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1.
Eur J Immunol ; 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant number of COVID-19 patients were shown to have neutralizing antibodies (NAB) against interferon (IFN); however, NAB specificity, fluctuation over time, associations with biochemical and hematological parameters and IFN gene expression are not well characterized. METHODS: Binding antibodies (BAB) to IFN-α/-ß were screened in COVID-19 patients' serum. All BAB positive sera, and a subset of respiratory samples, were tested for NAB against IFN-α/-ß/-ω, using an antiviral bioassay. Transcript levels of IFN-α/-ß/-ω and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) were quantified. RESULTS: Anti-IFN BAB were found in 61/360 (17%) of patients. Among BAB positive sera, 21.3% had high NAB titer against IFN-α. 69.2% of anti-IFN-α NAB sera displayed cross reactivity to IFN-ω. Anti-IFN-I NAB persisted in all patients. NAB to IFN-α were also detected in 3/17 (17.6%) of respiratory samples. Anti-IFN-I NAB was higher in males (p = 0.0017), patients admitted to the ICU (p<0.0001), and patients with a fatal outcome (p<0.0001). NAB were associated with higher levels of CRP, LDH, D-Dimer, and higher counts of hematological parameters. ISG-mRNAs were reduced in patients with persistently NAB titer. CONCLUSIONS: NAB are detected in a significant proportion of severe COVID-19. NAB-positive patients presented a defective IFN response and increased levels of laboratory biomarkers of disease severity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725884

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) global pandemic is a devastating event that is causing thousands of victims every day around the world. One of the main reasons of the great impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on society is its unexpected spread, which has not allowed an adequate preparation. The scientific community is fighting against time for the production of a vaccine, but it is difficult to place a safe and effective product on the market as fast as the virus is spreading. Similarly, for drugs that can directly interfere with viral pathways, their production times are long, despite the great efforts made. For these reasons, we analyzed the possible role of non-pharmacological substances such as supplements, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in reducing the risk of Sars-CoV-2 infection or mitigating the symptoms of COVID-19. These substances could have numerous advantages in the current circumstances, are generally easily available, and have negligible side effects if administered at the already used and tested dosages. Large scientific evidence supports the benefits that some bacterial and molecular products may exert on the immune response to respiratory viruses. These could also have a regulatory role in systemic inflammation or endothelial damage, which are two crucial aspects of COVID-19. However, there are no specific data available, and rigorous clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the putative benefits of diet supplementation, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
4.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718361

ABSTRACT

Despite the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic not yet being under control, post-Covid-19 syndrome is already a challenging topic: long-term multiorgan sequelae, although increasingly described, have not yet been systematized. As post-Covid-19 syndrome can significantly impact both the working capacity and the relationship life of surviving patients, we performed a systematic review of the evidence published over the last year and currently available in medical literature search databases (MEDLINE/Pubmed) and searching clinical trial registries, to evaluate the available evidence among workers. From 31 publications that initially matched inclusion criteria, 13 studies have been considered suitable for relevance and age of subjects. A wide range of patients (16%-87%) have post-Covid syndrome; pneumological and neuropsychological symptoms were the most common disorders reported. The most frequent organic sequel found in post-Covid patients was pulmonary fibrosis. The number of symptoms during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity of the disease, and high serum levels of d-dimer were related to high risk of post-Covid syndrome. In conclusion, post-Covid-19 syndrome can significantly impact the health conditions of surviving patients. Rehabilitation and follow-up in multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs should be considered for working-age patients.

5.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; : 1-18, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713429

ABSTRACT

Alteration of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) expression, including miRNA-122a, -146a and -205 family members, can have profound effects on inflammatory and IFN pathways (miRNA-146a), known as hallmarks of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were recruited at Policlinico Umberto I Hospital of Sapienza University of Rome (Italy). MiRNA-122a, -146a, -205 and IFI27 (Interferon Alpha Inducible Protein 27) levels were screened in SARS-CoV-2 patients (n = 14) and healthy controls (n = 10) by real-time RT-PCR assays. Then, miRNA-146a rs2910164 GC single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was genotyped in a larger group of COVID-19 patients (n = 129), and its relationship with severe disease [Intensive Care Unit (ICU) support or survival/death] was assessed. SARS-CoV-2-positive patients had increased PCR, D-Dimer and Fibrinogen levels compared to healthy controls (p < .05 for all measurements). MiRNA-122a and -146a serum levels were upregulated in COVID-19 patients (miRNA-122a: p = .002; miRNA-146a: p < .001). Decreased IFI27 levels were observed in COVID-19 patients with higher miRNA-146a levels (p = .047). Moreover, miRNA-146a rs2910164 C/G genotypes distributions were similar in COVID-19 patients and in validated European healthy subjects (n = 37,214). MiRNA-146a SNP was not associated with severe COVID-19 outcome (ICU or death). MiRNA-122a and -146a levels were elevated in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, with miRNA-146a upregulation possibly contributing to IFN pathways dysregulation (e.g., reduced IFI27 levels) observed in severe COVID-19, although there is no evidence for the involvement of rs2910164 SNP.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319143

ABSTRACT

Background: changes in immune and coagulation systems and possible viral spread through blood-brain barrier have been described in SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we evaluate the possible retinal involvement and ocular findings in severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Methods: a cross sectional study was conducted on 46 patients affected by severe COVID-19 who were hospitalized in one Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and in two Infectious Diseases wards, including a bedside eye screening, corneal sensitivity assessment and retinography. Results: a total of 43 SARS-CoV-2 positive pneumonia patients affected with COVID-19 pneumonia were included, 25 males and 18 females, with a median age of 70 [IQR 59-78]. Except for one patient with unilateral posterior chorioretinitis of opportunistic origin, of whom aqueous tap was negative for SARS-CoV-2, no further retinal manifestation related to COVID-19 infection was found in our cohort. We found 3 patients (7%) with bilateral conjunctivitis in whom PCR analysis on conjunctival swab provided negative results for SARS-CoV-2. No alterations of corneal sensitivity were found. Conclusion: we demonstrated the absence of retinal involvement in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients. Ophthalmologic evaluation in COVID-19, particularly in patients hospitalized in an ICU setting, may be useful to reveal systemic co-infections by opportunistic pathogens.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318316

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is the need of a simple but highly reliable score system for stratifying the risk of mortality and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) transfer in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at the Emergency Room. Purpose: In this study, the ability of CURB-65, extended CURB-65, PSI and CALL scores and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) to predict intra-hospital mortality and ICU admission in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated. Methods: : During March-May 2020, a retrospective, single-center study including all consecutive adults patients with diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia was conducted. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data as well as CURB-65, expanded CURB-65, PSI and CALL scores were calculated based on data recorded at hospital admission. Results: Overall, 224 patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in the study. As for intra-hospital mortality (24/224, 11%), PSI performed better than all the other tested scores, which showed lower AUC values (AUC=0.890 for PSI versus AUC=0.885, AUC=0.858 and AUC=0.743 for expanded CURB-65, CURB-65 and CALL scores, respectively). Of note, the addition of hypoalbuminemia to the CURB-65 score increased the prediction value of intra-hospital mortality (AUC=0.905). All the tested scores performed worse in predicting the need of ICU transfer (26/224, 12%), with the best AUC for extended CURB-65 score (AUC= 0.708). Conclusion: The addition of albumin level to the easy-to-calculate CURB-65 score at hospital admission is able to improve the quality of prediction of intra-hospital mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.

8.
Microorganisms ; 10(2)2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674732

ABSTRACT

Type III interferons (IFN-III), also known as IFN-Lambda, have a pivotal role during SARS-CoV-2 infection. IFN-Lambda response among individuals is heterogeneous and its association with COVID-19 symptoms severity needs to be further clarified. We analyzed the genotype frequencies of IFNL4 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11322783 in patients with COVID-19 (n = 128), in comparison with a validated data set of European healthy controls (n = 14152). The IFNL4 SNP was also analyzed according to the haematological and clinical parameters of patients with COVID-19. The distributions of IFNL4 genotypes among SARS-CoV-2 positive patients [TT/TT 41.4% (n = 53), TT/ΔG 47.7% (n = 61) and ΔG/ΔG 10.9% (n = 14)] and healthy controls were comparable. Different levels of white blood cells (p = 0.036) and neutrophils (p = 0.042) were found in the IFNL4 different genotypes in patients with COVID-19; the ΔG/ΔG genotype was more represented in the groups with low white blood cells and neutrophils. There were no differences in major inflammation parameters (C-reactive protein, D-dimer, Albumin, and Lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH)] and survival rate according to the IFNL4 genotypes. In conclusion, although patients with COVID-19 did not exhibit a different distribution of the IFNL4 SNP, the ΔG/ΔG genotype was associated with a lower count of immune cell populations. These findings need to be confirmed in larger groups of patients with COVID-19 and the role of IFNL4 SNP needs to be also investigated in other respiratory viral infections.

9.
Frontiers in nutrition ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652264

ABSTRACT

Long COVID refers to patients with symptoms as fatigue, “brain fog,” pain, suggesting the chronic involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) in COVID-19. The supplementation with probiotic (OB) would have a positive effect on metabolic homeostasis, negatively impacting the occurrence of symptoms related to the CNS after hospital discharge. On a total of 58 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 24 (41.4%) received OB during hospitalization (OB+) while 34 (58.6%) taken only the standard treatment (OB–). Serum metabolomic profiling of patients has been performed at both hospital acceptance (T0) and discharge (T1). Six months after discharge, fatigue perceived by participants was assessed by administrating the Fatigue Assessment Scale. 70.7% of participants reported fatigue while 29.3% were negative for such condition. The OB+ group showed a significantly lower proportion of subjects reporting fatigue than the OB– one (p < 0.01). Furthermore, OB+ subjects were characterized by significantly increased concentrations of serum Arginine, Asparagine, Lactate opposite to lower levels of 3-Hydroxyisobutirate than those not treated with probiotics. Our results strongly suggest that in COVID-19, the administration of probiotics during hospitalization may prevent the development of chronic fatigue by impacting key metabolites involved in the utilization of glucose as well as in energy pathways.

10.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601782

ABSTRACT

Aims A possible interference between ACE-i or ARBs with ACE-2 receptor and SARS-CoV-2 pathway has been raised. Despite data have shown no clinical impact of therapy with ACE-I or ARBs on COVID-19, these drugs are often discontinued upon hospitalization or diagnosis. To evaluate the effects of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and prior outpatient therapy with RAAS inhibitors on the chest CT severity score performed within 24 h of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (before stopping medications or starting specific therapy for COVID-19) and on 1-year survival. Methods and results This is a multicentre, prospective, observational study. All admitted patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection who performed chest CT within 24 h of arrival were consecutively enrolled from 1 March to 1 June 2020. A severity score was attributed to Chest CT by two radiologists in blind to the patient’s clinical information and a cut-off value of 19.5 was considered to define severe radiological pneumonia. A 1-year telephone follow-up was performed in order to evaluate the determinants of 1-year survival. 590 patients with a mean age of 63 ± 14 years were included. Seventy-three (12.4%) patients were treated with ACE-I, 85 (14.4%) with ARBs and 62 (10.5%) with CCB. Cox regression analysis showed that male gender (OR: 1.4;95% CI: from 1.02 to 2.07;P = 0.035), diabetes (OR: 1.6;95% CI: from 1.03 to 2.7;P = 0.037), age (OR: 1.02;95% CI: from 1.008 to 1.033;P = 0.001), and obesity (OR: 3.04;95% CI: from 1.3 to 6.7;P < 0.001) were independently associated with a severe CT score. Of note, while prior outpatient therapy with ACE-I and ARBs was not independently associated with severe CT score, therapy with CCB was independently associated with a severe CT score (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: from 1.05 to 3.4, P = 0.033). Severe chest CT severity score (OR: 1.05;95% CI: from 1.02 to 1.08;P < 0.001), P/F ratio (OR: 0.998;95% CI: from 0.994 to 0.998;P < 0.001), and older age (OR: 1.06;95% CI: from 1.03 to 1.1;P < 0.001) were independently associated with mortality at 1-year follow-up. Neither ACE-I, ARBs, and CCB were associated with mortality at 1 year follow-up. Conclusions ACE-I and ARBs do not influence the chest CT presentation of COVID-19 patients at the time of diagnosis. Furthermore, ACE-I and ARBs do not influence 1-year survival of COVID-19 survivors.

11.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(2): 257-266, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear if patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have different rate, typology, and impact of thrombosis on survival. METHODS: In this multicenter observational cohort study, 1,138 patients, hospitalized for CAP (n = 559) or COVID-19 (n = 579) from seven clinical centers in Italy, were included in the study. Consecutive adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with confirmed COVID-19-related pneumonia, with or without mechanical ventilation, hospitalized from March 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020, were enrolled. COVID-19 was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization interim guidance. Patients were followed-up until discharge or in-hospital death, registering the occurrence of thrombotic events including ischemic/embolic events. RESULTS: During the in-hospital stay, 11.4% of CAP and 15.5% of COVID-19 patients experienced thrombotic events (p = 0.046). In CAP patients all the events were arterial thromboses, while in COVID-19 patients 8.3% were venous and 7.2% arterial thromboses.During the in-hospital follow-up, 3% of CAP patients and 17% of COVID-19 patients died (p < 0.001). The highest mortality rate was found among COVID-19 patients with thrombotic events (47.6 vs. 13.4% in thrombotic-event-free patients; p < 0.001). In CAP, 13.8% of patients experiencing thrombotic events died versus 1.8% of thrombotic event-free ones (p < 0.001). A multivariable Cox-regression analysis confirmed a higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients with thrombotic events (hazard ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-3.3; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Compared with CAP, COVID-19 is characterized by a higher burden of thrombotic events, different thrombosis typology and higher risk of thrombosis-related in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis , Thrombosis/mortality
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 735601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581127

ABSTRACT

Despite the "migrants and COVID-19" topic has been neglected since felt marginal concerning other aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it represents a relevant public health issue in the European countries. This report describes COVID-19 containment strategies adopted in a large Italian reception center hosting recently arrived asylum-seeker migrants. Risk assessment and prevention measures adopted were described. Geo-spatial epidemiological analysis of the outbreak was reported. Significant gaps in the knowledge of self-protection measures from contagious diseases and in the perception of the pandemic risk were observed in migrants; health promotion activities, targeted to remove cultural barriers and improve behaviors appropriate to individual protection, were able to fulfill this gap. In low-resource settings, especially in closed communities, the implementation of social distancing strategies, the systematic use of individual protection devices, and active syndromic surveillance are essential tools to limit the risk of outbreaks. In the event of an outbreak, it is relevant to rapidly activate containment procedures based on systematic screening, isolation, and quarantine, taking into consideration the limits of tracing contacts within a closed community. Not being able to trace certain contacts, the geo-spatial epidemiological analysis of cases distribution could be key in the management of the outbreak. Interestingly, positive cases identified in our facility were all clinically pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic. Dedicated strategies are needed to minimize the chance of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a limited space such as reception centers and a vulnerable population such as migrants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Developing Countries , Europe , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469526

ABSTRACT

Despite the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic not yet being under control, post-Covid-19 syndrome is already a challenging topic: long-term multiorgan sequelae, although increasingly described, have not yet been systematized. As post-Covid-19 syndrome can significantly impact both the working capacity and the relationship life of surviving patients, we performed a systematic review of the evidence published over the last year and currently available in medical literature search databases (MEDLINE/Pubmed) and searching clinical trial registries, to evaluate the available evidence among workers. From 31 publications that initially matched inclusion criteria, 13 studies have been considered suitable for relevance and age of subjects. A wide range of patients (16%-87%) have post-Covid syndrome; pneumological and neuropsychological symptoms were the most common disorders reported. The most frequent organic sequel found in post-Covid patients was pulmonary fibrosis. The number of symptoms during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity of the disease, and high serum levels of d-dimer were related to high risk of post-Covid syndrome. In conclusion, post-Covid-19 syndrome can significantly impact the health conditions of surviving patients. Rehabilitation and follow-up in multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs should be considered for working-age patients.

14.
Infez Med ; 29(3): 408-415, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444695

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is the need of a simple but highly reliable score system for stratifying the risk of mortality and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) transfer in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at the Emergency Room. PURPOSE: In this study, the ability of CURB-65, extended CURB-65, PSI and CALL scores and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) to predict intra-hospital mortality and ICU admission in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were evaluated. METHODS: During March-May 2020, a retrospective, single-center study including all consecutive adult patients with diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia was conducted. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data as well as CURB-65, expanded CURB-65, PSI and CALL scores were calculated based on data recorded at hospital admission. RESULTS: Overall, 224 patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were included in the study. As for intrahospital mortality (24/224, 11%), PSI performed better than all the other tested scores, which showed lower AUC values (AUC=0.890 for PSI versus AUC=0.885, AUC=0.858 and AUC=0.743 for expanded CURB-65, CURB-65 and CALL scores, respectively). Of note, the addition of hypoalbuminemia to the CURB-65 score increased the prediction value of intra-hospital mortality (AUC=0.905). All the tested scores were less predictive for the need of ICU transfer (26/224, 12%), with the best AUC for extended CURB-65 score (AUC= 0.708). CONCLUSION: The addition of albumin level to the easy-to-calculate CURB-65 score at hospital admission is able to improve the quality of prediction of intra-hospital mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.

15.
Brain Sci ; 11(9)2021 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390537

ABSTRACT

Individuals affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may experience psychiatric symptoms, including depression and suicidal ideation, that could lead to chronic impairment and a reduction in quality of life. Specifically, depressive disorder shows high incidence and may lead to chronic impairment and a reduction in the quality of life. To date, no studies on the presence of suicidality and quantitative analysis of depressive symptoms and their risk factors have yet been published. In this study, we aim to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms and related risk factors at 3 months after discharge to home care following hospitalization for COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Participants were contacted three months after hospital discharge from one of the five COVID-19 hospitals in Rome, as part of a larger project on health outcomes in COVID-19 inpatients (Long Term Neuropsychiatric Disorder in COVID-19 Project), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered by telephone interview. RESULTS: Of 115 participants, 14.8% (N = 17) received a PHQ-9-based diagnosis of depression, and n = 7 of them scored 1 or more on the item on suicidality. A linear regression model showed the predictive role of female sex, pulmonary chronic condition and previous mental disorder in the development of depressive disorder; the latter was confirmed also by binary logistic regression. Severity indexes of disease (length of hospitalization and intensive care treatment) were found not to be associated with the development of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: A small but clinically meaningful number of participants in the current study reported that they experienced symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation 3 months post-discharge from their COVID-19 hospitalization. In particular, given the findings that a history of prior psychiatric disorders was predictive of the development of depression symptoms, clinicians should carefully monitor for the presence of all psychiatric symptoms at follow-up visits.

16.
Microorganisms ; 9(1)2021 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389447

ABSTRACT

The expression rate of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the main viral receptor and the proteases, furin and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in cystic fibrosis (CF) individuals is poorly known. Hence, we examined their levels in upper respiratory samples of CF patients (n = 46) and healthy controls (n = 45). Moreover, we sought to understand the interplay of type I interferon (IFN-I) with ACE2, furin and TMPRSS2 by evaluating their gene expression with respect to ISG15, a well-known marker of IFN activation, in upper respiratory samples and after ex vivo IFNß exposure. Lower ACE2 levels and trends toward the reduction of furin and TMPRSS2 were found in CF patients compared with the healthy controls; decreased ACE2 amounts were also detected in CF individuals with pancreatic insufficiency and in those receiving inhaled antibiotics. Moreover, there was a strong positive correlation between ISG15 and ACE2 levels. However, after ex vivo IFNß stimulation of nasopharyngeal cells, the truncated isoform (dACE2), recently demonstrated as the IFN stimulated one with respect to the full-length isoform (flACE2), slightly augmented in cells from CF patients whereas in those from healthy donors, dACE2 levels showed variable levels of upregulation. An altered expression of SARS-COV-2 entry genes and a poor responsiveness of dACE2 to IFN-I stimulation might be crucial in the diffusion of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CF.

17.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Remdesivir is currently approved for the treatment of COVID-19. The recommendation for using remdesivir in patients with COVID-19 was based on the in vitro and in vivo activity of this drug against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted on a population of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The primary endpoint of this study was the impact of remdesivir-containing therapy on 30-day mortality; the secondary endpoint was the impact of remdesivir-containing therapy on the need for high-flow oxygen therapy (HFNC), non-invasive ventilation (NIV), or mechanical ventilation. The data were analyzed after propensity score matching. RESULTS: A total of 407 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were consecutively enrolled. Out of these, 294 (72.2%) were treated with remdesivir and 113 (27.8%) were not. Overall, 61 patients (14.9%) were treated during hospitalization with HFNC, NIV, or mechanical ventilation, while 30-day mortality was observed in 21 patients (5.2%). Univariate analysis of patients treated with remdesivir or not showed no differences in 30-day mortality (4% vs. 6%, p = 0.411) in the two study groups. Cox regression analysis, after propensity score matching, showed that therapies, including remdesivir-containing therapy, were not statistically associated with 30-day survival or mortality. The Kaplan-Meier curves of 30-day survival in patients treated with remdesivir or not before (p = 0.24) and after (p = 0.88) propensity score matching showed no differences between the two study groups. Finally, patients treated with remdesivir or not showed the same need for HFNC/NIV or mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: This real-life experience of remdesivir use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was not associated with significant increases in rates of survival or reduced use of HFNC/NIV or mechanical ventilation compared with patients treated with other therapies not including remdesivir.

18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that severe COVID-19 patients had higher chances of survival and a reduced risk of developing respiratory failure when administered with the probiotic formulation SLAB51. This study aimed to investigate further bacteriotherapy mechanisms and how early they are activated. METHODS: We performed an analysis on the blood oxygenation parameters collected in sixty-nine severe COVID-19 patients requiring non-invasive oxygen therapy and presenting a CT lung involvement ≥50%. Twenty-nine patients received low-molecular-weight heparin, azithromycin and Remdesivir. In addition, forty subjects received SLAB51. Blood gas analyses were performed before the beginning of treatments and at 24 h. RESULTS: The patients receiving only standard therapy needed significantly increased oxygen amounts during the 24 h observation period. Furthermore, they presented lower blood levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2 than the group also supplemented with oral bacteriotherapy. In vitro data suggest that SLAB51 can reduce nitric oxide synthesis in intestinal cells. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients may present lesions in the lungs compromising their gas exchange capability. The functionality of the organs essential for these patients' survival depends mainly on the levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2. SLAB51 contains enzymes that could reduce oxygen consumption in the intestine, making it available for the other organs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Blood Gas Analysis , Cell Line , Female , Heparin , Humans , Hypoxia , Italy , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 708149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337643

ABSTRACT

Microbial translocation (MT) and intestinal damage (ID) are poorly explored in COVID-19. Aims were to assess whether alteration of gut permeability and cell integrity characterize COVID-19 patients, whether it is more pronounced in severe infections and whether it influences the development of subsequent bloodstream infection (BSI). Furthermore, we looked at the potential predictive role of TM and ID markers on Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and in-hospital mortality. Over March-July 2020, 45 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Markers of MT [LPB (Lipopolysacharide Binding Protein) and EndoCab IgM] and ID [I-FABP (Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein)] were evaluated at COVID-19 diagnosis and after 7 days. As a control group, age- and gender-matched healthy donors (HDs) enrolled during the same study period were included. Median age was 66 (56-71) years. Twenty-one (46.6%) were admitted to ICU and mortality was 22% (10/45). Compared to HD, a high degree of MT and ID was observed. ICU patients had higher levels of MT, but not of ID, than non-ICU ones. Likewise, patients with BSI had lower EndoCab IgM than non-BSI. Interestingly, patients with high degree of MT and low ID were likely to be admitted to ICU (AUC 0.822). Patients with COVID-19 exhibited high level of MT, especially subjects admitted to ICU. COVID-19 is associated with gut permeability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Acute-Phase Proteins/metabolism , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Disease Progression , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Survival Analysis , Tight Junctions/metabolism
20.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335021

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 may show no peculiar signs and symptoms that may differentiate it from other infective or non-infective etiologies; thus, early recognition and prompt management are crucial to improve survival. The aim of this study was to describe clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared to those with other infective or non-infective etiologies. METHODS: We performed a prospective study from March 2020 to February 2021. All patients hospitalized for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were prospectively recruited. All patients were evaluated according to a predefined protocol for diagnosis of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary endpoint was evaluation of clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics associated or not with COVID-19 etiology at time of hospitalization in an emergency department. RESULTS: A total of 1036 patients were included in the study: 717 (69%) patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 319 (31%) without COVID-19, hospitalized for other causes. The main causes of hospitalization among non-COVID-19 patients were acute heart failure (44%) and bacterial pneumonia (45.8%). Overall, 30-day mortality was 9% among the COVID-19 group and 35% in the non-COVID-19 group. Multivariate analysis showed variables (fever > 3 days, dry cough, acute dyspnea, lymphocytes < 1000 × 103/µL, and ferritin > 250 ng/mL) independently associated with COVID-19 etiology. A decision tree was elaborated to early detect COVID-19 patients in the emergency department. Finally, Kaplan-Meier curves on 30-day survival in COVID-19 patients during the first wave (March-May 2020, n = 289 patients) and the second wave (October-February 2021, n = 428 patients) showed differences between the two study periods (p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 may show peculiar characteristics at time of hospitalization that could help physicians to distinguish from other infective or non-infective etiologies. Finally, a different 30-day mortality rate was observed during different periods of the pandemic.

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