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Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(3): 22, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255751


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the face mask (FM)-related ocular surface changes using clinical tests, in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and impression cytology (IC), and to investigate the Dry Eye-related Quality of life Score (DEQS). Methods: Sixty-six patients with dry eye disease (DED) and 62 healthy subjects (group 2) using FM were enrolled. Groups were divided into: groups 1A and 2A: < 3 hours of FM wear; groups 1B and 2B: 3 to 6 hours; and groups 1C and 2C: > 6 hours. Patients underwent DEQS questionnaire, break-up time (BUT), Schirmer test I (STI), fluorescein and lissamine staining (FS and LS), IVCM to determine corneal dendritic cell density (DCD) and goblet cell density (GCD), and IC to measure HLA-DR, at baseline and after 3 months. Results: FM use duration before enrollment was 27 ± 2.3 and 30 ± 4.1 (days ± SD) for groups 1 and 2 (P > 0.05). After 3 months, DEQS worsened in groups 1B and 1C, STI in groups 1A to 1C, FS and LS in group 1C (P < 0.05); in controls, BUT and FS worsened only in group 2C (P < 0.05). DCD significantly increased in groups 1A to 1C and HLA-DR in groups 1B and 1C (P < 0.05), whereas GCD did not significantly change. DCD and HLA-DR increased only in group 2C (P < 0.05). DEQS significantly correlated with DCD (P = 0.05, r = 0.698; P < 0.001, r = 0.832) and HLA-DR (P = 0.043, r = -0.687; P < 0.001, r = 0.861) at baseline and 3 months. Conclusions: Use of FM increases ocular surface inflammation and negatively impacts the quality of life in patients with DED. Translational Relevance: The study of the prolonged use of FM effects may be relevant to managing DED.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Masks , Microscopy, Confocal , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 226, 2020 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800868


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 in Italy has led to the need to reorganize hospital protocols with a significant risk of interruption to cancer treatment programs. In this report, we will focus on a management model covering the two phases of the COVID-19 emergency, namely lockdown-phase I and post-lockdown-phase II. METHODS: The following steps were taken in the two phases: workload during visits and radiotherapy planning, use of dedicated routes, measures for triage areas, management of suspected and positive COVID-19 cases, personal protective equipment, hospital environments and intra-institutional meetings and tumor board management. Due to the guidelines set out by the Ministry of Health, oncological follow-up visits were interrupted during the lockdown-phase I; consequently, we set about contacting patients by telephone, with laboratory and instrumental exams being viewed via telematics. During the post-lockdown-phase II, the oncological follow-up clinic reopened, with two shifts operating daily. RESULTS: By comparing our radiotherapy activity from March 9 to May 4 2019 with the same period in 2020 during full phase I of the COVID-19 emergency, similar results were achieved. First radiotherapy visits, Simulation Computed Tomography and Linear Accelerator treatments amounted to 123, 137 and 151 in 2019 compared with 121, 135 and 170 in 2020 respectively. There were no cases of COVID-19 positivity recorded either in patients or in healthcare professionals, who were all negative to the swab tests performed. CONCLUSION: During both phases of the COVID-19 emergency, the planned model used in our own experience guaranteed both continuity in radiotherapy treatments whilst neither reducing workload nor interrupting treatment and, as such, it ensured the safety of cancer patients, hospital environments and staff.

Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Radiation Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Radiation Oncology/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Workload/statistics & numerical data