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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(1): 270-277, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631285

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare new syndrome occurring after the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine immunization. Patients with VITT are characterized by a variable clinical presentation, likewise also the outcome of these patients is very variable. Here we report the lung ultrastructural findings in the course of VITT of a 58-year-old male patient. Alveoli were mainly dilated, irregular in shape, and occupied by a reticular network of fibrin, while interalveolar septa appeared thickened. The proliferation of small capillaries gave rise to plexiform structures and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis-like features. Near the alveoli occupied by a dense fibrin network, the medium-sized arteries showed a modified wall and an intraluminal thrombus. This scenario looks quite similar to that found during COVID-19, where the lungs suffer from the attack of the antigen-antibodies complexes and the virus respectively. In both diseases, the final outcome is a severe inflammation, activation of the haemostatic system and fibrinolysis.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Lung Injury/etiology , Lung Injury/pathology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fibrin , Humans , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/immunology , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Middle Aged , Parenchymal Tissue/pathology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology
2.
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences ; 25(24):7997-8003, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1589477

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The ongoing Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) showed similar characteristics with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In the most compromised cases, COVID-19 infection leads to death due to severe respiratory complications. COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the primary cause of death in these patients. In the present study, we show an ultrastructural analysis on the lungs of a patient affected by COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Lung specimens obtained at autopsy from a 63-years old patient affected by COVID-19 were fixed in 1% paraformaldehyde. Slices of 300 mu m thickness were dehydrated and dried by Critical Point Drying in CO2. Slices were covered with a conductive gold film approximately 30 nm thick and observed at a Zeiss Sigma 300 SEM FEG in the secondary electron (SE) and backscattered electron (BSE) modes. As case control a lung biopsy from a 60-year-old man was considered. RESULTS: At low power in all COVID-19 lung specimens severe changes in the pulmonary architecture were found, due to the collapse of air spaces. Moreover, alveolar cavities were covered by large membranes. At high power, alveolar membranes showed a fibrillar structure, suggestive of a loose network of fibrin. It has been also found that intra-alveolar red blood cells were frequently present in the alveolar spaces, surrounded by a reticular fibrin network, suggestive for fibrin-hemorrhagic alveolitis. Alveolar changes were constantly associated with pathological features related to the pulmonary vessels. Vascular changes were prominent, including endothelial damage and thrombosis of large pulmonary vessels. Fibrinous microthrombi were frequently detected in the inter-alveolar septal capillaries. In addition, it has been frequently detected capillary proliferation in the alveolar septa with finding suggestive for intussusceptive neo-angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our electron microscopy analysis showed that COVID-19-related lung disease is characterized by a substantial architectural distortion, with the interactions between alveolar and vascular changes. Intra-alveolar hyaline membranes are associated with macro-and micro-thrombotic angiopathy, ending with capillary proliferation. The new blood vessel formation originates from the septa and extends into the surrounding parenchyma. Our findings confirm previous reports on the specificity of the multiple and complex morphological pattern typical, and apparently specific, of COVID-19-related lung disease.

3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(20): 6439-6442, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503076

ABSTRACT

Arterial thromboembolic complications reported in patients with COVID-19 infection suggested that SARS-CoV-2 can trigger atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. While endothelial cells in healthy subjects protect against thrombus formation, after injury they show prothrombotic activity. In addition, it has been hypothesized that "cytokine storm" might stimulate the production of neo-platelets triggering an abnormal "immunothrombosis" responsible for the hypercoagulable state induced in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study is to report a case of severe COVID-19 infection characterized by the occurrence of microthrombosis in the vasa vasorum of the aorta. A 67-year-old male patient, in good health status and without comorbidities, who underwent a severe COVID-19 infection with fatal outcome, showed scattered aortic atherosclerotic plaques, characterized by multiple occlusive micro-thromboses in the vasa vasorum, spread out lymphocytic infiltrates and foci of endotheliitis and endothelial detachment. This case report confirms the previously described thrombotic involvement of vasa vasorum in COVID-19. The occurrence of the synchronous damage involving both the lumen surface (endothelial dysfunction, endotheliitis and endothelial detachment) and the adventitia (inflammation and occlusive thrombosis of vasa vasorum) could be the key points related to the fatal outcome of the SARS-CoV-2 patients. In our opinion, vasa vasorum thrombosis may thus initiate an atherogenic process that could be characterized by a much more rapid development.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Microvessels/pathology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/pathology , Vasa Vasorum/pathology , Aged , Aortic Diseases/pathology , Humans , Male
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(15): 5063-5069, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346861

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a new syndrome occurring primarily in healthy young adults, with a female predominance, after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We describe VITT syndrome characterized by severe thrombosis and thrombocytopenia found in our patient, with fatal outcome. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old man, after 13 days from the first administration of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca), presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomitus. Laboratory tests revealed a severe thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen serum levels and marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The patient quickly developed a multiple organ failure, till death, three days after the hospital admission. RESULTS: At histology, in the lungs, interalveolar septa appeared thickened with microthrombi in the capillaries and veins. Interalveolar septa appeared thickened and showed vascular proliferation. Thrombi were detected in the capillaries of glomerular tufts. In the hearth, thrombi were observed in veins and capillaries. In the liver, voluminous fibrin thrombi were diffusely observed in the branches of the portal vein. Microthrombi were also found in the vasa vasorum of the wall of abdominal aorta. In the brain, microthrombi were observed in the capillaries of the choroid plexuses. Diffuse hemorrhagic necrosis was observed in the intestinal wall with marked congestion of the venous vessels. CONCLUSIONS: In our patient, the majority of data necessary for a VITT final diagnosis were present: thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in pulmonary, portal, hepatic, renal and mesenteric veins, associated with a marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The finding of cerebral thrombosis in choroid plexuses, is a new finding in VITT. These features are suggestive for a very aggressive form of VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Aorta/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Choroid Plexus/pathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Ileum/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/pathology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Thrombosis/blood
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(13): 4639-4643, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319966

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by quantitative and qualitative changes in surfactant composition, leading to surfactant dysregulation with alveolar collapse and acute respiratory hypoxic failure. Recently, surfactant has been hypothesized to play a relevant role in COVID-19, representing a strong defender against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of our work was the study of immunohistochemical surfactant expression in the lungs of patients died following SARS-CoV-2 ARDS, in order to shed light on a possible therapeutic surfactant administration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated four patients who died due to ARDS following SARS-COV-2 infection and four patients submitted to lung biopsy, in the absence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In all 8 cases, lung specimens were immunostained with anti-surfactant protein A (SP-A) and B (SP-B). RESULTS: In control subjects, reactivity for SP-B was restricted to type II alveolar cells. Immunostaining for SP-A was observed on the surface of alveolar spaces. In the COVID-19 positive lungs, immunoreactivity for SP-B was similar to that observed in control lungs; SP-A was strongly expressed along the alveolar wall. Moreover, dense aggregates of SP-A positive material were observed in the alveolar spaces. CONCLUSIONS: Our immunohistochemical data show the dysregulation of surfactant production in COVID-19 patients, particularly regarding SP-A expression. The increased presence of SP-A in condensed masses inside alveolar spaces could invalidate the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment with exogenous surfactant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Protein Precursors/analysis , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A/analysis , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Protein Precursors/genetics , Protein Precursors/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A/genetics , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A/metabolism , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins/genetics , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
6.
Signa Vitae ; 17(4):79-85, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1308597

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of the current work was to evaluate the frequency and the type of cases of medical liability from a single center in the first ten months of the pandemic as well as to identify critical issues associated with the organization of public health during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Methods: We compared 130 cases evaluated for medical liability from March 2020 to January 2021 and compared with 159 cases from March 2019 to January 2020. The cases were divided in four pre-established groups: surgical error, diagnostic/therapeutic errors and nosocomial diseases, delays, and problems related to assistance. Results: Analysis showed a significant increase in cases due to delay in treatment/hospitalization and shortages in health care of non-autonomous patients [chi(2) (1, N = 289) = 5.6746, p = 0.02]. Conclusions: The work showed an increase in medical/legal cases regarding non-COVID-19 emergencies in which the outcome is related to the time of treatment and/or arrival at the hospital. There was also a rise in complaints of deficits in supervision and care for non-autonomous patients. Despite the persistence of preventive measures for the current pandemic, measures should be taken to improve health care in these categories of patients.

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