Acute Disease , Adult , Amino Acids/blood , Body Mass Index , Carnitine/analogs & derivatives , Carnitine/blood , Cohort Studies , Fatty Acids/blood , Female , Humans , Kynurenine/blood , Machine Learning , Metabolomics , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tryptophan/blood
6.
Cell Rep ; 36(7): 109527, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330685

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pathology involves dysregulation of diverse molecular, cellular, and physiological processes. To expedite integrated and collaborative COVID-19 research, we completed multi-omics analysis of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, including matched analysis of the whole-blood transcriptome, plasma proteomics with two complementary platforms, cytokine profiling, plasma and red blood cell metabolomics, deep immune cell phenotyping by mass cytometry, and clinical data annotation. We refer to this multidimensional dataset as the COVIDome. We then created the COVIDome Explorer, an online researcher portal where the data can be analyzed and visualized in real time. We illustrate herein the use of the COVIDome dataset through a multi-omics analysis of biosignatures associated with C-reactive protein (CRP), an established marker of poor prognosis in COVID-19, revealing associations between CRP levels and damage-associated molecular patterns, depletion of protective serpins, and mitochondrial metabolism dysregulation. We expect that the COVIDome Explorer will rapidly accelerate data sharing, hypothesis testing, and discoveries worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Databases, Genetic , Metabolome , Proteome , Transcriptome , Access to Information , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Data Mining , Datasets as Topic , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Male , Metabolomics , Middle Aged , Proteomics , Young Adult
7.
J Mol Biol ; 433(15): 167108, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275497

ABSTRACT

The nucleocapsid protein is one of four structural proteins encoded by SARS-CoV-2 and plays a central role in packaging viral RNA and manipulating the host cell machinery, yet its dynamic behavior and promiscuity in nucleotide binding has made standard structural methods to address its atomic-resolution details difficult. To begin addressing the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein interactions with both RNA and the host cell along with its dynamic behavior, we have specifically focused on the folded N-terminal domain (NTD) and its flanking regions using nuclear magnetic resonance solution studies. Studies performed here reveal a large repertoire of interactions, which includes a temperature-dependent self-association mediated by the disordered flanking regions that also serve as binding sites for host cell cyclophilin-A while nucleotide binding is largely mediated by the central NTD core. NMR studies that include relaxation experiments have revealed the complicated dynamic nature of this viral protein. Specifically, while much of the N-terminal core domain exhibits micro-millisecond motions, a central ß-hairpin shows elevated inherent flexibility on the pico-nanosecond timescale and the serine/arginine-rich region of residues 176-209 undergoes multiple exchange phenomena. Collectively, these studies have begun to reveal the complexities of the nucleocapsid protein dynamics and its preferred interaction sites with its biological targets.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Binding Sites , Evolution, Molecular , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
Res Sq ; 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237041

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents an ongoing worldwide challenge. Exploratory studies evaluating the impact of COVID-19 infection on the plasma metabolome have been performed, often with small numbers of patients, and with or without relevant control data; however, determining the impact of biological and clinical variables remains critical to understanding potential markers of disease severity and progression. The present large study, including relevant controls, sought to understand independent and overlapping metabolic features of samples from acutely ill patients (n = 831), testing positive (n = 543) or negative (n = 288) for COVID-19. High-throughput metabolomics analyses were complemented with antigen and enzymatic activity assays on 831 plasma samples from acutely ill patients while in the emergency department, at admission, and during hospitalization. We then performed additional lipidomics analyses of the 60 subjects with the lowest and highest body mass index, either COVID-19 positive or negative. Omics data were correlated to detailed data on patient characteristics and clinical laboratory assays measuring coagulation, hematology and chemistry analytes. Significant changes in arginine/proline/citrulline, tryptophan/indole/kynurenine, fatty acid and acyl-carnitine metabolism emerged as highly relevant markers of disease severity, progression and prognosis as a function of biological and clinical variables in these patients. Further, machine learning models were trained by entering all metabolomics and clinical data from half of the COVID-19 patient cohort and then tested on the other half yielding ~ 78% prediction accuracy. Finally, the extensive amount of information accumulated in this large, prospective, observational study provides a foundation for follow-up mechanistic studies and data sharing opportunities, which will advance our understanding of the characteristics of the plasma metabolism in COVID-19 and other acute critical illnesses.

9.
Elife ; 102021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136623

ABSTRACT

COVID19 is a heterogeneous medical condition involving diverse underlying pathophysiological processes including hyperinflammation, endothelial damage, thrombotic microangiopathy, and end-organ damage. Limited knowledge about the molecular mechanisms driving these processes and lack of staging biomarkers hamper the ability to stratify patients for targeted therapeutics. We report here the results of a cross-sectional multi-omics analysis of hospitalized COVID19 patients revealing that seroconversion status associates with distinct underlying pathophysiological states. Low antibody titers associate with hyperactive T cells and NK cells, high levels of IFN alpha, gamma and lambda ligands, markers of systemic complement activation, and depletion of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and platelets. Upon seroconversion, all of these processes are attenuated, observing instead increases in B cell subsets, emergency hematopoiesis, increased D-dimer, and hypoalbuminemia. We propose that seroconversion status could potentially be used as a biosignature to stratify patients for therapeutic intervention and to inform analysis of clinical trial results in heterogenous patient populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Biomarkers , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Comorbidity , Complement Activation/immunology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Hematopoiesis , Homeostasis , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia , Interferons/metabolism , Models, Biological , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Signal Transduction
10.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4417-4427, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974858

ABSTRACT

Over 5 million people around the world have tested positive for the beta coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 as of May 29, 2020, a third of which are in the United States alone. These infections are associated with the development of a disease known as COVID-19, which is characterized by several symptoms, including persistent dry cough, shortness of breath, chills, muscle pain, headache, loss of taste or smell, and gastrointestinal distress. COVID-19 has been characterized by elevated mortality (over 100 thousand people have already died in the US alone), mostly due to thromboinflammatory complications that impair lung perfusion and systemic oxygenation in the most severe cases. While the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been associated with the severity of the disease, little is known about the impact of IL-6 levels on the proteome of COVID-19 patients. The present study provides the first proteomics analysis of sera from COVID-19 patients, stratified by circulating levels of IL-6, and correlated to markers of inflammation and renal function. As a function of IL-6 levels, we identified significant dysregulation in serum levels of various coagulation factors, accompanied by increased levels of antifibrinolytic components, including several serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs). These were accompanied by up-regulation of the complement cascade and antimicrobial enzymes, especially in subjects with the highest levels of IL-6, which is consistent with an exacerbation of the acute phase response in these subjects. Although our results are observational, they highlight a clear increase in the levels of inhibitory components of the fibrinolytic cascade in severe COVID-19 disease, providing potential clues related to the etiology of coagulopathic complications in COVID-19 and paving the way for potential therapeutic interventions, such as the use of pro-fibrinolytic agents. Raw data for this study are available through ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD020601.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/analysis , Complement System Proteins/analysis , Coronavirus Infections , Interleukin-6/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Proteome/analysis , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Hemolysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 59(6): 103019, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939330

ABSTRACT

The Newcomb-Benford law - also known as the "law of anomalous numbers" or, more commonly, Benford's law - predicts that the distribution of the first significant digit of random numbers obtained from mixed probability distributions follows a predictable pattern and reveals some universal behavior. Specifically, given a dataset of empirical measures, the likelihood of the first digit of any number being 1 is ∼30 %, ∼18 % for 2, 12.5 % for 3 and so on, with a decreasing probability all the way to number 9. If the digits were distributed uniformly, all the numbers 1 through 9 would have the same probability to appear as the first digit in any given empirical random measurement. However, this is not the case, as this law defies common sense and seems to apply seamlessly to large data. The use of omics technologies and, in particular, metabolomics has generated a wealth of big data in the field of transfusion medicine. In the present meta-analysis, we focused on previous big data from metabolomics studies of relevance to transfusion medicine: one on the quality of stored red blood cells, one on the phenotypes of transfusion recipients, i.e. trauma patients suffering from trauma and hemorrhage, and one of relevance to the 2020 SARS-COV-2 global pandemic. We show that metabolomics data follow a Benford's law distribution, an observation that could be relevant for future application of the "law of anomalous numbers" in the field of quality control processes in transfusion medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Metabolomics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Humans
12.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4455-4469, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889124

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, in particular, short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, or mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading and metabolic rewiring toward the hexose monophosphate shunt, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be less capable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation/oxidant stress when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and vice versa.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Erythrocytes , Membrane Lipids , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Erythrocytes/chemistry , Erythrocytes/cytology , Erythrocytes/pathology , Humans , Lipidomics , Membrane Lipids/analysis , Membrane Lipids/chemistry , Membrane Lipids/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/analysis , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Metabolome/physiology , Models, Molecular , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Proteome/analysis , Proteome/chemistry , Proteome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
13.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636842

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly-diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, especially short and medium chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be incapable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and, as such, may have a compromised capacity to transport and deliver oxygen.

14.
JCI Insight ; 5(14)2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDReprogramming of host metabolism supports viral pathogenesis by fueling viral proliferation, by providing, for example, free amino acids and fatty acids as building blocks.METHODSTo investigate metabolic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we evaluated serum metabolites of patients with COVID-19 (n = 33; diagnosed by nucleic acid testing), as compared with COVID-19-negative controls (n = 16).RESULTSTargeted and untargeted metabolomics analyses identified altered tryptophan metabolism into the kynurenine pathway, which regulates inflammation and immunity. Indeed, these changes in tryptophan metabolism correlated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Widespread dysregulation of nitrogen metabolism was also seen in infected patients, with altered levels of most amino acids, along with increased markers of oxidant stress (e.g., methionine sulfoxide, cystine), proteolysis, and renal dysfunction (e.g., creatine, creatinine, polyamines). Increased circulating levels of glucose and free fatty acids were also observed, consistent with altered carbon homeostasis. Interestingly, metabolite levels in these pathways correlated with clinical laboratory markers of inflammation (i.e., IL-6 and C-reactive protein) and renal function (i.e., blood urea nitrogen).CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, this initial observational study identified amino acid and fatty acid metabolism as correlates of COVID-19, providing mechanistic insights, potential markers of clinical severity, and potential therapeutic targets.FUNDINGBoettcher Foundation Webb-Waring Biomedical Research Award; National Institute of General and Medical Sciences, NIH; and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kynurenine/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Amino Acids/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Creatine/metabolism , Creatinine/metabolism , Cystine , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Methionine/analogs & derivatives , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Polyamines/metabolism , Proteolysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tryptophan/metabolism
15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 128: 1-4, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-478074

ABSTRACT

Prenatal COVID-19 infection is anticipated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control to affect fetal development similarly to other common respiratory coronaviruses through effects of the maternal inflammatory response on the fetus and placenta. Plasma choline levels were measured at 16 weeks gestation in 43 mothers who had contracted common respiratory viruses during the first 6-16 weeks of pregnancy and 53 mothers who had not. When their infants reached 3 months of age, mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), which assesses their infants' level of activity (Surgency), their fearfulness and sadness (Negativity), and their ability to maintain attention and bond to their parents and caretakers (Regulation). Infants of mothers who had contracted a moderately severe respiratory virus infection and had higher gestational choline serum levels (≥7.5 mM consistent with U.S. Food and Drug Administration dietary recommendations) had significantly increased development of their ability to maintain attention and to bond with their parents (Regulation), compared to infants whose mothers had contracted an infection but had lower choline levels (<7.5 mM). For infants of mothers with choline levels ≥7.5 µM, there was no effect of viral infection on infant IBQ-R Regulation, compared to infants of mothers who were not infected. Higher choline levels obtained through diet or supplements may protect fetal development and support infant early behavioral development even if the mother contracts a viral infection in early gestation when the brain is first being formed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain , Child Development , Choline , Fetal Development , Infant Behavior , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Attention , Brain/drug effects , Brain/growth & development , COVID-19 , Child Development/drug effects , Child Development/physiology , Choline/administration & dosage , Choline/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dietary Supplements , Female , Fetal Development/drug effects , Fetal Development/physiology , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant Behavior/physiology , Infant Behavior/psychology , Male , Nootropic Agents/administration & dosage , Nootropic Agents/blood , Object Attachment , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prenatal Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2
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