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1.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725875

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with a clinical outcome ranging from mild to severe, including death. To date, it is unclear why some patients develop severe symptoms. Many authors have suggested the involvement of vitamin D in reducing the risk of infections; thus, we retrospectively investigated the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in plasma obtained from a cohort of patients from Switzerland. In this cohort, significantly lower 25(OH)D levels (p = 0.004) were found in PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2 (median value 11.1 ng/mL) patients compared with negative patients (24.6 ng/mL); this was also confirmed by stratifying patients according to age >70 years. On the basis of this preliminary observation, vitamin D supplementation might be a useful measure to reduce the risk of infection. Randomized controlled trials and large population studies should be conducted to evaluate these recommendations and to confirm our preliminary observation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/blood
2.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701458

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the combined role of vitamin D and albumin serum levels as predictors of COVID-19 disease progression. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study on adult patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (March-September 2020). Vitamin D and albumin serum levels were measured on admission. These variables were categorized in albumin < 3.5 or ≥ 3.5 g/dL and vitamin D < 30 ng/mL or ≥ 30 ng/mL. We excluded patients with known bone diseases, renal failure, hypercalcemia and/or treated with antiepileptic drugs and steroids, and patients who received previous vitamin D supplementation. A composite outcome including any ventilatory support, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and 60-day mortality was defined. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 50% received non-invasive (NIV) or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), 10% died, whereas 89% and 66% presented low albumin and low vitamin D serum levels, respectively. No correlation between vitamin D and albumin levels was found. In multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex and age-corrected comorbidities, patients having albumin < 3.5 g/dL and vitamin D < 30 ng/mL showed a significant increased risk for all study outcomes, namely NIV/IMV (OR 3.815; 95% CI 1.122-12.966; p = 0.032), NIV/IMV or death (OR 3.173; 95% CI 1.002-10.043; p = 0.049) and PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 100 (OR 3.410; 95% CI 1.138-10.219; p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: The measurement of both vitamin D and serum albumin levels on COVID-19 patients' admission, and their combined evaluation, provides a simple prognostic tool that could be employed to guide prompt clinical decisions.

3.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686899

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D (VD) is a calcium- and phosphate-controlling hormone used to treat bone disorders; yet, several other effects are progressively emerging. VD deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide, with suboptimal exposure to sunlight listed among the leading causes: oral supplementation with either cholecalciferol or calcitriol is used. However, there is a scarcity of clinical studies investigating how quickly VD concentrations can increase after supplementation. In this pilot study, the commercial supplement ImmuD3 (by Erboristeria Magentina®) was chosen as the source of VD and 2000 IU/day was administered for one month to 21 healthy volunteers that had not taken any other VD supplements in the previous 30 days. Plasma VD levels were measured through liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after 7, 14, and 28 days of supplementation. We found that 95% of the participants had insufficient VD levels at baseline (<30 ng/mL; median 23.72 ng/mL; IQR 18.10-26.15), but after 28 days of supplementation, this percentage dropped to 62% (median 28.35 ng/mL; IQR 25.78-35.20). The median increase in VD level was 3.09 ng/mL (IQR 1.60-5.68) after 7 days and 8.85 ng/mL (IQR 2.85-13.97F) after 28 days. This study suggests the need for continuing VD supplementation and for measuring target level attainment.


Subject(s)
Bone Density Conservation Agents/blood , Cholecalciferol/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins/blood , Adult , Aged , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Young Adult
4.
Trials ; 22(1): 831, 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is a novel broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutic with activity against several viruses that cause emerging infectious diseases. The purpose of this study is to explore how commonly utilized antiretroviral therapy (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/lamivudine [TDF/3TC] and atazanavir/ritonavir [ATV/r]) influence plasma and intracellular concentrations of remdesivir. METHODS: This is an open-label, randomized, fixed sequence single intravenous dosing study to assess pharmacokinetic interactions between remdesivir and TDF/3TC (Study A, crossover design) or TDF/3TC plus ATV/r (Study B). Healthy volunteers satisfying study entry criteria will be enrolled in the study and randomized to either Study A; N=16 (Sequence 1 or Sequence 2) or Study B; N=8. Participants will receive standard adult doses of antiretroviral therapy for 7 days and a single 200mg remdesivir infusion administered over 60 min. Pharmacokinetic blood sampling will be performed relative to the start of remdesivir infusion; predose (before the start of remdesivir infusion) and 30 min after the start of remdesivir infusion. Additional blood samples will be taken at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after the end of remdesivir infusion. DISCUSSION: This study will characterize the pharmacokinetics of remdesivir from a typical African population in whom clinical use is anticipated. Furthermore, this study will deliver pharmacokinetic datasets for remdesivir drug concentrations and demographic characteristics which could support pharmacometric approaches for simulation of remdesivir treatment regimens in patients concurrently using tenofovir/lamivudine and/or atazanavir/ritonavir. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04385719 . Registered 13 May 2020.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Lamivudine , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Atazanavir Sulfate , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Oligopeptides , Pyridines , Ritonavir , Tenofovir , Uganda
5.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480578

ABSTRACT

Dalbavancin is a lipoglycopeptide approved for treatment of Gram-positive infections of skin and skin-associated structures (ABSSSI). Currently, off-label use at high dosages for osteoarticular infections deserves attention. This work aimed to study the long-term plasma pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin in outpatients with ABSSSI or osteoarticular infections, treated either with one or two 1500 mg doses of dalbavancin. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used to measure total dalbavancin concentrations in plasma samples. The results were analyzed through a non-compartmental analysis (NCA). Breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was used to calculate AUC/MIC and T > MIC parameters, adjusted by 93% protein binding. A total of 14 patients were enrolled, 11 with osteoarticular infection and 3 with ABSSSI. Long-term pharmacokinetics showed median T > MIC (0.125 mg/L) of 11.9 and 13.7 weeks for single and dual dose, respectively. Similarly, median AUC0-2w/MIC ratios of 20,590 and 31,366 were observed for single and dual dose regimens, respectively. No adverse events were observed, and treatment success was achieved in 12/14 patients. Failure was associated with the worst clinical conditions, bone infections, and single dose. The results of this study show that dalbavancin exposure exceeds previously suggested pharmacodynamic targets. Optimization of these targets is needed for the osteoarticular setting.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463781

ABSTRACT

To date, vitamin D seems to have a significant role in affecting the prevention and immunomodulation in COVID-19 disease. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight that this pro-hormone has other several activities, such as affecting drug concentrations, since it regulates the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetics is influenced by CYPs, but no data are available in the literature concerning the association among vitamin D levels, seasonality (which affects vitamin D concentrations) and EFV plasma levels. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels on EFV plasma concentrations in different seasons. We quantified 25(OH)D3 by using chemiluminescence immunoassay, whereas EFV plasma concentrations were quantified with the HPLC-PDA method. A total of 316 patients were enrolled in Turin and Rome. Overall, 25(OH)D3levels resulted in being inversely correlated with EFV concentrations. Some patients with EFV levels higher than 4000 ng/mL showed a deficient 25(OH)D3 concentration in Turin and Rome cohorts and together. EFV concentrations were different in patients without vitamin D supplementation, whereas, for vitamin D-administered individuals, no difference in EFV exposure was present. Concerning seasonality, EFV concentrations were associated with 25(OH)D3 deficiency only in winter and in spring, whereas a significant influence was highlighted for 25(OH)D3 stratification for deficient, insufficient and sufficient values in winter, spring and summer. A strong and inverse association between 25(OH)D3and EFV plasma concentrations was suggested. These data suggest that vitamin D is able to affect drug exposure in different seasons; thus, the achievement of the clinical outcome could be improved by also considering this pro-hormone.


Subject(s)
Alkynes/blood , Alkynes/therapeutic use , Benzoxazines/blood , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes/blood , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Seasons , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamins/blood
7.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(12): 4861-4867, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228713

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is one of the most encouraging treatments against SARS-CoV-2 infection. After intravenous infusion, RDV is rapidly metabolized (t1/2 = 1 h) within the cells to its active adenosine triphosphate analogue form (GS-443902) and then it can be found in plasma in its nucleoside analogue form (GS-441524). In this real-life study, we describe the remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations at three time points in nine ICU patients, through a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. The observed data confirmed the very rapid conversion of RDV to its metabolite and the quite long half-life of GS-441524. The mean Cmin , Cmax and AUC0-24 , were < 0.24 ng/mL and 122.3 ng/mL, 2637.3 ng/mL and 157.8 ng/mL, and 5171.2 ng*h/mL and 3676.5 ng*h/ml, respectively, for RDV and GS-441524. Three out of nine patients achieved a Cmax  > 2610 ng/mL and 140 ng/mL and AUC0-24  > 1560 ng*h/mL and 2230 ng*h/mL for RDV and GS-441524, respectively. The mean t1/2 value for GS-441524 was 26.3 h. Despite the low number of patients, these data can represent an interesting preliminary report on the variability of RDV and GS-441524 concentrations in a real-life ICU setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227007

ABSTRACT

Recently, large-scale screening for COVID-19 has presented a major challenge, limiting timely countermeasures. Therefore, the application of suitable rapid serological tests could provide useful information, however, little evidence regarding their robustness is currently available. In this work, we evaluated and compared the analytical performance of a rapid lateral-flow test (LFA) and a fast semiquantitative fluorescent immunoassay (FIA) for anti-nucleocapsid (anti-NC) antibodies, with the reverse transcriptase real-time PCR assay as the reference. In 222 patients, LFA showed poor sensitivity (55.9%) within two weeks from PCR, while later testing was more reliable (sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 93.1%). Moreover, in a subset of 100 patients, FIA showed high sensitivity (89.1%) and specificity (94.1%) after two weeks from PCR. The coupled application for the screening of 183 patients showed satisfactory concordance (K = 0.858). In conclusion, rapid serological tests were largely not useful for early diagnosis, but they showed good performance in later stages of infection. These could be useful for back-tracing and/or to identify potentially immune subjects.

9.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(4): 391.e1-391.e7, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was named coronavirus disease 2019 and classified as a global public health emergency. The evidence related to the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on pregnancy is limited to the second and third trimester of pregnancy, whereas data on the first trimester are scant. Many viral infections can be harmful to the fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy, and whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is one of them is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: With this study, we evaluated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection as a risk factor for early pregnancy loss in the first trimester of pregnancy. Furthermore, coronavirus disease 2019 course in the first trimester was assessed. STUDY DESIGN: Between February 22 and May 21, 2020, we conducted a case-control study at S. Anna Hospital, Turin, among pregnant women in their first trimester, paired for last menstruation. The cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 was compared between women with spontaneous abortion (case group, n=100) and those with ongoing pregnancy (control group, n=125). Current or past infection was determined by the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from nasopharyngeal swab and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies in a blood sample. Patient demographics, coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms, and the main risk factors for abortion were collected. RESULTS: Of 225 women, 23 (10.2%) had a positive test result for coronavirus disease 2019. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 between the cases (11/100, 11%) and the controls (12/125, 9.6%) (P=.73). Logistic regression analysis confirmed that coronavirus disease 2019 was not an independent predictor of early pregnancy loss (odds ratio, 1.28; confidence interval, 0.53-3.08). Coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms in the first trimester were fever, anosmia, ageusia, cough, arthralgia, and diarrhea; no cases of pneumonia or hospital admission owing to coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms were recorded. No difference in the incidence of symptoms was noted between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy does not seem to predispose to early pregnancy loss; its cumulative incidence did not differ between women with spontaneous abortion and women with ongoing pregnancy. Coronavirus disease 2019 appears to have a favorable maternal course at the beginning of pregnancy, consistent with what has been observed during the second and third trimesters.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, First , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1)2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836166

ABSTRACT

We measured severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike protein subunits S1/S2 antibodies by using capillary electrophoresis and a chemiluminescence immunoassay for 5,444 active healthcare workers in Italy. Seroprevalence was 6.9% and higher among participants having contact with patients. Seroconversion was not observed in 37/213 previously infected participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology
11.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(10): 2977-2980, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is a prodrug of the nucleoside analogue GS-441524 and is under evaluation for treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of remdesivir and GS-441524 in plasma, bronchoalveolar aspirate (BAS) and CSF in two critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Remdesivir was administered at 200 mg loading dose on the first day followed by 12 days of 100 mg in two critically ill patients. Blood samples were collected immediately after (C0) and at 1 (C1) and 24 h (C24) after intravenous administration on day 3 until day 9. BAS samples were collected on Days 4, 7 and 9 from both patients while one CSF on Day 7 was obtained in one patient. Remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations were measured in these samples using a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. RESULTS: We observed higher concentrations of remdesivir at C0 (6- to 7-fold higher than EC50 from in vitro studies) and a notable decay at C1. GS-441524 plasma concentrations reached a peak at C1 and persisted until the next administration. Higher concentrations of GS-441524 were observed in the patient with mild renal dysfunction. Mean BAS/plasma concentration ratios of GS-441524 were 2.3% and 6.4% in Patient 1 and Patient 2, respectively. The CSF concentration found in Patient 2 was 25.7% with respect to plasma. GS-441524 levels in lung and CNS suggest compartmental differences in drug exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first pharmacokinetic evaluation of remdesivir and GS-441524 in recovered COVID-19 patients. Further study of the pharmacokinetic profile of remdesivir, GS-441524 and the intracellular triphosphate form are required.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Critical Illness/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Triphosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Recovery of Function/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(7): 1772-1777, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir has received significant attention for its potential application in the treatment of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir has already been tested for Ebola virus disease treatment and found to have activity against SARS and MERS coronaviruses. The remdesivir core contains GS-441524, which interferes with RNA-dependent RNA polymerases alone. In non-human primates, following IV administration, remdesivir is rapidly distributed into PBMCs and converted within 2 h to the active nucleoside triphosphate form, while GS-441524 is detectable in plasma for up to 24 h. Nevertheless, remdesivir pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in humans are still unexplored, highlighting the need for a precise analytical method for remdesivir and GS-441524 quantification. OBJECTIVES: The validation of a reliable UHPLC-MS/MS method for remdesivir and GS-441524 quantification in human plasma. METHODS: Remdesivir and GS-441524 standards and quality controls were prepared in plasma from healthy donors. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation, followed by dilution and injection into the QSight 220 UHPLC-MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was obtained through an Acquity HSS T3 1.8 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm column, with a gradient of water and acetonitrile with 0.05% formic acid. The method was validated using EMA and FDA guidelines. RESULTS: Analyte stability has been evaluated and described in detail. The method successfully fulfilled the validation process and it was demonstrated that, when possible, sample thermal inactivation could be a good choice in order to improve biosafety. CONCLUSIONS: This method represents a useful tool for studying remdesivir and GS-441524 clinical pharmacokinetics, particularly during the current COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Adenosine Monophosphate/analysis , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Triphosphate/analysis , Adenosine Triphosphate/blood , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/analysis , Alanine/blood , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Ther Drug Monit ; 42(2): 165-168, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-11505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dalbavancin, albeit indicated for the treatment of skin structure infections, is used for a much wider range of infections. This drug is characterized by a long half-life (more than 200 hours), a favorable safety profile, and an activity against a wide array of gram-positive organisms, including several strains of Staphylococci and Enterococci. METHODS: In this study, we presented 3 cases of critically ill patients treated with dalbavancin. All patients were therapeutically monitored for plasma dalbavancin concentrations; ultrafiltrate dalbavancin concentrations were assessed in a patient undergoing continuous renal-replacement therapy. Dalbavancin concentrations were measured using a validated liquid chromatographic method coupled with mass spectrometry. RESULTS: All 3 severely ill patients experiencing necrotizing fasciitis were successfully treated during the acute phase with dalbavancin. Dalbavancin clearance in patient 3 (0.334 L/h) was considerably increased compared with values measured in the other 2 patients (0.054 and 0.075 L/h) and with data reported in the literature (0.04-0.06 L/h). CONCLUSIONS: Our case reports presented preliminary evidence that dalbavancin can be considered a therapeutic option for necrotizing fasciitis in intensive care unit patients. The role of hypoalbuminemia during dalbavancin exposure merits further investigation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Drug Monitoring/methods , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/drug therapy , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Half-Life , Humans , Male , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Teicoplanin/pharmacokinetics , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use
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