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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667215

ABSTRACT

Clinical outcome data of patients discharged after Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are limited and no study has evaluated predictors of cardiovascular prognosis in this setting. Our aim was to assess short-term mortality and cardiovascular outcome after hospitalization for COVID-19. A prospective cohort of 296 consecutive patients discharged after COVID-19 from two Italian institutions during the first wave of the pandemic and followed up to 6 months was included. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The co-primary endpoint was the incidence of the composite outcome of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, acute heart failure, or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes). The mean follow-up duration was 6 ± 2 months. The incidence of all-cause death was 4.7%. At multivariate analysis, age was the only independent predictor of mortality (aHR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16). MACCE occurred in 7.2% of patients. After adjustment, female sex (aHR 2.6, 95% CI 1.05-6.52), in-hospital acute heart failure during index hospitalization (aHR 3.45, 95% CI 1.19-10), and prevalent atrial fibrillation (aHR 3.05, 95% CI 1.13-8.24) significantly predicted the incident risk of MACCE. These findings may help to identify patients for whom a closer and more accurate surveillance after discharge for COVID-19 should be considered.

2.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(2): 257-266, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear if patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have different rate, typology, and impact of thrombosis on survival. METHODS: In this multicenter observational cohort study, 1,138 patients, hospitalized for CAP (n = 559) or COVID-19 (n = 579) from seven clinical centers in Italy, were included in the study. Consecutive adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with confirmed COVID-19-related pneumonia, with or without mechanical ventilation, hospitalized from March 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020, were enrolled. COVID-19 was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization interim guidance. Patients were followed-up until discharge or in-hospital death, registering the occurrence of thrombotic events including ischemic/embolic events. RESULTS: During the in-hospital stay, 11.4% of CAP and 15.5% of COVID-19 patients experienced thrombotic events (p = 0.046). In CAP patients all the events were arterial thromboses, while in COVID-19 patients 8.3% were venous and 7.2% arterial thromboses.During the in-hospital follow-up, 3% of CAP patients and 17% of COVID-19 patients died (p < 0.001). The highest mortality rate was found among COVID-19 patients with thrombotic events (47.6 vs. 13.4% in thrombotic-event-free patients; p < 0.001). In CAP, 13.8% of patients experiencing thrombotic events died versus 1.8% of thrombotic event-free ones (p < 0.001). A multivariable Cox-regression analysis confirmed a higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients with thrombotic events (hazard ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-3.3; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Compared with CAP, COVID-19 is characterized by a higher burden of thrombotic events, different thrombosis typology and higher risk of thrombosis-related in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis , Thrombosis/mortality
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19817, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454815

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have focused their attention on conjunctivitis as one of the symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, tear samples were taken from COVID-19 patients and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was evidenced using Real Time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The main aim of this study was to analyze mRNA expression in the tears of patients with COVID-19 compared with healthy subjects using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The functional evaluation of the transcriptome highlighted 25 genes that differ statistically between healthy individuals and patients affected by COVID-19. In particular, the NGS analysis identified the presence of several genes involved in B cell signaling and keratinization. In particular, the genes involved in B cell signaling were downregulated in the tears of COVID-19 patients, while those involved in keratinization were upregulated. The results indicated that SARS-CoV-2 may induce a process of ocular keratinization and a defective B cell response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Eye Diseases/virology , Tears/metabolism , Transcriptome , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Eye Diseases/genetics , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Keratins/metabolism , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology , Skin/virology , Tears/virology
5.
Life (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367866

ABSTRACT

It seems that during SARS-CoV-2 infection, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C values decrease and lipids could play a fundamental role in viral replication. Moreover, it has been shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection could influence thyroid function. We performed a retrospective analysis of 118 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, comparing pre-infection lipid profile (53 patients) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values (45 patients) to those measured on admission. Our aim was to evaluate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection could be involved in thyroid and lipid profile alterations and study possible correlations with disease severity and clinical outcome. Median baseline values at the admission time were: total cholesterol at 136.89 ± 42.73 mg/dL, LDL-C 81.53 ± 30.35 mg/dL, and HDL-C 32.36 ± 15.13 mg/dL; and triglycerides at 115.00 ± 40.45 mg/dL, non-HDL-C 104.53 ± 32.63 md/dL, and TSH 1.15 ± 1.08 µUI/mL. Median values of pre-infection total cholesterol, HDL-C, and TSH were significantly higher than those measured at the admission time (p value < 0.05). The C-reactive protein (CRP) negatively correlated with LDL-C (p = 0.013) and HDL-C (p = 0.05). Our data underline a possible impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on thyroid function. Moreover it suggests a possible relation between COVID-19 and the lipid profile with a negative correlation between CRP, LDL-C, and HDL-C values, proposing the hypothesis that lipid lowering could follow the rising of the COVID-19 inflammatory state.

6.
Neurol Sci ; 42(10): 3981-3988, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328622

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although recent data show that SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to affect the central nervous system (CNS), little is known about the neuropsychiatric effects resulting from this condition. In addition to the well-known neurotrophism of coronaviruses, recent evidence shows also that the "cytokine storm" induced by the infection is at the basis of the neuroinflammation of the CNS. Furthermore, prolonged hospitalization, polypharmacotherapy, and isolation could be at the basis of the onset of delirium in hospitalized COVID patients. This multicentric observational study explores the incidence of the onset of delirium in an Italian cohort of SARS-CoV-2 positive inpatients. METHODS: Data were collected in the COVIDhospitals of Brescia, Bergamo, Chieti, and Genova. Different socio-demographic, medical, neurological, and pharmacological parameters were collected. As a rapid screening for delirium, the 4AT scale was used. Eighty COVID-19 inpatients (mean age 74.7 ± 14.5 years) met the inclusion criteria (confirmed positivity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus; the presence of delirium and/or psychomotor agitation and/or new onset of other neuropsychiatric symptoms during hospitalization). RESULTS: The majority of these patients (68.8%) had "hyperactive delirium" subtype. Polypharmacotherapy, current treatment with corticosteroids, and higher age were associated with delirium severity. CONCLUSION: These data provide an insight into the onset of delirium among COVID-19 patients underlining the need for monitoring, especially in elderly patients, the neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the therapy in order to have shorter hospitalization times and better outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 5556207, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314165

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection is harshly debated, with observational and experimental studies reporting contrasting results. To clarify the role of HCQ in Covid-19 patients, we carried out a retrospective observational study of 4,396 unselected patients hospitalized for Covid-19 in Italy (February-May 2020). Patients' characteristics were collected at entry, including age, sex, obesity, smoking status, blood parameters, history of diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and chronic pulmonary diseases, and medications in use. These were used to identify subtypes of patients with similar characteristics through hierarchical clustering based on Gower distance. Using multivariable Cox regressions, these clusters were then tested for association with mortality and modification of effect by treatment with HCQ. We identified two clusters, one of 3,913 younger patients with lower circulating inflammation levels and better renal function, and one of 483 generally older and more comorbid subjects, more prevalently men and smokers. The latter group was at increased death risk adjusted by HCQ (HR[CI95%] = 3.80[3.08-4.67]), while HCQ showed an independent inverse association (0.51[0.43-0.61]), as well as a significant influence of cluster∗HCQ interaction (p < 0.001). This was driven by a differential association of HCQ with mortality between the high (0.89[0.65-1.22]) and the low risk cluster (0.46[0.39-0.54]). These effects survived adjustments for additional medications in use and were concordant with associations with disease severity and outcome. These findings suggest a particularly beneficial effect of HCQ within low risk Covid-19 patients and may contribute to clarifying the current controversy on HCQ efficacy in Covid-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
8.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1231-1237, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may experience venous thrombosis while data regarding arterial thrombosis are sparse. METHODS: Prospective multicenter study in 5 hospitals including 373 patients with Covid-19-related pneumonia. Demographic data, laboratory findings including coagulation tests and comorbidities were reported. During the follow-up any arterial or venous thrombotic events and death were registered. RESULTS: Among 373 patients, 75 (20%) had a thrombotic event and 75 (20%) died. Thrombotic events included 41 venous thromboembolism and 34 arterial thrombosis. Age, cardiovascular disease, intensive care unit treatment, white blood cells, D-dimer, albumin and troponin blood levels were associated with thrombotic events. In a multivariable regression logistic model, intensive care unit treatment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.0; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.8-12.6; p < 0.001); coronary artery disease (OR: 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-5.0; p = 0.022); and albumin levels (OR: 0.49; 95% CI 0.28-0.87; p = 0.014) were associated with ischemic events. Age, sex, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart failure, coronary heart disease, intensive care unit treatment, in-hospital thrombotic events, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, troponin, and albumin levels were associated with mortality. A multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that in-hospital thrombotic events (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.72; 95% CI 1.59-4.65; p < 0.001), age (HR: 1.035; 95% CI 1.014-1.057; p = 0.001), and albumin (HR: 0.447; 95% CI 0.277-0.723; p = 0.001) predicted morality. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 patients experience an equipollent rate of venous and arterial thrombotic events, that are associated with poor survival. Early identification and appropriate treatment of Covid-19 patients at risk of thrombosis may improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Mortality/trends , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 639970, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285307

ABSTRACT

Background: Protease inhibitors have been considered as possible therapeutic agents for COVID-19 patients. Objectives: To describe the association between lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or darunavir/cobicistat (DRV/c) use and in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. Study Design: Multicenter observational study of COVID-19 patients admitted in 33 Italian hospitals. Medications, preexisting conditions, clinical measures, and outcomes were extracted from medical records. Patients were retrospectively divided in three groups, according to use of LPV/r, DRV/c or none of them. Primary outcome in a time-to event analysis was death. We used Cox proportional-hazards models with inverse probability of treatment weighting by multinomial propensity scores. Results: Out of 3,451 patients, 33.3% LPV/r and 13.9% received DRV/c. Patients receiving LPV/r or DRV/c were more likely younger, men, had higher C-reactive protein levels while less likely had hypertension, cardiovascular, pulmonary or kidney disease. After adjustment for propensity scores, LPV/r use was not associated with mortality (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.13), whereas treatment with DRV/c was associated with a higher death risk (HR = 1.89, 1.53 to 2.34, E-value = 2.43). This increased risk was more marked in women, in elderly, in patients with higher severity of COVID-19 and in patients receiving other COVID-19 drugs. Conclusions: In a large cohort of Italian patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in a real-life setting, the use of LPV/r treatment did not change death rate, while DRV/c was associated with increased mortality. Within the limits of an observational study, these data do not support the use of LPV/r or DRV/c in COVID-19 patients.

10.
J Ultrasound ; 24(2): 115-123, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182347

ABSTRACT

A first screening by ultrasound can be relevant to set a specific diagnostic and therapeutic route for a patient with a COVID-19 infection. The finding of bilateral B-lines and white lung areas with patchy peripheral distribution and sparing areas is the most suggestive ultrasound picture of COVID-19 pneumonia. Failure to detect bilateral interstitial syndrome (A pattern) on ultrasound excludes COVID-19 pneumonia with good diagnostic accuracy, but does not exclude current infection. The use of shared semiotic and reporting schemes allows the comparison and monitoring of the COVID-19 pulmonary involvement over time. This review aims to summarise the main data on pulmonary ultrasound and COVID-19 to provide accurate and relevant information for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography/trends
11.
Neurol Sci ; 42(4): 1527-1530, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients present with delirium during their hospitalization. AIMS: To assess the incidence of delirium in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and analyze the possible association with demographic, clinical, laboratory, and pharmacological factors. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were assessed for clinical signs of delirium and administered the assessment test for delirium and cognitive impairment (4AT) and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) scales. RESULTS: Out of the 56 patients of our cohort, 14 (25.0%) experienced delirium. The use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (enoxaparin 1 mg/kg/daily) was less frequent in patients with delirium (p = 0.004) and was accompanied by lower C reactive protein (CRP) levels (p = 0.006). DISCUSSION: The use of LMWH was associated with absence of delirium, independently of comorbidities and age. CONCLUSIONS: The use of LMWH may help preventing the occurrence of delirium in COVID-19 patients, with possible reduction of length of stay in the hospital and sequelae.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Delirium/etiology , Delirium/prevention & control , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/psychology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Confusion/psychology , Delirium/psychology , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Length of Stay , Male , Neuropsychological Tests
12.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(8): 1054-1065, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112023

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A hypercoagulable condition was described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and proposed as a possible pathogenic mechanism contributing to disease progression and lethality. AIM: We evaluated if in-hospital administration of heparin improved survival in a large cohort of Italian COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In a retrospective observational study, 2,574 unselected patients hospitalized in 30 clinical centers in Italy from February 19, 2020 to June 5, 2020 with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection were analyzed. The primary endpoint in a time-to event analysis was in-hospital death, comparing patients who received heparin (low-molecular-weight heparin [LMWH] or unfractionated heparin [UFH]) with patients who did not. We used multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression models with inverse probability for treatment weighting by propensity scores. RESULTS: Out of 2,574 COVID-19 patients, 70.1% received heparin. LMWH was largely the most used formulation (99.5%). Death rates for patients receiving heparin or not were 7.4 and 14.0 per 1,000 person-days, respectively. After adjustment for propensity scores, we found a 40% lower risk of death in patients receiving heparin (hazard ratio = 0.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.74; E-value = 2.04). This association was particularly evident in patients with a higher severity of disease or strong coagulation activation. CONCLUSION: In-hospital heparin treatment was associated with a lower mortality, particularly in severely ill COVID-19 patients and in those with strong coagulation activation. The results from randomized clinical trials are eagerly awaited to provide clear-cut recommendations.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/prevention & control , Aged , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Thrombophilia/blood
13.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 782-790, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111318

ABSTRACT

A pro-thrombotic milieu and a higher risk of thrombotic events were observed in patients with CoronaVirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Accordingly, recent data suggested a beneficial role of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), but the optimal dosage of this treatment is unknown. We evaluated the association between prophylactic vs. intermediate-to-fully anticoagulant doses of enoxaparin and in-hospital adverse events in patients with COVID-19. We retrospectively included 436 consecutive patients admitted in three Italian hospitals. Outcome according to the use of prophylactic (4000 IU) vs. higher (> 4000 IU) daily dosage of enoxaparin was evaluated. The primary end-point was in-hospital death. Secondary outcome measures were in-hospital cardiovascular death, venous thromboembolism, new-onset acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and mechanical ventilation. A total of 287 patients (65.8%) were treated with the prophylactic enoxaparin regimen and 149 (34.2%) with a higher dosing regimen. The use of prophylactic enoxaparin dose was associated with a similar incidence of all-cause mortality (25.4% vs. 26.9% with the higher dose; OR at multivariable analysis, including the propensity score: 0.847, 95% CI 0.400-0.1.792; p = 0.664). In the prophylactic dose group, a significantly lower incidence of cardiovascular death (OR 0.165), venous thromboembolism (OR 0.067), new-onset ARDS (OR 0.454) and mechanical intubation (OR 0.150) was observed. In patients hospitalized for COVID-19, the use of a prophylactic dosage of enoxaparin appears to be associated with similar in-hospital overall mortality compared to higher doses. These findings require confirmation in a randomized, controlled study.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Hospitalization , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 589409, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993377

ABSTRACT

One of the most striking reported symptoms in CoViD-19 is loss of smell and taste. The frequency of these impairments and their specificity as a potential central nervous system function biomarker are of great interest as a diagnostic clue for CoViD-19 infection as opposed to other similar symptomatologic diseases and because of their implication in viral pathogenesis. Here severe CoViD-19 was investigated by comparing self-report vs. testing of smell and taste, thus the objective severity of olfactory impairment and their possible correlation with other symptoms. Because a significant discrepancy between smell and taste testing vs. self-report results (p < 0.001) emerges in our result, we performed a statistical analysis highlighting disagreement among normosmia (p < 0.05), hyposmia, severe hyposmia, and anosmia (p < 0.001) and, in hypogeusia and severe hypogeusia, while no differences are observed in normogeusia and ageusia. Therefore, we analyzed the olfactory threshold by an objective test revealing the distribution of hyposmic (34%), severe hyposmic (48%), and anosmic (13%) patients in severe CoViD-19. In severe CoViD-19 patients, taste is lost in 4.3% of normosmic individuals, 31.9% of hyposmic individuals, 46.8% of severe hyposmic individuals, and 17% of anosmic individuals. Moreover, 95% of 100 CoViD-19 patients objectively tested were affected by smell dysfunction, while 47% were affected by taste dysfunction. Furthermore, analysis by objective testing also highlighted that the severity of smell dysfunction in CoViD-19 subjects did not correlate with age and sex. In conclusion, we report by objective testing that the majority of CoViD-19 patients report severe anosmia, that most of the subjects have olfactory impairment rather than taste impairment, and, finally, that the olfactory impairment correlate with symptom onset and hospitalization (p < 0.05). Patients who exhibit severe olfactory impairment had been hospitalized for about a week from symptom onset; double time has taken place in subjects with normosmia. Our results may be limited by the relatively small number of study participants, but these suggest by objective testing that hyposmia, severe hyposmia, and anosmia may relate directly to infection severity and neurological damage. The smell test assessment could be a potential screening symptom that might contribute to the decision to test suspected cases or guide quarantine instructions, further therapeutic approach, and evaluation of neurological damage.

17.
J Clin Med ; 9(10)2020 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-906341

ABSTRACT

The correlation between SARS-CoV-2 and oral manifestations is still controversial. The aim of this observational study was to determine the oral manifestation of the hospitalized patients for COVID-19. A total of 20 patients met the inclusion criteria and gave their signed informed consent. A questionnaire of 32 questions regarding the oral and systemic health condition was administrated to these patients during the convalescence. A descriptive statistic was performed. Data were analysed through the use of χ2 test, to assess the statistical significance. A statistically significant increase of about 30% of reporting xerostomia during hospitalization was observed (p = 0.02). Meanwhile, a decrease of oral hygiene was observed during the hospitalization, even if a non-statistically significant difference was shown between the two study time points (before and after hospitalization). During the hospitalization period, 25% of patients reported impaired taste, 15% burning sensation, and 20% difficulty in swallowing. An interesting result was that among the systemic conditions, hypertension was observed in 39% of patients and mostly in female patients (62.5%). Further studies are necessary to better understand the symptoms of this new virus in order to faster detect its presence in humans. Probably, a multidisciplinary team following the COVID-19 patients could be of key importance in treating this disease.

18.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 7(10): 001803, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-884058

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 causes blood hypercoagulability and severe inflammation resulting in an increased risk of thrombosis. Consequently, COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease seem to be at higher risk of adverse events. Mondor's disease is a rare, generally self-limiting, thrombosis of the penis. The pathogenesis of Mondor's disease is unknown, and it is usually diagnosed through clinical signs and with Doppler ultrasound evaluation. We describe the case of a young man with COVID-19 infection who manifested Mondor's disease. LEARNING POINTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with an inflammatory response leading to a prothrombotic state and subsequent risk of arterial and venous pathology.Superficial vein thrombosis can occur in COVID-19 patients.

19.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 9(10):3218, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-833779

ABSTRACT

The correlation between SARS-CoV-2 and oral manifestations is still controversial. The aim of this observational study was to determine the oral manifestation of the hospitalized patients for COVID-19. A total of 20 patients met the inclusion criteria and gave their signed informed consent. A questionnaire of 32 questions regarding the oral and systemic health condition was administrated to these patients during the convalescence. A descriptive statistic was performed. Data were analysed through the use of χ2 test, to assess the statistical significance. A statistically significant increase of about 30% of reporting xerostomia during hospitalization was observed (p = 0.02). Meanwhile, a decrease of oral hygiene was observed during the hospitalization, even if a non-statistically significant difference was shown between the two study time points (before and after hospitalization). During the hospitalization period, 25% of patients reported impaired taste, 15% burning sensation, and 20% difficulty in swallowing. An interesting result was that among the systemic conditions, hypertension was observed in 39% of patients and mostly in female patients (62.5%). Further studies are necessary to better understand the symptoms of this new virus in order to faster detect its presence in humans. Probably, a multidisciplinary team following the COVID-19 patients could be of key importance in treating this disease.

20.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(11): 1899-1913, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is poor knowledge on characteristics, comorbidities and laboratory measures associated with risk for adverse outcomes and in-hospital mortality in European Countries. We aimed at identifying baseline characteristics predisposing COVID-19 patients to in-hospital death. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective observational study on 3894 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized from February 19th to May 23rd, 2020 and recruited in 30 clinical centres distributed throughout Italy. Machine learning (random forest)-based and Cox survival analysis. 61.7% of participants were men (median age 67 years), followed up for a median of 13 days. In-hospital mortality exhibited a geographical gradient, Northern Italian regions featuring more than twofold higher death rates as compared to Central/Southern areas (15.6% vs 6.4%, respectively). Machine learning analysis revealed that the most important features in death classification were impaired renal function, elevated C reactive protein and advanced age. These findings were confirmed by multivariable Cox survival analysis (hazard ratio (HR): 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.6-14.7 for age ≥85 vs 18-44 y); HR = 4.7; 2.9-7.7 for estimated glomerular filtration rate levels <15 vs ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2; HR = 2.3; 1.5-3.6 for C-reactive protein levels ≥10 vs ≤ 3 mg/L). No relation was found with obesity, tobacco use, cardiovascular disease and related-comorbidities. The associations between these variables and mortality were substantially homogenous across all sub-groups analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired renal function, elevated C-reactive protein and advanced age were major predictors of in-hospital death in a large cohort of unselected patients with COVID-19, admitted to 30 different clinical centres all over Italy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Young Adult
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