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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19817, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454815

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have focused their attention on conjunctivitis as one of the symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, tear samples were taken from COVID-19 patients and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was evidenced using Real Time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The main aim of this study was to analyze mRNA expression in the tears of patients with COVID-19 compared with healthy subjects using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The functional evaluation of the transcriptome highlighted 25 genes that differ statistically between healthy individuals and patients affected by COVID-19. In particular, the NGS analysis identified the presence of several genes involved in B cell signaling and keratinization. In particular, the genes involved in B cell signaling were downregulated in the tears of COVID-19 patients, while those involved in keratinization were upregulated. The results indicated that SARS-CoV-2 may induce a process of ocular keratinization and a defective B cell response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Eye Diseases/virology , Tears/metabolism , Transcriptome , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Eye Diseases/genetics , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Keratins/metabolism , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology , Skin/virology , Tears/virology
2.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(3): 22, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255751

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the face mask (FM)-related ocular surface changes using clinical tests, in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and impression cytology (IC), and to investigate the Dry Eye-related Quality of life Score (DEQS). Methods: Sixty-six patients with dry eye disease (DED) and 62 healthy subjects (group 2) using FM were enrolled. Groups were divided into: groups 1A and 2A: < 3 hours of FM wear; groups 1B and 2B: 3 to 6 hours; and groups 1C and 2C: > 6 hours. Patients underwent DEQS questionnaire, break-up time (BUT), Schirmer test I (STI), fluorescein and lissamine staining (FS and LS), IVCM to determine corneal dendritic cell density (DCD) and goblet cell density (GCD), and IC to measure HLA-DR, at baseline and after 3 months. Results: FM use duration before enrollment was 27 ± 2.3 and 30 ± 4.1 (days ± SD) for groups 1 and 2 (P > 0.05). After 3 months, DEQS worsened in groups 1B and 1C, STI in groups 1A to 1C, FS and LS in group 1C (P < 0.05); in controls, BUT and FS worsened only in group 2C (P < 0.05). DCD significantly increased in groups 1A to 1C and HLA-DR in groups 1B and 1C (P < 0.05), whereas GCD did not significantly change. DCD and HLA-DR increased only in group 2C (P < 0.05). DEQS significantly correlated with DCD (P = 0.05, r = 0.698; P < 0.001, r = 0.832) and HLA-DR (P = 0.043, r = -0.687; P < 0.001, r = 0.861) at baseline and 3 months. Conclusions: Use of FM increases ocular surface inflammation and negatively impacts the quality of life in patients with DED. Translational Relevance: The study of the prolonged use of FM effects may be relevant to managing DED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Masks , Microscopy, Confocal , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721211015576, 2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225747

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Few months after the COVID-19 pandemic burst, many aspects of the human life, including education, dramatically changed. Because of the lockdown measures taken to limit the virus spread in Italy, in-person teaching and learning have been interrupted in all health care disciplines and readapted in virtual formulae. METHODS: As academic ophthalmology departments, we had to maintain the educational needs of medical and orthoptic students, internships, surgical training of residents, as well as to cover the scientific update of health care personnel (HCPs), and the continuation of research and academic activities. To assure these needs we ideated an educational strategy and a team, which was then translated on a multichannel virtual platform created with Microsoft Teams. RESULTS: In this platform there were 21 channels organized in a public view mode, open to all Team members, or in private view mode to separate non-permanent HCPs, internships, residents, and students' tasks, from permanent HCPs tasks. Virtual channels were dedicated to provide theoretical lessons, clinical cases, surgical video, internal meetings and webinar, to offer news from scientific societies, requests of appointments from biomedical companies, links with ophthalmological websites, to move forward research projects, to participate at institutional academic duties, and to obtain feedbacks from users. Residents continued their training on surgery using a surgical simulator, after consulting an agenda uploaded into the dedicated virtual channel. CONCLUSION: These positive initial results should represent a boost to rapidly proceed with the development of even more versatile virtual learning solutions, given that the forecasts for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic are not encouraging.

4.
Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep ; 20: 100958, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843587

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We report a case of a patient with a known hereditary spherocytosis who developed a bilateral macular hemorrhage in concurrence with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related respiratory syndrome. OBSERVATIONS: Blood tests showed severe hemolytic anemia. Interestingly, the peripheral blood smear demonstrated a mixed pathogenesis of the hemolytic process (cold-agglutinin-mediated and non-immune-mediated due to spherocytosis). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPORTANCE: We argue that SARS-CoV-2 could have triggered the hemolytic process, which led to retinal hemorrhages due to endothelial anoxia from the low oxygen carrying capacity.

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