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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 383, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636827

ABSTRACT

A single center open label phase 2 randomised control trial (Clinical Trial Registry of India No. CTRI/2020/05/025209) was done to assess clinical and immunological benefits of passive immunization using convalescent plasma therapy. At the Infectious Diseases and Beleghata General Hospital in Kolkata, India, 80 patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 disease and fulfilling the inclusion criteria (aged more than 18 years, with either mild ARDS having PaO2/FiO2 200-300 or moderate ARDS having PaO2/FiO2 100-200, not on mechanical ventilation) were recruited and randomized into either standard of care (SOC) arm (N = 40) or the convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) arm (N = 40). Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality by day 30 of enrolment and immunological correlates of response to therapy if any, for which plasma abundance of a large panel of cytokines was quantitated before and after intervention to assess the effect of CPT on the systemic hyper-inflammation encountered in these patients. The secondary outcomes were recovery from ARDS and time taken to negative viral RNA PCR as well as to report any adverse reaction to plasma therapy. Transfused convalescent plasma was characterized in terms of its neutralizing antibody content as well as proteome. The trial was completed and it was found that primary outcome of all-cause mortality was not significantly different among severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS randomized to two treatment arms (Mantel-Haenszel Hazard Ratio 0.6731, 95% confidence interval 0.3010-1.505, with a P value of 0.3424 on Mantel-Cox Log-rank test). No adverse effect was reported with CPT. In severe COVID-19 patients with mild or moderate ARDS no significant clinical benefit was registered in this clinical trial with convalescent plasma therapy in terms of prespecified outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Passive , India , Inflammation , Male , Phylogeny , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 738093, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518484

ABSTRACT

Disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) led to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A systemic hyper-inflammation characterizes severe COVID-19 disease, often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Blood biomarkers capable of risk stratification are of great importance in effective triage and critical care of severe COVID-19 patients. Flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing were done on peripheral blood cells and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), and cytokines were measured from and mass spectrometry-based proteomics was done on plasma samples from an Indian cohort of COVID-19 patients. Publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing data were analyzed for validation of primary data. Statistical analyses were performed to validate risk stratification. We report here higher plasma abundance of suPAR, expressed by an abnormally expanded myeloid cell population, in severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS. The plasma suPAR level was found to be linked to a characteristic plasma proteome, associated with coagulation disorders and complement activation. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis to predict mortality identified a cutoff value of suPAR at 1,996.809 pg/ml (odds ratio: 2.9286, 95% confidence interval 1.0427-8.2257). Lower-than-cutoff suPAR levels were associated with a differential expression of the immune transcriptome as well as favorable clinical outcomes, in terms of both survival benefit (hazard ratio: 0.3615, 95% confidence interval 0.1433-0.912) and faster disease remission in our patient cohort. Thus, we identified suPAR as a key pathogenic circulating molecule linking systemic hyperinflammation to the hypercoagulable state and stratifying clinical outcomes in severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Middle Aged , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Proteome/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 565-574, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has led to significant morbidity and mortality. While most suffer from mild symptoms, some patients progress to severe disease with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and associated systemic hyperinflammation. METHODS: First, to characterize key cytokines and their dynamics in this hyperinflammatory condition, we assessed abundance and correlative expression of a panel of 48 cytokines in patients progressing to ARDS as compared to patients with mild disease. Then, in an ongoing randomized controlled trial of convalescent plasma therapy (CPT), we analyzed rapid effects of CPT on the systemic cytokine dynamics as a correlate for the level of hypoxia experienced by the patients. RESULTS: We identified an anti-inflammatory role of CPT independent of its neutralizing antibody content. CONCLUSIONS: Neutralizing antibodies, as well as reductions in circulating interleukin-6 and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10, contributed to marked rapid reductions in hypoxia in response to CPT. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY OF INDIA: CTRI/2020/05/025209. http://www.ctri.nic.in/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load
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